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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 67– No.19, April 2013
A Study of Encryption Algorithms (RSA, DES, 3DES and
AES) for Information Security
Gurpreet Singh
Supriya
M.Tech Research Scholar, Department of
Computer Science and Engineering
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University,
Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India.
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer
Science and Engineering
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University,
Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India.
ABSTRACT
Encryption is the process of scrambling a message so that
only the intended recipient can read it. Encryption can provide
a means of securing information. As more and more
information is stored on computers or communicated via
computers, the need to insure that this information is
invulnerable to snooping and/or tampering becomes more
relevant. With the fast progression of digital data exchange in
electronic way, Information Security is becoming much more
important in data storage and transmission. Information
Confidentiality has a prominent significance in the study of
ethics, law and most recently in Information Systems. With
the evolution of human intelligence, the art of cryptography
has become more complex in order to make information more
secure. Arrays of Encryption systems are being deployed in
the world of Information Systems by various organizations. In
this paper, a survey of various Encryption Algorithms is
presented.
General Terms
Information Security, Encryption
Keywords
Encryption, RSA, DES, 3DES, AES
1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, a lot of applications based on internet are
emerged such as on-line shopping, stock trading, internet
banking and electronic bill payment etc. Such transactions,
over wire or wireless public networks demand end-to-end
secure connections, should be confidential, to ensure data
authentication, accountability and confidentiality, integrity
and availability, also known as CIA triad [1].
The NIST Computer Security Handbook [NIST95] defines the
term computer security as, “The protection afforded to an
automated information system in order to attain the applicable
objectives of preserving the integrity, availability and
confidentiality of information system resources (includes
hardware, software, firmware, information/data, and
telecommunications).” Security is the mechanism by which
information and services are protected from unintended or
unauthorized access, change or destruction. Security in
networking is based on Cryptography (a word with Greek
origins, means “secret writing”), the science and art of
transforming messages to make them secure and immune to
attack [2].
Encryption is one of the principal means to guarantee security
of sensitive information. Encryption algorithm performs
various substitutions and transformations on the plaintext
(original message before encryption) and transforms it into
ciphertext (scrambled message after encryption). Many
encryption algorithms are widely available and used in
information security. Encryption algorithms are classified into
two groups: Symmetric-key (also called secret-key) and
Asymmetric-key (also called public-key) encryption.
Symmetric key encryption is a form of cryptosystem in which
encryption and decryption are performed using the same key.
It is also known as conventional encryption.
Asymmetric encryption is a form of cryptosystem in which
encryption and decryption are performed using the different
keys – one a public key and one a private key. It is also
known as public-key encryption [3].
A Key is a numeric or alpha numeric text or may be a special
symbol. The Key is used at the time of encryption takes place
on the Plain Text and at the time of decryption takes place on
the Cipher Text. The selection of key in Cryptography is very
important since the security of encryption algorithm depends
directly on it. The strength of the encryption algorithm relies
on the secrecy of the key, length of the key, the initialization
vector, and how they all work together [4].
Asymmetric encryption techniques are about 1000 times
slower than Symmetric encryption which makes it impractical
when trying to encrypt large amounts of data. Also to get the
same security strength as symmetric, asymmetric must use a
stronger key than symmetric encryption technique [5]. The
classification of major encryption techniques is shown in
Figure 1.
2. RELATED WORKS
To give more prospective about the performance of the
encryption algorithms, this subsection describes and examines
previous work done in field of data encryption. The metrics
taken into consideration are processing speed, throughput,
power consumption, avalanche effect, packet size and data
types. This subsection also discusses the results obtained for
some of the algorithms.
Arora et al. [6] studied about the performance of different
security algorithms on a cloud network and also on a single
processor for different input sizes. This paper aims to find in
quantitative terms like Speed-Up Ratio that benefits of using
cloud resources for implementing security algorithms (RSA,
MD5 and AES) which are used by businesses to encrypt large
volumes of data. Three different kinds of algorithms are used
– RSA (an asymmetric encryption algorithm), MD5 (a
hashing algorithm) and AES (a symmetric encryption
algorithm).
33
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 67– No.19, April 2013
Ciphers
Classical
Modern
Secret-key
Substitution
Monoalphabetic
Transposition
Polyalphabetic
Symmetrickey
Block
Cipher
AES/
Rijndael
DES
Public-key
Asymmertickey
Stream
Cipher
3DES
RC4
RSA
DSA
DiffieHellman
SEAL
Fig 1: Classification of Encryption Methods
Speed-Up Ratio =
ean processing time on single processor
ean processing time on cloud
The results reported in this paper conclude that the algorithms
implemented on cloud environment (i.e. Google App) are
more efficient than using them on single system. For both uniprocessor (local) as well as cloud (Appengine) environment,
RSA is the most time consuming and MD5 is the least.
Highest Speed-Up Ratio is obtained in AES for low input file
sizes and the Speed-Up Ratio falls sharply as the input file
size is increased. For each input size, the Speed-Up Ratio is
highest for AES, followed by MD5 and least for RSA
algorithm.
Seth et al. [7] have done the comparative analysis of three
algorithms; RSA, DES and AES while considering certain
parameters such as computation time, memory usage and
output byte. These parameters are the major issue of concern
in any Encryption Algorithm. Experimental results show that
DES algorithm consumes least encryption time and AES
algorithm has least memory usage while encryption time
difference is very minor in case of AES and DES algorithm.
RSA consume longest encryption time and memory usage is
also very high but output byte is least in case of RSA
algorithm.
Abdul. Elminaam et al. [5] studied about the performance of
Symmetric Encryption Algorithms. This paper provides
evaluation of six of the most common encryption algorithms:
AES (Rijndael), DES, 3DES, RC2, Blowfish, and RC6. A
comparison has been conducted at different settings for each
algorithm such as different sizes of data blocks, different data
types, battery power consumption, different key size and
finally encryption/decryption speed. Experimental simulation
shows following results. There is no significant difference
when the results are displayed either in hexadecimal base
encoding or in base 64 encoding. In case of changing packet
size, it was found that RC6 requires less time than all
algorithms except Blowfish. In case of changing data type
such as image instead of text, it was found that RC2, RC6 and
Blowfish has disadvantage over other algorithms in terms of
time consumption. Also, 3DES still has low performance
compared to algorithm DES. Finally -in the case of changing
key size (possible only in AES and RC6 algorithms) it can be
seen that higher key size leads to clear change in the battery
and time consumption.
Pavithra et al. [8] compares the performance evaluation of
various cryptographic algorithms. On the basis of parameter
taken as time various cryptographic algorithms are evaluated
on different video files. Different video files are having
different processing speed on which various size of file are
processed. Calculation of time for encryption and decryption
in different video file format such as .vob and .DAT, having
file size from 1MB to 1100MB. Results shows that AES
algorithm is executed in lesser processing time and more
throughput level as compared to DES and BLOW FISH.
Alanazi et al. [9] has done the comparative analysis of three
Encryption Algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES) within nine
factors such as Key Length, Cipher Type, Block Size,
Security, Possible Keys, Possible ASCII printable character
keys and Time required to check all possible keys at 50 billion
keys per second etc. Study shows that AES is better than DES
and 3DES.
Mandal et al. [10] in this paper compared two most widely
used symmetric encryption techniques i.e. data encryption
standard (DES) and advanced encryption standard (AES) on
the basis of avalanche effect due to one bit variation in
plaintext keeping the key constant, avalanche effect due to
one bit variation in key keeping the plaintext constant,
memory required for implementation and simulation time
required for encryption. Avalanche effect is the property of
any encryption algorithm in which a small change in either the
key or the plaintext should produce a significant change in the
cipher text.
Avalanche Effect =
umber of flipped bits in ciphered te t
umber of bits in ciphered te t
Avalanche effect is very high for AES as compared to DES
whereas memory requirement and simulation time for DES is
greater than that of AES, which shows AES is better than
DES. AES is ideal for encrypting messages sent between
objects via chat-channels, and is useful for objects that
involve monetary transactions.
Kakkar et al [11] Studied the various techniques and
algorithms used for the data security in MN (Multinode
Network). It has been observed that the strength of system
depends upon the key management, type of cryptography
(public or private keys), number of keys, number of bits used
in a key. Longer key length and data length consumes more
power and results in more heat dissipation. Larger the number
of bits used in a key, the more secure the transmission. All the
keys are based upon the mathematical properties and their
strength decreases with respect to time. The keys having more
number of bits requires more computation time which simply
indicates that the system takes more time to encrypt the data.
34
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 67– No.19, April 2013
3. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
COMMON ENCRYPTION
ALGORITHMS
decrypt blocks of data consisting of 64 bits by using a 64-bit
key [10, 15].
The generation, modification and transportation of keys have
been done by the encryption algorithm. It is also named as
cryptographic algorithm. There are many cryptographic
algorithms available in the market to encrypt the data. The
strength of encryption algorithm heavily relies on the
computer system used for the generation of keys. Some
important encryption algorithms are discussed here:
3.1 Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA)
RSA is designed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard
Adleman in 1978. It is one of the best known public key
cryptosystems for key exchange or digital signatures or
encryption of blocks of data. RSA uses a variable size
encryption block and a variable size key. It is an asymmetric
(public key) cryptosystem based on number theory, which is a
block cipher system. It uses two prime numbers to generate
the public and private keys. These two different keys are used
for encryption and decryption purpose. Sender encrypts the
message using Receiver public key and when the message
gets transmit to receiver, then receiver can decrypt it using his
own private key [12, 13]. RSA operations can be decomposed
in three broad steps; key generation, encryption and
decryption. RSA have many flaws in its design therefore not
preferred for the commercial use. When the small values of p
& q are selected for the designing of key then the encryption
process becomes too weak and one can be able to decrypt the
data by using random probability theory and side channel
attacks. On the other hand if large p & q lengths are selected
then it consumes more time and the performance gets
degraded in comparison with DES. Further, the algorithm also
requires of similar lengths for p & q, practically this is very
tough conditions to satisfy. Padding techniques are required in
such cases increases the system’s overheads by taking more
processing time [11]. Figure 2 illustrates the sequence of
events followed by RSA algorithm for the encryption of
multiple blocks.
3.1.1 Key Generation Procedure [14]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Choose two distinct large random prime numbers p & q
such that p ≠ q.
Compute n= p × q.
Calculate: phi (n) = (p-1) (q-1).
Choose an integer e such that 1
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