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Name:______________________________ Homework 4 You are to work independently. Chapters 14, 15 and 37 1. What are the five fundamental differences between DNA and RNA? (5 pts.) 2. Using simple words: (4 pts.) a. Explain “transcription” and where does it take place in the cell. b. Explain “translation” and name the three stages involved in this process. 3. Based on the strawberry experiment: what was the main purpose of using soap, salt, and alcohol to extract the DNA? (This is not an essay question!! ONE line explanation for EACH is enough; 3 pts.) 4. From chapter 15: Define the following terms; as this will HELP you on your comprehensive final. (Use the internet for more insight, 5 pts.) a. Microevolution Vs. Macroevolution – b. Artificial selection Vs. Natural selection – c. Adaptive radiation – d. Homologous structure Vs. Analogous – e. Embryology - 5. Organisms that are well adapted to their environment survive and reproduce. Those that are not well adapted do not survive and reproduce. An adaptation is any characteristic that increases fitness, which is defined as the ability to survive and reproduce. Salamanders are active at night when raccoons are, as a result, the salamanders risk being a slimy meal. To avoid being eaten salamanders will hide in shallow areas of the pond and can swim away from raccoons underwater to safety. Below is a table that describes four female salamanders that live near a pond. Characteristics of each female salamander Swimming speed # of eggs produced Age at death Coloration Grey with orange spots 6 cm/sec 0 2 years Orange Red with black spots 4 cm/sec 400 4 years 5 cm/sec 100 3 years Grey with yellow spots 2 cm/sec 50 3 years According to the definition given above for fitness, which salamander would biologists consider the fittest? Explain why the salamander you chose would be the fittest by providing two reasons. (3 pts) BONUS: As an instructor, I am constantly trying to improve the course and the way I communicate the course material to my students. So please tell me, what will I need to improve (0.5 pt) and why? (0.5 pt)

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siyuwang
School: University of Virginia

Hello buddy. The work is ready. Let me know if you need anything else. Stay awesome!!!😔
Hello buddy. Use this as the final copy. Thanks!!!

Name:______________________________
Homework 4
You are to work independently.
Chapters 14, 15 and 37

1. What are the five fundamental differences between DNA and RNA? (5 pts.)
Even though both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids responsible for storage and transfer of genetic information,
they are structurally and functionally different. Their differences are highlighted in the table below.
Table 1
DNA
Has 2-Deoxyribose as its sugar base, hence its name
‘Deoxyribonucleic Acid’
its helix geometry is in B- form (A or Z forms)
Double stranded molecule with long nucleotide chains
Have thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine as its
bases.
Functions for long term storage of genetic materials
and transfer of these information for manufacturing of
new cells and proteins
It is self replicating

RNA
Has Ribose as its sugar base, hence its name
‘Ribonucleic Acid’
its helix geometry is in A- form (A – form only)
Usually a single stranded molecule with relatively
shorter nucleotide chains
Have uracil (in place of thymine), cytosine, adenine
and guanine as its bases.
Transfers genetic code from the nucleus to the
ribosome in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis
Synthesized from DNA as demanded

2. Using simple words: (4 pts.)
a. Explain “transcription” and where does it take place in the cell.
This is the initial stage of gene expression where a specific segment of DNA is copied into mRNA by RNA polymerase.
This process progresses from 5’ to 3’ positions and uses base pairing to create RNA copy without requiring a primer. The
process occurs in the nucleus of the cell.
b. Explain “translation” and name the three stages involved in this process.
This is a stage in protein synthesis where the genetic code from mRNA is decoded to give certain amino acid polypeptide
sequence following transcription. The three stages include initiation, elongation and termination. It occurs in the
cytoplasm.

3. Based on the strawberry experiment: what was the main purpose of using soap, salt, and alcohol to extract the
DNA? (This is not an essay question!! ONE line explanation for EACH is enough; 3 pts.)
Soup contain laurel sulfate that separates the lipids and proteins in nucleus membranes ...

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Anonymous
Awesome! Exactly what I wanted.

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