The tidal range is the vertical difference between the high tide and the succeeding low tide.
Spring Tide is the most extreme tidal range that occurs around the time of the full or new moon, when the gravitational forces of both the Sun and Moon are in phase, reinforcing each other in the same direction (new moon), or are exactly the opposite phase (full)
Neap tides occur when the Moon and Sun's gravitational force vectors act in quadrature (making a right angle to the Earth's orbit), the difference between high and low tides is smaller. Neap tides occur during the first and last quarters of the moon's phases.
Spring tide is the largest annual tidal range that can be expected around the time of the equinox. The tide occurs when the difference between high and low tide is greatest. Spring tides come twice a month, approximately at the full and new moon. Spring tides occur when the sun and the moon are directly in line with the earth and their gravitational pulls reinforce each other.
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