Mutations are changes to the base pair sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can occur deliberately under cellular control during processes such as hypermutation. In multicellular organisms, mutations can be subdivided into germ line mutations, which can be passed on to descendants, and somatic mutations, which cannot be transmitted to descendants in animals. Plants sometimes can transmit somatic mutations to their descendants asexually or sexually (in case when flower buds develop in somatically mutated part of plant). A new mutation that was not inherited from either parent is called a de novo mutation.
Natural selection is the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common, due to differential reproduction of genotypes. Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes. The phenotype's genetic basis, the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype, will increase in frequency over the following generations. Over time, this process may result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species. In other words, natural selection is the mechanism by which evolution may take place within a given population of organisms.
has been argued for 150+ years and the evidence for it is overwhelming.
The proof for evolution grows stronger every day. It is taught in
every public high school and university in the world. If it was not
true, why would that take place. Evolution is very real and very true.
We can easily see the effects in artificial selection. If you want
small dogs such as toy poodles you take small poodles and breed them
with small poodles, and over time following this method you get smaller
and smaller dogs. This is a breed changing over time or evolving. The
same happens in nature, just the selecting is done by competition.
Remember this has been going on for 3+ billion years so a lot of time
for things to change.
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