infinitif, passe compose,present

Foreign Languages
Tutor: None Selected Time limit: 1 Day

in french 1b, i dont understand how to put stuff in the passe compose, infinitif, or in the present

May 27th, 2015

The Passé Composé

The passé composé (compound past tense), also referred to as the past indefinite, is made up of two parts, a helping verb and a past participle.

It is formed by using the present tense of the helping verb avoir (j'ai, tu as, il/elle a, nous avons, vous avez, ils/elles ont) or être (je suis, tu es, il/elle est, nous sommes, vous êtes, ils/elles sont) and adding a past participle.

The passé composé with avoir

The past participle of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding ‐é for ‐er verbs, ifor ‐ir verbs, and u for ‐re verbs. The past participles of irregular verbs must be memorized.

  • J'ai travaillé hier. (I worked yesterday.)
  • Il a choisi un bon livre. (He chose a good book.)
  • Ils ont vendu leur maison. (They sold their house.)

Past participles of verbs that use avoir as their helping verb agree in number and gender with a preceding direct‐object noun or pronoun. This is done by adding an ‐eto indicate a feminine noun or pronoun and an ‐s to indicate a plural noun or pronoun. No ‐s is added to a participle that already ends in ‐s:

  • La mousse Je l'ai préparée hier. (The mousse? I prepared it yesterday.)
  • Voici les trophées que mon fils a reçus. (Here are the trophies that my son received.)
  • Je ne me rappelle pas les bus que nous avons pris. (I don't remember the buses we took.)

The passé composé with être

Only 17 verbs use être as their helping verb. These verbs generally, but not always, express motion or a change of place, state, or condition, such as going up, going down, going in, going out, or remaining. The verbs are:

  • descendre (to go down)
  • rester (to remain)
  • mourir (to die)
  • retourner (to return)
  • sortir (to go out)
  • venir (to come)
  • arriver (to arrive)
  • naître (to be born)
  • devenir (to become)
  • entrer (to enter)
  • rentrer (to return)
  • tomber (to fall)
  • revenir (to come back)
  • aller (to go)
  • monter (to go up)
  • partir (to leave)
  • passer (to pass by)

When être is the helping verb, the past participle must agree in number and gender with the subject; this is done by adding ‐e for a feminine subject and ‐s for a plural subject:

  • Il est rentré. (He returned home.)
  • Elle est née en juin. (She was born in June.)
  • Nous sommes revenus hier. (We came back yesterday.)
  • Elles sont tombées. (They fell.)

Verbs that use être or avoir

The verbs descendre (to go down), monter (to go up), passer (to pass by), rentrer(to return home), retourner (to return), and sortir (to go out) generally use être as their helping verb. They may use avoir when the sentence contains a direct object. In these cases, their meaning changes: descendre (to take down), monter (to take up), passer (to spend time), rentrer (to bring in), retourner (to turn over), andsortir (to take out):

  • Je suis descendu. (I went downstairs.)
  • Je suis descendu du train. (I got off the train.)
  • J'ai descendu le livre. (I took the book down.)
  • Il est monté. (He went upstairs.)
  • Il a monté ses bagages. (He took his luggage upstairs.)
  • Il est passé par l'école. (He passed by the school.)
  • Il a passé une heure là‐bas. (He spent an hour there.)
  • Ils sont rentrés tard. (They came home late.)
  • Ils ont rentré le chien. (They brought in the dog.)
  • Elle est retournée ` Nice. (She returned to Nice.)
  • Elle a retourné la lettre. (She turned over the letter.)
  • Je suis sortie. (I went out.)
  • J'ai sorti mon argent. (I took out my money.)

The passé composé with reflexive verbs

Reflexive verbs use être as their helping verb. When the reflexive pronoun is also the direct object, the past participle agrees with the reflexive pronoun. When the reflexive pronoun is the indirect object (and, thus, the direct object comes after the verb), there is no agreement of the past participle with the reflexive pronoun.

  • Il s'est levé à six heures. (He got up at six o'clock.)
  • Elle s'est lavée. (She washed herself.)
  • Elle s'est lavé la figure. (She washed her face.)

Negating in the passé composé

To negate a sentence in the passé composé, put the negative expression around the conjugated helping verb and any pronouns that precede it:

  • Je n'ai pas fini mon dîner. (I haven't finished my dinner.)
  • Il n'a rien découvert. (He discovered nothing.)
  • Elle n'y est pas restée longtemps. (She didn't stay there a long time.)
  • Elles ne se sont jamais maquillées. (They never put on makeup.)

Questions in the passé composé

To form a question in the passé composé, invert the conjugated helping verb (with any pronouns related to it preceding it) with the subject pronoun, and add a hyphen. In general, avoid inverting with je; instead, use est‐ce que to form the question. With avoir, a ‐t‐ must be added when the subject is il or elle. Negatives surround the hyphenated inverted forms:

  • As‐tu oublié? (Did you forget?)
  • Lui a‐t‐elle parlé? (Did she speak to him?)
  • Y est‐elle arrivée? (Did she arrive there?)
  • Est‐ce que j'ai tort? (Am I wrong?)
  • N'a‐t‐il pas vu ce film? (Hasn't he seen this movie?)
  • Vous êtes‐vous préparée)( s? (Did you prepare yourself [yourselves]?)
  • Ne s'est‐elle pas levée? (Didn't she get up?)  

French Infinitive - L'infinitif

the infinitive is the basic, unconjugated form of a verb, sometimes called the name of the verb. In English the infinitive is the word "to" followed by a verb: to talk, to see, to return. The French infinitive is a single word with one of the following endings: -er, -ir, or -re:parlervoirrendre. We usually learn French verbs in the infinitive, since that is what you start with in order to conjugate them. 
The French infinitive can be used several different ways without any conjugation. Note that it is often translated as the Englishpresent participle.

1.As a noun - the subject or object of a sentence

Voir, c'est croire.
 Seeing is believing.

Apprendre le japonais n'est pas facile.
 Learning Japanese isn't easy.

2.After a preposition (see verbs with prepositions)

Il essaie de te parler.
 He is trying to talk to you.

C'est difficile à croire.
 It's hard to believe.

Sans être indiscret...
 Without meaning to pry...

3.After a conjugated verb (see lesson on dual-verb constructions)

J'aime danser.
 I like to dance.

Nous voulons manger.
 We want to eat.

Je fais laver la voiture (causative)
 I'm having the car washed.

4.In place of the imperative for impersonal commands (as in instructions or warnings) - learn more

Mettre toujours la ceinture de sécurité.
 Always wear (your) seatbelt.

Ajouter les oignons à la sauce.
 Add the onions to the sauce.

5.In place of the subjunctive when the main clause has

 - the same subject as the subordinate clause

J'ai peur que je ne réussisse pas. > J'ai peur de ne pas réussir.


Learn French the easy way

Download a Free Ebook and discover our 12 tips to learn French easily.

Do Not Buy Bitcoin

The smartest bitcoin investors are putting their money here instead.

 I'm afraid of not succeeding.

Il est content qu'il le fasse. > Il est content de le faire.
 He's happy to be doing it.

 - an impersonal subject (if the subject is implied)

Il faut que vous travailliez. > Il faut travailler.
 It's necessary to work (for you to work).

Il est bon que tu y ailles. > Il est bon d'y aller.
 It's good to go (for you to go).

French Present Tense

The French present tense, called le présent or le présent de l'indicatif, is quite similar in usage to the English present tense. In French, the present tense is used to express all of the following:

I. Current actions and situations

Je suis fatigué.
 I am tired.

Nous allons au marché.
 We are going to the market.

II. Habitual actions

Il va à l'école tous les jours.
 He goes to school every day. 


French Immersion TV

Video Online. Not for Beginners. Very addictive. Extremely effective

Keiser University

Check out our 100+ degree options, online and on campus! Request info.

Learn French online free

Learn French online and completely for free!

Je visite des musées le samedi.
 I visit museums on Saturdays.

III. Absolute and general truths

La terre est ronde.
 The earth is round.

L'éducation est importante.
 Education is important.

IV. Actions which will occur immediately

J'arrive !
 I'll be right there!

Il part tout de suite.
 He is leaving right away.

V. Conditions, such as in si clauses

Si je peux, j'irai avec toi.
 If I can, I will go with you.

Si vous voulez.
 If you like.

Note:The present tense is not used after certain constructions that indicate an action that will occur in the future, such as après que (after) and aussitôt que (as soon as). Instead, thefuture is used in French.

The French present tense has three different English equivalents, because the English helping verbs "to be" and "to do" are not translated into French. For example, je mangecan mean all of the following:
  • I eat.
  • I am eating.
  • I do eat.
If you want to emphasize the fact that something is happening right now, you can use the conjugated verb être + en train de + infinitive. So to say "I am eating (right now)," you would literally say "I am in the process of eating": Je suis en train de manger.

May 27th, 2015

May 27th, 2015
May 27th, 2015
Oct 21st, 2016
Mark as Final Answer
Unmark as Final Answer
Final Answer

Secure Information

Content will be erased after question is completed.

Final Answer