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Chapters 14, 15 and 37
1. What are the five fundamental differences between DNA and RNA? (5 pts.)
Even though both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids responsible for storage and transfer of genetic information,
they are structurally and functionally different. Their differences are highlighted in the table below.
Has 2-Deoxyribose as its sugar base, hence its name
its helix geometry is in B- form (A or Z forms)
Double stranded molecule with long nucleotide chains
Have thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine as its
Functions for long term storage of genetic materials
and transfer of these information for manufacturing of
new cells and proteins
It is self replicating
Has Ribose as its sugar base, hence its name
its helix geometry is in A- form (A – form only)
Usually a single stranded molecule with relatively
shorter nucleotide chains
Have uracil (in place of thymine), cytosine, adenine
and guanine as its bases.
Transfers genetic code from the nucleus to the
ribosome in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis
Synthesized from DNA as demanded
2. Using simple words: (4 pts.)
a. Explain “transcription” and where does it take place in the cell.
This is the initial stage of gene expression where a specific segment of DNA is copied into mRNA by RNA polymerase.
This process progresses from 5’ to 3’ positions and uses base pairing to create RNA copy without requiring a primer. The
process occurs in the nucleus of the cell.
b. Explain “translation” and name the three stages involved in this process.
This is a stage in protein synthesis where the genetic code from mRNA is decoded to give certain amino acid polypeptide
sequence following transcription. The three stages include initiation, elongation and termination. It occurs in the
3. Based on the strawberry experiment: what was the main purpose of using soap, salt, and alcohol to extract the
DNA? (This is not an essay question!! ONE line explanation for EACH is enough; 3 pts.)
Soup contain laurel sulfate that separates the lipids and proteins in nucleus membranes ...