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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 67– No.19, April 2013 A Study of Encryption Algorithms (RSA, DES, 3DES and AES) for Information Security Gurpreet Singh Supriya M.Tech Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. ABSTRACT Encryption is the process of scrambling a message so that only the intended recipient can read it. Encryption can provide a means of securing information. As more and more information is stored on computers or communicated via computers, the need to insure that this information is invulnerable to snooping and/or tampering becomes more relevant. With the fast progression of digital data exchange in electronic way, Information Security is becoming much more important in data storage and transmission. Information Confidentiality has a prominent significance in the study of ethics, law and most recently in Information Systems. With the evolution of human intelligence, the art of cryptography has become more complex in order to make information more secure. Arrays of Encryption systems are being deployed in the world of Information Systems by various organizations. In this paper, a survey of various Encryption Algorithms is presented. General Terms Information Security, Encryption Keywords Encryption, RSA, DES, 3DES, AES 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, a lot of applications based on internet are emerged such as on-line shopping, stock trading, internet banking and electronic bill payment etc. Such transactions, over wire or wireless public networks demand end-to-end secure connections, should be confidential, to ensure data authentication, accountability and confidentiality, integrity and availability, also known as CIA triad [1]. The NIST Computer Security Handbook [NIST95] defines the term computer security as, “The protection afforded to an automated information system in order to attain the applicable objectives of preserving the integrity, availability and confidentiality of information system resources (includes hardware, software, firmware, information/data, and telecommunications).” Security is the mechanism by which information and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. Security in networking is based on Cryptography (a word with Greek origins, means “secret writing”), the science and art of transforming messages to make them secure and immune to attack [2]. Encryption is one of the principal means to guarantee security of sensitive information. Encryption algorithm performs various substitutions and transformations on the plaintext (original message before encryption) and transforms it into ciphertext (scrambled message after encryption). Many encryption algorithms are widely available and used in information security. Encryption algorithms are classified into two groups: Symmetric-key (also called secret-key) and Asymmetric-key (also called public-key) encryption. Symmetric key encryption is a form of cryptosystem in which encryption and decryption are performed using the same key. It is also known as conventional encryption. Asymmetric encryption is a form of cryptosystem in which encryption and decryption are performed using the different keys – one a public key and one a private key. It is also known as public-key encryption [3]. A Key is a numeric or alpha numeric text or may be a special symbol. The Key is used at the time of encryption takes place on the Plain Text and at the time of decryption takes place on the Cipher Text. The selection of key in Cryptography is very important since the security of encryption algorithm depends directly on it. The strength of the encryption algorithm relies on the secrecy of the key, length of the key, the initialization vector, and how they all work together [4]. Asymmetric encryption techniques are about 1000 times slower than Symmetric encryption which makes it impractical when trying to encrypt large amounts of data. Also to get the same security strength as symmetric, asymmetric must use a stronger key than symmetric encryption technique [5]. The classification of major encryption techniques is shown in Figure 1. 2. RELATED WORKS To give more prospective about the performance of the encryption algorithms, this subsection describes and examines previous work done in field of data encryption. The metrics taken into consideration are processing speed, throughput, power consumption, avalanche effect, packet size and data types. This subsection also discusses the results obtained for some of the algorithms. Arora et al. [6] studied about the performance of different security algorithms on a cloud network and also on a single processor for different input sizes. This paper aims to find in quantitative terms like Speed-Up Ratio that benefits of using cloud resources for implementing security algorithms (RSA, MD5 and AES) which are used by businesses to encrypt large volumes of data. Three different kinds of algorithms are used – RSA (an asymmetric encryption algorithm), MD5 (a hashing algorithm) and AES (a symmetric encryption algorithm). 33 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 67– No.19, April 2013 Ciphers Classical Modern Secret-key Substitution Monoalphabetic Transposition Polyalphabetic Symmetrickey Block Cipher AES/ Rijndael DES Public-key Asymmertickey Stream Cipher 3DES RC4 RSA DSA DiffieHellman SEAL Fig 1: Classification of Encryption Methods Speed-Up Ratio = ean processing time on single processor ean processing time on cloud The results reported in this paper conclude that the algorithms implemented on cloud environment (i.e. Google App) are more efficient than using them on single system. For both uniprocessor (local) as well as cloud (Appengine) environment, RSA is the most time consuming and MD5 is the least. Highest Speed-Up Ratio is obtained in AES for low input file sizes and the Speed-Up Ratio falls sharply as the input file size is increased. For each input size, the Speed-Up Ratio is highest for AES, followed by MD5 and least for RSA algorithm. Seth et al. [7] have done the comparative analysis of three algorithms; RSA, DES and AES while considering certain parameters such as computation time, memory usage and output byte. These parameters are the major issue of concern in any Encryption Algorithm. Experimental results show that DES algorithm consumes least encryption time and AES algorithm has least memory usage while encryption time difference is very minor in case of AES and DES algorithm. RSA consume longest encryption time and memory usage is also very high but output byte is least in case of RSA algorithm. Abdul. Elminaam et al. [5] studied about the performance of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms. This paper provides evaluation of six of the most common encryption algorithms: AES (Rijndael), DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, and RC6. A comparison has been conducted at different settings for each algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data types, battery power consumption, different key size and finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental simulation shows following results. There is no significant difference when the results are displayed either in hexadecimal base encoding or in base 64 encoding. In case of changing packet size, it was found that RC6 requires less time than all algorithms except Blowfish. In case of changing data type such as image instead of text, it was found that RC2, RC6 and Blowfish has disadvantage over other algorithms in terms of time consumption. Also, 3DES still has low performance compared to algorithm DES. Finally -in the case of changing key size (possible only in AES and RC6 algorithms) it can be seen that higher key size leads to clear change in the battery and time consumption. Pavithra et al. [8] compares the performance evaluation of various cryptographic algorithms. On the basis of parameter taken as time various cryptographic algorithms are evaluated on different video files. Different video files are having different processing speed on which various size of file are processed. Calculation of time for encryption and decryption in different video file format such as .vob and .DAT, having file size from 1MB to 1100MB. Results shows that AES algorithm is executed in lesser processing time and more throughput level as compared to DES and BLOW FISH. Alanazi et al. [9] has done the comparative analysis of three Encryption Algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES) within nine factors such as Key Length, Cipher Type, Block Size, Security, Possible Keys, Possible ASCII printable character keys and Time required to check all possible keys at 50 billion keys per second etc. Study shows that AES is better than DES and 3DES. Mandal et al. [10] in this paper compared two most widely used symmetric encryption techniques i.e. data encryption standard (DES) and advanced encryption standard (AES) on the basis of avalanche effect due to one bit variation in plaintext keeping the key constant, avalanche effect due to one bit variation in key keeping the plaintext constant, memory required for implementation and simulation time required for encryption. Avalanche effect is the property of any encryption algorithm in which a small change in either the key or the plaintext should produce a significant change in the cipher text. Avalanche Effect = umber of flipped bits in ciphered te t umber of bits in ciphered te t Avalanche effect is very high for AES as compared to DES whereas memory requirement and simulation time for DES is greater than that of AES, which shows AES is better than DES. AES is ideal for encrypting messages sent between objects via chat-channels, and is useful for objects that involve monetary transactions. Kakkar et al [11] Studied the various techniques and algorithms used for the data security in MN (Multinode Network). It has been observed that the strength of system depends upon the key management, type of cryptography (public or private keys), number of keys, number of bits used in a key. Longer key length and data length consumes more power and results in more heat dissipation. Larger the number of bits used in a key, the more secure the transmission. All the keys are based upon the mathematical properties and their strength decreases with respect to time. The keys having more number of bits requires more computation time which simply indicates that the system takes more time to encrypt the data. 34 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 67– No.19, April 2013 3. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF COMMON ENCRYPTION ALGORITHMS decrypt blocks of data consisting of 64 bits by using a 64-bit key [10, 15]. The generation, modification and transportation of keys have been done by the encryption algorithm. It is also named as cryptographic algorithm. There are many cryptographic algorithms available in the market to encrypt the data. The strength of encryption algorithm heavily relies on the computer system used for the generation of keys. Some important encryption algorithms are discussed here: 3.1 Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) RSA is designed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman in 1978. It is one of the best known public key cryptosystems for key exchange or digital signatures or encryption of blocks of data. RSA uses a variable size encryption block and a variable size key. It is an asymmetric (public key) cryptosystem based on number theory, which is a block cipher system. It uses two prime numbers to generate the public and private keys. These two different keys are used for encryption and decryption purpose. Sender encrypts the message using Receiver public key and when the message gets transmit to receiver, then receiver can decrypt it using his own private key [12, 13]. RSA operations can be decomposed in three broad steps; key generation, encryption and decryption. RSA have many flaws in its design therefore not preferred for the commercial use. When the small values of p & q are selected for the designing of key then the encryption process becomes too weak and one can be able to decrypt the data by using random probability theory and side channel attacks. On the other hand if large p & q lengths are selected then it consumes more time and the performance gets degraded in comparison with DES. Further, the algorithm also requires of similar lengths for p & q, practically this is very tough conditions to satisfy. Padding techniques are required in such cases increases the system’s overheads by taking more processing time [11]. Figure 2 illustrates the sequence of events followed by RSA algorithm for the encryption of multiple blocks. 3.1.1 Key Generation Procedure [14] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose two distinct large random prime numbers p & q such that p ≠ q. Compute n= p × q. Calculate: phi (n) = (p-1) (q-1). Choose an integer e such that 1 Purchase answer to see full attachment

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