Preliminary (Progress) Report
Temperature Changes & Heat Transfer Effects For Boiling Water Process
The goal of the project is to find the optimal value of three different cups material of
boiling water in changing the temperature and heat transfer by using Microwave machine.
The project also will discuss about the three different cups to observe which one is
transferring heat fast and which one can maintain the warm water with matter of time.
When defining systems, there are a number of types of boundaries which include an
open system, a closed system and an insulated system. An open system is one which is
porous to energy and material where both mass and energy can flow in or out. For example, a
cup of coffee, the human body and a jet engine. A closed system however, is a boundary
which only allows energy transfer but not mass. For example, a water bottle, an egg or a
braking system. An insulated system doesn’t allow both mass and energy transfers. For
example, a closed refrigerator and a sealed coffee flask (Bejan, 2016).
Heating water in different cups materials like plastic, foam, and ceramic. Heat transfer is a
process by which internal energy from one substance transfers to another substance.
Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer and the changes that result from it. An
understanding of heat transfer is crucial to analysing a thermodynamic process, such as those
that take place in heat engines and heat pumps.
The basic effect of heat transfer is that the particles of one substance collide with the
particles of another substance. The more energetic substance will typically lose internal
energy to cool down while the less energetic substance will gain internal energy to be heated.
The most blatant effect of this in our daily life is a phase transition, where a substance
changes from one state of matter to another. Owing to the fact that the transferred heat is
equal to the change in the internal energy, the heat is proportional to the mass of the
substance and the temperature change. The transferred heat also depends on the substance.
For the same substance, the transferred heat also depends on the phase (gas, liquid, or solid).
Material and methods
There are three types of heat transfer mode involve to changing temperature among
three cups by using Microwave. Conduction is the first type which when heat flows through a
heated solid through a heat current moving through the material. The observation of
conduction is when heating a stove burner element or a bar of metal. The second type is
Convection that is when heated particles transfer heat to another substance, such as cooking
something in boiling water. Radiation is when heat is transferred through electromagnetic
waves, such as from the sun. Radiation can transfer heat through empty space, while the other
two methods require some form of matter-on-matter contact for the transfer. Hence, the main
objective is to determine which cup will boiled first by Microwave using three material cups
of 100 ml in foam cup, glass cup, and ceramic cup.
The objective of the project:
1. Which cup will transfer the heat faster to boil water?
2. What kind of a reaction occurs among three cups to be boiled?
Boiling water will be considered from approximately 10 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees
Celsius. When boiling the following will be assumed:
1. Three different cups materials (foam, ceramic, plastic).
2. The reaching point is 100 Celsius by using Thermometers.
involvement with room temperature of interaction
First, the water will be added into three different materials cups at 100 ml for each. Then, the
microwave will be set in three different times (2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 6 minutes). The
temperature of the three cups will be measured after each set time. The temperature data will
be record for each cup and set of time. The table will be as following:
Experiment result data:
Stop because the plastic
start to melt
After getting result data for the three different type of cups, the water on the ceramic cup
has the highest temperature, which mean ceramic cup can maintain the hot water longer
than other cups and it’s the optimal value. The surface temperature of ceramic cup
comparing to other cups is average. Hot water on the plastic cup has the lowest
temperature comparing to other after two minutes heating by microwave. Plastic cup is
more effected by the air which lead to cool down the worm water than others. The
temperature observation of heating water on foam material cup is same between two and
three minutes test, while in four minutes test, the water temperature has been decreased.
Analysis of the Results and Discussion
In a case well studied a liquid froze on heating. Reasons for this are mechanically
quantum and subtle but can be understood well. In the case of thermodynamics, water
evaporate through the process of boiling. Internal energy of the water is the energy of all of
the molecules zipping around in a system. When heating up the water, the energy of the water
molecules increases, and they start moving faster. We just learned how pressure, volume, and
temperature relate to the speed of these atoms. The kinetic energy of the molecules in the pot
is called the internal energy, U, of the system. The water will consider in open system like a
confined ideal gas. A great example is our trusty old Helium balloon. For a confined ideal gas
the first law of thermodynamics says that Δ𝝐 = Q -W.
Thermodynamics’ first law is concerned with the Δ𝝐 = Q -W ⤇ Δ𝒌𝝐 + 𝚫𝒑𝝐 + 𝚫𝒖 = Q -W
direction of natural processes. Also, the first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of
conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems. The law of conservation of
energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be
transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed. For example,
heat always flows from hot bodies and not from cold bodies unless work is performed
externally on the system (Ewing, 2015).
In line with this project proposal, I expect to determine the optimal value of the three cups
and direction of convection heat when water is boiled inside the cups. Since the heat always
increases, the water temperature would be increased. the expectation of the convection is
energy transfer in solid surfaces as will be evident following that it is a reversible reaction.
Also, the ceramic cup would maintain the heat longer, while other cups would keep the
energy of the energy of heat much less. This project will also increase understanding as to
why convection is more likely to increase when the water is boiled. It will also help in
learning about convection as a physical quantity that is genuine and must be calculated not
based on impressions that are vague but founded on a full microscopic picture to ensure
validity and reliability of results.
Aguillera, J.M. (2018). Relating Food Engineering to Cooking and Gastronomy.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.
Bejan, A. (2016). Advanced engineering thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons.
Ewing, J. A. (2015). Thermodynamics for engineers. Cambridge University Press.
Gaskell, D. R., & Laughlin, D. E. (2017). Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials.
Sabatini, A., Vacca, A., & Iotti, S. (2012). Balanced biochemical reactions: a new approach
to unify chemical and biochemical thermodynamics. Plos one, 7(1), e29529.
Water measuring cup:
Water measuring temperature device:
Surface measuring device:
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