Argumentative essay

Question Description

write a five paragraph argumentative essay on a topic on which you can take a strong, clear stand or position.

Thesis statement 15%

One critical thinking term (developed) 15%

Deductive argument (valid syllogism) 10%

Inductive argument 10%

Logic of argument 30%

Grammar 10%

MLA and Creative Title 10%

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Argumentative Writing PROFESSOR PARSONS Argumentation  Takes a stand (position/ opinion)  Supported by evidence Difference between persuasion and argumentation  PERSUASION  ARGUMENTATION  Purpose:  Purpose: move the audience or read to take action show that certain ideas are valid and others are not Give the opposing view some credit  CONCESSION  CONCEDE (noun)  If there is something valid or worthwhile in the opposing argument – concede it   (verb)  Act of making a concession to opposing argument (gives you more credibility) Concession:  You have a point there… however (rebuttal) APPEALS (use in argumentation) PATHOS ETHOS LOGOS (pathetic) – memory word credibility Log – logic Argue using EMOTION Argue using EXPERT OPINION Argue using logic (one of the Standards of CT) THESIS STATEMENT IN ARGUMENTATION  STATE THE POSITION YOUR WILL ARGUE  MUST BE DEBATABLE  Some people will object to it What 3 items are criteria for EVIDENCE in argumentation? Relevant Representative Sufficient Relevance (one of the Standards of CT) Breadth (one of the Standards of CT) Sufficiency (one of the Standards of CT) The evidence pertains exactly to your argument (not off-topic) Wide enough range of opinion (PoV) Right amount of support; enough facts and opinions Deductive and Inductive Arguments MOVING FROM EVIDENCE TO CONCLUSIONS Deductive and Inductive Arguments Deductive  Proceeds from a general premise or assumption to a specific conclusion (uses strict logic) Inductive  Proceeds from individual observations to a general conclusion (uses no strict form) Deductive and Inductive Arguments Deductive  Using strict logical form, if all statements in the argument are true, the conclusion must be true. Inductive Requires only that all relevant evidence be stated and the conclusion fit the evidence better than any other conclusion. Basic form of Deductive argument: “syllogism” A syllogism has THREE parts: 1. a major premise 2. a minor premise 3. a conclusion Syllogism Major premise Minor premise Conclusion All Olympic runners are fast. Jesse Owens was an Olympic runner. Therefore, Jesse Owens was fast. If you grant the major and minor premises… YOU MUST ALSO GRANT THE CONCLUSION When a conclusion follows logically from the major and minor premises, the argument is VALID. However … THERE ARE INVALID SYLLOGISMS! Invalid syllogism Major Premise Minor Premise Conclusion All penguins are black and white. All old TV shows were in black and white. Therefore, all penguins are old TV shows. How did that Invalid syllogism happen? THERE WERE TWO MAJOR PREMISES, RATHER THAN ONE. BOTH BEGAN WITH “ALL.” To be sound, a syllogism must be both: LOGICAL AND TRUE Ex. Syllogism NOT both logical and true – therefore NOT SOUND. Major Premise PremiseMinor Conclusion All dogs are brown. My poodle, Toby, is a dog. Therefore, Toby is brown. (really?) (no, he is black) TRY TO WRITE A SOUND SYLLOGISM TO SHARE Inductive Arguments NO DISTINCT FORM – HOWEVER, THESE DO FOLLOW A PROCESS Process of Inductive Argument  1. Decide on: a) question to be answered, or b) a hypothesis (tentative answer to a question)  2.  3. Gather relevant evidence Move from evidence to conclusion through an INFERENCE (CT element) Definition of Inference:  Inference – a statement about the unknown based on the known – that answers the question and takes the evidence into account. Example of inductive process  Question: broken? How did the window get  Evidence: Baseball on floor; children playing baseball outside this morning; playing in lot across the street.  Conclusion: One of the children hit the ball through the window and they ran away. Keep open-minded (CT intellectual trait) – don’t jump to conclusions  1) You find out the children were playing volleyball!  2) You find out a bird hit the window and broke it.  3) Your child left the baseball in the living room days ago. Complexities (depth – CT standard)  Inductive arguments tend to be more complicated and complex than the example of the broken window.  Not always easy to move from the evidence to a SOUND conclusion. GAP  The problem with inductive argumentation is that a GAP exists between the pertinent evidence and a sound and absolute conclusion.  To bridge the GAP you take an INDUCTIVE LEAP – stretch imagination to come to conclusion. More evidence = stronger conclusion. Fallacies in Argumentation  Fallacies are flaws in reasoning that undermine your argument’s logic.  They may sound reasonable but are actually deceptive and dishonest. A few of the fallacies:  1. AD HOMINEM  THIS FALLACY TRIES TO DIVERT ATTENTION FROM THE FACTS OF AN ARGUMENT BY ATTACKING THE MOTIVES OR CHARACTER OF THE PERSON MAKING THE ARGUMENT  EXAMPLE: The public should not take seriously Dr. Mason’s plan for improving county health services. He is overweight and is a smoker. A few of the fallacies:  Either / or  This fallacy occurs when a writer suggests that only two alternatives exist even though there may be others.  Example: We must choose between life and death, between intervention and genocide. No one can be neutral on this issue. A few of the fallacies:  Equivocation  This fallacy occurs when the meaning of a key term changes at some point in an argument. Equivocation makes it seem as if a conclusion follows from premises when it actually does not.  Example: As a human endeavor, computers are a praiseworthy and even remarkable accomplishment. But how human can we hope to be if we rely on computers to make our decisions? Explanation of equivocation example  In the first sentence “human” refers to the entire human race.  In the concluding sentence, “human” refers to being civilized or merciful. A few of the fallacies:  Post Hoc  (after this…therefore because of this)  Assumes that because two events occur close together in time, the first must be the cause of the second.  Example: Every time a Republican is elected president, a recession follows. If we want to avoid another recession, we should elect a Democrat. Outline of Argumentative Essay Introduction Body Conclusion Introduces the issue Induction – offers evidence to support thesis Restates thesis in different words States the thesis Deduction – uses syllogisms to support thesis STATES ARGUMENTS AGAINST THESIS – and refutes them Forceful closing statement ...
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