Types of Chemicals Lab

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This is a hands on lab about types of chemical reactions. Attached is how to complete the lab and the lab document. This is for 50% of my grade so please try to make it well done.

Types of Chemical Reactions Lab Add your name here Date experiment was performed Title Page Purpose of Experiment – 2 Research – 2 Hypothesis –4 Fill in all areas highlighted in yellow for each slide!!!! Material List –4 Procedure - 2 Data Table & Observations – 4 Graph – 6 Error Analysis – 4 Summary of Results – 6 Conclusion – 6 Total - 40 Purpose of Experiment Testable Question: • What is the independent variable (IV)? • What is the dependent variable (DV)? The purpose of this experiment is to • • • Research Research the following items on the internet and write a paragraph the supports your hypothesis. Which of the following reactions - Synthesis reaction, Single displacement reaction, Double displacement reaction is also an Oxidation/Reduction Reaction You must cite your source in MLA format. Hypothesis • Your hypothesis is your educated guess. The hypothesis will guide the experiment and must be SPECIFIC. The hypothesis is written as an IF … IV..., THEN … DV…. statement. • Look at the data table combinations. • Predict which group of metals will be most reactive. If ______________________ compounds are combined in a chemical reaction, then it will NOT be a REDOX reaction. Materials List Picture of Lab Set-up • Materials • Picture Procedure • Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3 Part 1 Data Table – Synthesis Reactions Balanced Chemical Equation Oxidation/ Reduction Yes = 2; No = 1 Part 2 Data Table – Single Displacement Reactions Balanced Chemical Equation Oxidation/ Reduction Yes = 2; No = 1 Part 3 Data Table – Double Displacement Reactions Balanced Chemical Equation Oxidation/ Reduction Yes = 2; No = 1 Observations Insert a screenshot of each microplate set. Types of Chemical Reactions– Part 1 Use the NCES kids zone to create a graph with your data http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/default.aspx Create a graph to that shows the Independent variable as the Reactants and the Dependent variable as whether or not it was a Redox reaction. Types of Chemical Reactions– Part 2 Use the NCES kids zone to create a graph with your data http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/default.aspx Create a graph to that shows the Independent variable as the Reactants and the Dependent variable as whether or not it was a Redox reaction. Types of Chemical Reactions– Part 3 Use the NCES kids zone to create a graph with your data http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/default.aspx Create a graph to that shows the Independent variable as the Reactants and the Dependent variable as whether or not it was a Redox reaction. Error Analysis • • • Error analysis is identifying sources of error in your experiment. Error can be identified by looking at your data. Data that seems completely different from other peer results or trials may indicate a source of error. You need to specify which part of the experiment the error was in. Write your statement here. Summary of Results Summary of Results consists of three sentences For sentence 1, you have two choices. This has to do with the validity of the experiment. Remember that your hypothesis is an educated guess so you need to state how the hypothesis compares to the outcome of your experiment. You will need to determine which one you will choose based upon your data as it relates to your hypothesis. Choice 1. If your guess was correct. The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of this experiment , therefore the experiment is valid. This means that your hypothesis and outcome were the same. Choice 2. If your guess was incorrect. The hypothesis was not supported by the outcome of this experiment although the question was addressed, therefore the experiment is valid. This means that your hypothesis does not match your outcome but the data shows that the hypothesis was tested appropriately. For sentence 2, you need to restate your purpose. The purpose of the experiment on slide 2 was written before you performed the lab so now you need to change the verb tense to reflect the past tense. Sentence 3 is a statement of what DID happen in the experiment that answers your question on slide 2. Use observations and data to back up your statement. Summary of Results Conclusion The conclusion should include the following: 1. What types of reactions are used in this lab and how do you know? 2. What happens to the electrons in a redox reaction? 3. Which type of reaction can not be a redox reaction? Why? 4. Use specific evidence (measurements) from the experiment to support your conclusion and vocabulary specific to types of reactions and how they can also be redox reactions. 5. Give an example of how reaction types would aid chemists. Write your answer in paragraph format.
Lab 5 Chemical Reactions C hemical reactions are at the heart of chemistry. In this lab activity, you will investigate some of the many ways that chemical reactions occur. In a synthesis reaction, two or more substances combine to form a more complex substance. These reactions may produce a gas, a precipitate, or a color change. The general form of a synthesis reaction can be written like this: OBJECTIVE • Observe results of different types of chemical reactions. A+ B→C In a single displacement reaction, part of one of the substances is exchanged to form new substances. A single displacement reaction looks like this: AB + C → A + BC In a double displacement reaction, the reactants are typically ionic and the ions in the two reactants switch places to form two new products. In general, double displacement reactions look like this: AB + CD → AD + CB Instead of smashing ionic powders together and expecting something to happen, chemists perform many reactions in solution—that is, they dissolve the reactants in water. That solution is referred to as an aqueous solution of that compound. In water the compound dissolves, resulting in positively charged and negatively charged ions that are available for the reaction. The positively charged ions are the cations, and the negatively charged ions are the anions. In double displacement reactions, you often know a reaction has occurred because one of the products is no longer in solution. Perhaps the color changed or a precipitate formed to signal that a reaction took place. In this lab, you will observe several reactions that take place when substances are mixed. Question What visual evidence may tell you that chemical reactions have occurred? Salt has many uses, and it also has some interesting chemical properties. Observe If you put a teaspoon of table salt in water, you will notice that the salt dissolves. Dissolving in this case means that the Na+ and the Cl– ions dissociate—that is, they separate—and it is impossible for the eye to distinguish them as solid salt any longer. If the water were boiled away, what would happen? The salt would re-form into the white granular solid you are familiar with. Lab 5 Chemical Reactions 40109_VHS_CHEM_LAB.indb 17 17 5/7/2008 5:36:28 PM Hypothesize After examining the chemical formulas of compounds used in this lab, write a hypothesis as an if-then statement to predict what will happen when each substance in the lab procedure is combined in solution. MATERIALS Synthesis Reaction 2 g alum EXPERIMENT In this experiment, you will perform and observe single displacement and double displacement reactions. You will note that each reaction and each type of reaction provides different types of evidence that a reaction has occurred. (Note: The materials for each part of this lab are listed separately.) 4 g magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) Part 1 20 mL household ammonia (NH3) Procedure tap water 1 Fill the 250 mL beaker with water to the 125 mL mark. plastic spoons 2 Add 2 g of alum to the water and stir with a plastic spoon to dissolve the alum. This may take a moment or two of stirring. Record your observations. 3 Stir in 10 mL of ammonia. Record your observations. 100 mL or 250 mL beaker 25 mL graduated cylinder scoopula SAFETY NOTE 4 Allow the solution to stand for 5 minutes. Record your observations. 5 Dispose of the solution down the sink. Thoroughly rinse the beaker. 6 Fill the 250 mL beaker with water to the 125 mL mark. 7 Add 4 g of magnesium sulfate to the water. Stir to dissolve. This may take a moment or two of stirring. Record your observations. 8 Add 10 mL of ammonia to the beaker. Do not stir. Record your observations. SAFETY NOTE 18 Ammonia has strong fumes; do not breathe the fumes. Ammonia has strong fumes; do not breathe the fumes. 9 Allow the solution to stand for 5 minutes. Record your observations. 10 Dispose of the solution down the sink. Thoroughly rinse the beaker and spoon. Lab 5 Chemical Reactions VHS_CHEM_LAB_01-07.indd 18 1/6/2009 10:39:57 AM Part 2 MATERIALS Single Displacement Reactions Single Displacement Reaction Setup 1 5 g of powdered zinc Create a data table similar to Table 1 below. TABLE 1 Observations for Selected Single Displacement Reactions 2 Observations 1 cm2 piece of aluminum foil 4 cm length of copper wire 10 mL of 0.1 M copper sulfate (CuSO4) Well Number Solids Solutions 1A Zinc Copper sulfate 20 mL of 0.1 M silver nitrate (AgNO3) 2A Aluminum Copper sulfate 10 mL of 0.1 M zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) 3A Zinc Silver nitrate 24-well microplate 4A Copper Silver nitrate scoopula Roll up the aluminum foil into a ball so that it fits easily into a microplate well. Using what you have on hand, cut the copper wire so that 3–5 pieces fit easily into a microplate well. knife or other implement that will cut soft copper Procedure 1 Using four wells from the 24-well microplate, arrange the solids in the respective wells as show in Table 1 above. Add half a scoopula of powdered zinc to the specified wells. Setup for Part 2, Single Displacement Reactions, showing the solid samples before the solutions are added to the wells 2 Add approximately 25 drops of each solution listed in Table 1 to the specified well. 3 Record any color changes, precipitate formation, or gas production that you observe. If no precipitate or color change occurred, then no reaction occurred. Lab 5 Chemical Reactions VHS_CHEM_LAB_01-07.indd 19 19 1/6/2009 10:39:58 AM MATERIALS Double Displacement Reaction 10 mL of 0.1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) 10 mL of 0.1 M copper sulfate (CuSO4) 20 mL of 0.1 M silver nitrate (AgNO3) 10 mL of 0.1 M phosphoric acid (Na3HPO4) 10 mL of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 24-well microplate Part 3 Double Displacement Reactions Setup Create a data table similar to Table 2 below. TABLE 2 Observations for Selected Double Displacement Reactions Well Number Solids Solutions 1A NaCl Copper sulfate 2A NaOH Copper sulfate 3A Na3HPO4 Copper sulfate 4A NaCl Silver nitrate 5A NaOH Silver nitrate 6A Na3HPO4 Silver nitrate Observations Procedure 1 Using a microplate, place 25 drops of NaCl solution into wells 1A and 4A, 25 drops of NaOH into wells 2A and 5A, and 25 drops of Na3HPO4 into wells 3A and 6A. 2 Using Table 2 as a guide, add 10 drops of CuSO4 to wells 1A, 2A, and 3A and 10 drops of AgNO3 to wells 4A, 5A, and 6A. 3 Note any color changes, precipitate formation, or gas production. If no precipitate or color change occurred, then no reaction occurred. A chemical change can be observed here in the form of a color change. Analyze Answer each of the following thoroughly. 1. Write a balanced equation for each of the reactions that you performed. There were potentially 12 reactions in all, although all 12 combinations of substances may not have resulted in reactions. 2. What compound was present in each well throughout the experiment, but never underwent a chemical change? 20 Lab 5 Chemical Reactions 40109_VHS_CHEM_LAB.indb 20 5/7/2008 5:36:32 PM

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