​CONTEXTUALIZED​ theme outline

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CONTEXTUALIZED-THEME OUTLINE (no more than 2 single-spaced pages typed in the 12-point Times font, using one-inch margins and 0.5-inch paragraph indentations and including your name and outline title): Please cogently identify a theme of continuing importance common to two classical myths that each occupy more than one page of Ovid’s Metamorphoses (other than the myth of Adonis), please succinctly and intricately summarize each myth, please astutely explain the similarities and differences between these myths, and please accurately account for their similarities and differences by considering the myths’ historical context. Your outline should address the following nine questions in any order:

1. What is a theme common to the two classical myths in question?

2. How does an actual or fictional example show that this theme continues to be important in modern times?

3. What are the main events that occur in each myth?

4. Why are these events worthy of more attention than the other events in each myth?

5. What are the similarities between the two myths?

6. What are the differences between the two myths?

7. Who was the author of the myths?

8. Who belonged to the original audience(s) of the myths?

9. What were the major historical events during the author’s lifetime that shaped the myths’ similarities and differences?

(I uploaded the mythic theme outline and essay we did before this one, they are all related, you can use the same examples and answer the rest of questions that haven't been answered)

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Mythic Theme Outline Heterosexuality in Metamorphoses: The Myth of Iphis and Ianthe vs. Pygmalion I. Introduction The overarching theme in Ovid’s anti-epic poem, Metamorphoses, is change. The narration contains hundreds of myths all aimed at conveying the common them of change. In each of the tales, there is some form of transformation that the characters must undergo so as to fit the social norms of the time or to achieve particular goals in life. One of the most profound themes that go hand in hand with metamorphosis is heterosexuality. While some scholars argue that the poet used particular myths to justify heterosexuality, others believe that he was actually criticizing the concept. The theme of heterosexuality is common in two important myths in Metamorphoses: the myth of Iphis and Ianthe and that of Pygmalion. In these two myths, some characters are forced to undergo some transformation so as to fit into the conventional expectations of the society with regard to sexuality. Thesis: Without a doubt, Ovid uses the theme of heterosexuality in both the myth of Iphis and Ianthe and that of Pygmalion to problematize social norms with regard to sexual orientation. II. Main Events in the Myths a. The Myth of Iphis and Ianthe The poem tells the story of Ligdus and Telethusa, a couple which was expecting to be blessed with a baby though they were poor. As such, they prayed hard for the unborn child to be a boy since if it was to be a girl they would not be able to afford the dowry price. The level of despondency was so high that Ligdus vowed to kill the baby if it was to be a girl. Upon hearing this, Ligdus’ wife despaired since she could not imagine her child being subjected to such pain. Fortunately, Telethusa was visited by Isis, the Egyptian goddess at night and persuaded to accept the outcome after she gives birth, and she was promised that the child would be protected. Soon a daughter was delivered to Telethusa but she chose to conceal the baby’s sex from Ligdus and thusly raised her as a boy henceforth. Believing that the baby was a boy, Ligdus named ‘him’ Iphis, and at this point Telethusa was overwhelmed with happiness since such a name was befitting to both genders. When Iphis grew up into adolescence, Ligdus made an arrangement that would have his ‘son’ marrying Ianthe, the beautiful daughter of Telestes. Ianthe too was not aware of the true identity of Iphis’ gender and thus fell in love with him. Iphis, too, fell in love with the lady but prayed hard to Juno for help since she knew that it would be impossible for the marriage to happen, with both being female. On the eve of the wedding, Isis transforms Iphis into a man, making the marriage possible. b. The myth of Pygmalion The story reveals that Pygmalion had no interest in women, but when he made a beautiful carving of a woman from ivory, he fell in love with it. The statue was realistic and adorable. When the time for Aphrodite’s festival came, Pygmalion made his offerings and made a wish the gods to be blessed with a woman who bore the likeness of his ivory statue. His wish was granted by Aphrodite and the ivory sculpture changed into a woman. III. Why the Events are of More Attention The events narrated above should be more emphasized than the rest in the myths since they reveal the problem of conformation in the society. In the myth of Iphis and Ianthe, Iphis is forced to transform into a man so as to perfectly fit the expectations of the society in which a man should marry a woman. Therefore, the events highlighted above are directly related to this theme and therefore emphasized. In the myth of Pygmalion, the events that led to the transformation of the sculptor’s ivory statues into a woman are emphasized because they also focus on the theme of heterosexuality. IV. The Theme Common to the Two Myths: Heterosexuality The theme of heterosexuality takes the center stage in these two myths. It is debatable whether Ovid was supporting or criticizing the societal ideal of labeling anything outside the confines of heterosexuality as abnormal. In Iphis and Ianthe, Iphis has to change some into a man for the marriage to be possible. However, a keen examination of the textual evidence provided in the poem may reveal some more mysterious details. Firstly, the narrator does not talk of any biological change happening in Iphis’ body, and this implies that she might still have remained as a girl who had simply adopted some characteristics of a boy for the sake of social conformity. In this vein, it would be argued that she essential remained as a girl, and thus Ovid might have challenged or even undermined the traditional values that tend to hold that heterosexuality is the only legitimate form of sexual orientation. The same issue of heterosexuality is deeply covered in the myth of Pygmalion. Firstly, it should pointed out that Pygmalion might have had some atypically desires that made the ivory sculpture attractive to him. In this vein, the society should have allowed him to continue his relationship with the object as it was, without the need to transform it. However, Pygmalion perfectly knew that no one in the society would accept such a relationship since the cloud of heterosexuality had blinded everyone, and thus he chose to remain aligned to the norms by persuading the gods to transform his sculpture into a woman. All in all, heterosexuality ends up winning in the two myths, but the debate lingers on about whether the poet was more concerned about the exposing the weaknesses of social expectations or he wanted to support them. For example, it should be noted that Iphis had fallen in love with Ianthe even when she was sure that she was also a girl. The implication here is that she might have had the feelings harbored by modern-time lesbians though the society of the time could not allow it. As such, the only option was to plead with the gods to make some physical adjustments for her appearance to resemble that of a man. V. Importance in Modern Times In modern times, there are various fictional and real examples that exemplify the battle between heterosexuality and queerness. A very relevant example of the continuance of the theme in modern times is the popularity of homophobia, especially in popular culture. In hip hop music, members of the LGBT community are harshly rebuked and violence toward them justified. Due to homophobia, many people who would have otherwise associated themselves with the LGBT community end up conforming to the societal norms of heterosexuality. In the film industry, homosexual characters have recently started being subjected to harshness and cruelty, including their murders being justified in movies. Since the film and music industries almost always tend to reflect the expectations of the society, it can be argued that the society is still stuck in the conventional norm of criminalizing any other form of sexual orientation except heterosexuality (Murray 1086). On the whole, it should be acknowledged that Ovid’s coverage of heterosexuality in the myths is exposes the problem of social expectations and norms. Works Cited Murray, Stephen O. "Conceptions About And Representations Of Male Homosexuality In The Popular Book And Movie,The Yacoubian Building". Journal Of Homosexuality, vol 60, no. 7, 2013, pp. 1081-1089. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/00918369.2013.776414. Ovid, Metamorphoses. "trans. Frank Justus Miller." Loeb Classical Library 2 (1977). 1 Mythic Theme Essay Introduction The Ovid metamorphoses of The Myth of Iphis and Ianthe and Pygmalion seeks to identify similarities between two mythic stories basing on the events and occurrences of gods to approve what happens in the society. In both stories, a common theme of change stands out clearly since the characters required a significant transformation to enable them to fit into the community while achieving their inner desires. Changes in these Ovid metamorphoses results from heterosexuality. It is unclear whether both stories was to justify heterosexuality in the society or to criticize their occurrences. The two myths clearly show us how society views heterosexuality. The paper will analyze the common theme of heterosexuality in both mythical stories that help in the building of the main events as it seeks to find the importance of these two mythological stories to modern society. Summary of each Mythology In Greek mythology, Pygmalion was considered a gifted sculptor in his time. He lived in Cyprus Island where Aphrodite prosecuted people due to their sinful passions. Pygmalion managed to separate himself and build a beautiful woman statue for himself. After creating her perfect woman statue, he became so obsessed with it decided to dress it making it more real. Since he did not want to get involved with the outside world or marrying women from outside, he approached Aphrodite (Delyfer, 2016) . He offered his sacrifice and requested for his wish to be granted. Aphrodite was pleased with Pygmalion’s dedication and caused the alter flame to flare three-time giving him a sign of approval. Pygmalion went straight home to his sculpture and dressed it and began caressing and kissing it responded and returned his kisses. He Saab 2 decided to name her wife, Galatea. He married his sculptor that came to life and had a son called Paphos. Paphos build a cult for Aphrodite in the center of Cyprus. The Greek mythology Iphis and Ianthe present a story of two poor couples Ligdus and Telethusa who were expecting a baby. The couple prayed a lot for their baby to be a boy since they could not afford a dowry. At that time Ligdus promised to kill the baby if it happened to be a girl. Unfortunately, Isis appeared to the mother and informed her the baby would be a girl and she had to keep her since she would protect her. Telethusa swore to keep the baby girl. After delivering the baby she hid her gender and informed her husband the baby was a boy (Solodow, 2014). She concealed the baby’s gender and dressed the child like a boy. The father named the child Iphis, a neutral gender name. After Iphis had grown up “he” meet a girl named Ianthe and they fell in love without Ianthe knowing Iphis is a girl like her. The evening of the wedding Iphis and her mother went to pray for Isis assistance since it would be impossible for the two girls getting married without their parents knowing about Iphis gender. Isis transformed Iphis into a man making possible for the wedding to take place. Main events in each mythical story The main activities in these stories require emphasis since they would result in a problem of confrontation in society. Without the main events, the community would have confronted these issues harshly. For example, Iphis was supposed to be killed since the family was poor which did not occur after Isis intervening and promising to keep the child safe. Additionally, the marriage of Iphis to Ianthe would not have taken place if Isis would not have turned Iphis into a man (Solodow, 2014). According to Pygmalion mythology, he would deny the chance of marrying his sculpture by the society since people considered it to a thing. Saab 3 Aphrodite intervened in this situation and gave the sculptor life hence Pygmalion got his perfect wife. Also, the main event presents a clear picture of the themes presented in the two Greek mythology. In the main events of the mythology, change and heterosexuality are depicted clearly. Emphasis in both stories is highlighted on the major events. The uniqueness of these mythologies is shown in the main event as the storyline builds up from the beginning to the end. A common theme in both Mythology Looking at the main events in both Greek mythology, the theme of heterosexuality takes center stage. It is unclear whether Ovid was criticizing or supporting the society’s idea which is heterosexual or something in the abnormal. In both mythical stories, the main characters are heterosexual, and they seek assistance from gods in protecting and handling these problems. And these stories are somehow mysterious, considering Iphis and Ianthe myth the narrator does not state explicitly whether Iphis physical body transforms into that of a male; however, he indicates the behavioral changes observed on Iphis which compensates for the social conformity (Solodow, 2014). If Ovid’s story is upheld, the traditional values would be challenged or undermined since it legitimizes heterosexuality as a form of sexual orientation. The myth of Pygmalion vastly covers the theme of heterosexuality. In the myth, Pygmalion attaches his desires to an ivory sculpture which he thinks is attracted to him. In this setting, the society only accepted change which is the conversion of sculpture into a human being; Pygmalion should be allowed to have a relationship with his statue without making it into a human (Delyfer, 2016) . Fortunately, Pygmalion knew the society would not approve his Saab 4 relationship to a sculpture hence he approached Aphrodite seeking help for to his heart desires which are eventually granted. When analyzing the two Greek mythology heterosexuality is fine and acceptable by the gods. It compares people’s views with god’s views regarding heterosexuality in the community (Kamen, 2012). The idea of men disregarding other people’s view mostly the heterosexual people hence requiring them to change their physical appearances to suit the society requirements. Similarities and differences in the two Myths There are various similarities between The Myth of Iphis and Ianthe and Pygmalion ideally and functionally. Both myths portray the theme of heterosexuality. This theme makes the stories appear similar preferably and functionally which is the promotion of heterosexuality. Likewise, both stories involve gods who save people who are heterosexual. In both stories, gods view sexual orientation different from the people in the society. Similarly, both Iphis and Ianthe and Pygmalion myths have minor differences. In the story of Iphis and Ianthe, it promotes lesbianism since the marriage takes place between two women. The Pygmalion myth promotes objectophillia since Pygmalion is obsessed and falls in love with a sculpture of a woman. Also, the main character in Pygmalion is straight as he falls in love with a feminine object while Iphis and Ianthe myth is love between two people of the same gender. The significance of mythology in modern life The two Greek mythology has importance in modern life where he has real examples of battles between queerness and heterosexuality. Basing on the myths the real world is Saab 5 continuing the conduct carried out on the stories whereby people in modern days are homophobic, more specifically people in popular cultures. People in the hip-hop music justify their violence, harshness, and rebuke towards the LGBT community. Due to the homophobic pressure from the society, many people disassociate themselves with the LGBT community after a confrontation with the societal norms on heterosexuality (Kamen, 2012). These situations outlined in the media industry depicted the society stand on sexual orientation. The cruelty and expectation of the society show that the community is stuck on their conventional norms which the criminalization of heterosexuality. The society needs to acknowledge Ovid’s coverage on sexual orientation by using myths to expose these norms and social expectations of the society when handling heterosexuality in the communities’ activities. Conclusion Generally, the two Greek mythology helps us understand heterosexuality in the society. The stories are used for exposing the society’s views on sexual orientation. Ovid, the narrator, tries to uncover the mysteries of heterosexuality while issuing its connections to the spirituality. With the aim of changing people’s perspective on heterosexuality. Since people are civilized in the modern world, it is essential for them to let go their conventional norms. Work Cited Delyfer, C. (2016). Re-writing Myths of Creativity: Pygmalionism, Galatea Figures, and the Revenge of the Muse in Late Victorian Literature by Women. In The History of British Women's Writing, 1880-1920 (pp. 97-110). Palgrave Macmillan, London. Kamen, D. (2012). Naturalized Desires and the Metamorphosis of Iphis. Helios, 39(1), 21-36. Saab 6 Solodow, J. B. (2014). The world of Ovid's Metamorphoses. UNC Press Books.
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