Read the articles and the note then answer the question- Short

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Read the articles and the note then answer the question- Short
Read the articles, and the note i attaced. Then fill the table.

Organizational Behavior Chapter 9: Personality and Cultural Values • • • • • • • • • • • Personality is the structures and propensities inside people that explain their emotions, behaviors, characteristic and patterns of thought. Personality refers to people’s social reputation and it captures what people are like. Nature and nurture are important, personality is affected significantly by genetic factors. Personality can be changed, but such changes are apparent only over the course of several years. Cultural values are shares beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture, that influence the development and expression of traits. The Big Five; refer to IC notes. Big Five is dominant taxonomy: MBTI and Holland’s (RIASEC). Hofstede’s taxonomy of cultural values includes: - Individualism-collectivism. - Power distance. - Uncertainty avoidance. - Masculinity-feminity. - Short term vs. long term orientation. More recent research by Project GLOBE replicated many of those dimensions and added five other means to distinguish among cultures: - Gender egalitarianism. - Assertiveness. - Future orientation. - Performance orientation. - Humane orientation. Conscientiousness has a moderate positive relationship with job performance and a moderate positive relationship with organizational commitment. - It has a stronger effect on these outcomes than the rest of the Big Five. Personality tests are useful tools for organizational hiring. Research suggests that applicants do “fake” to some degrees on the test, but faking does not significantly lower the correlation between test scores and the relevant outcomes.
Name: _______________________________________________________________________ Discussion: ___________________ BUS ADM 330 Organizations – Friday November 30, 2018 The purpose of this week’s discussion session is to give you the opportunity to apply some of the organizational behavior concepts and theories you have learned to an article from Harvard Business Review entitled Don’t Let Power Corrupt You. In order to receive credit for discussion on Friday November 30, 2018, you must read the article and complete this worksheet BEFORE you come to class. We will begin the class session by talking about your ideas regarding the OB concepts or theories that can be applied to this article. You should also try to find connections between the article and the TED talk we watched on Wednesday by Paul Piff. Please bring your copy of the article and this completed worksheet with you to discussion on Friday November 30th in order to get credit. If everyone in your Final Project Team attends discussion and brings a completed worksheet to your discussion, your team will earn five bonus points (Team Bonus #8) that will be applied to your total points at the end of the course. OB concepts or theories that apply to the Harvard Business Review article Specific examples from the article that illustrate this OB concept or theory (include page number)
EXPERIENCE I Managing Yourself Don’t Let Power Corrupt You n the behavioral research I’ve conducted over the past 20 years, I’ve uncovered a disturbing pattern: While people usually gain power through traits and actions that advance the interests of others, such as empathy, collaboration, openness, fairness, and sharing; when they start to feel powerful or enjoy a position of privilege, those qualities begin to fade. The powerful are more likely than other people to engage in rude, selfish, and unethical behavior. The 19th-century historian and politician Lord Acton got it right: Power does tend to corrupt. I call this phenomenon “the power paradox,” and I’ve studied it in numerous settings: colleges, How to rise to the top without losing the virtues that got you there by Dacher Keltner 112 Harvard Business Review October 2016 and a variety of other professional workplaces. In each I’ve observed that people rise on the basis of their OWEN DAVEY the U.S. Senate, pro sports teams, HBR.ORG A study of two call centers in China found that workers are 6% more productive on low-pollution days than they are on high-pollution ones. “THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM CALL-CENTER WORKERS IN CHINA,” BY TOM CHANG, JOSHUA GRAFF ZIVIN, TAL GROSS, AND MATTHEW NEIDELL good qualities, but their behavior These findings suggest that So how can you avoid succumbing iconic abuses of power—Jeffrey to the power paradox? Through move up the ladder. This shift can Skilling’s fraudulent accounting awareness and action. happen surprisingly quickly. In one at Enron, Tyco CEO Dennis of my experiments, known as “the Kozlowski’s illegal bonuses, Silvio cookie monster” study, I brought Berlusconi’s bunga bunga parties, A first step is developing greater people into a lab in groups of three, Leona Helmsley’s tax evasion—are self-awareness. When you take on randomly assigned one to a position extreme examples of the kinds of a senior role, you need to be attentive grows increasingly worse as they A Need for Reflection of leadership, and then gave them misbehavior to which all leaders, at to the feelings that accompany a group writing task. A half hour any level, are susceptible. Studies your newfound power and to into their work, I placed a plate of show that people in positions of any changes in your behavior. My freshly baked cookies—one for each corporate power are three times as research has shown that power puts team member, plus an extra—in likely as those at the lower rungs of us in something like a manic state— front of everyone. In all groups the ladder to interrupt coworkers, making us feel expansive, energized, each person took one and, out of multitask during meetings, raise omnipotent, hungry for rewards, and politeness, left the extra cookie. The their voices, and say insulting things immune to risk—which opens us up question was: Who would take a at the office. And people who’ve to rash, rude, and unethical actions. second treat, knowing that it would just moved into senior roles are But new studies in neuroscience deprive others of the same? It was particularly vulnerable to losing find that by simply reflecting on nearly always the person who’d their virtues, my research and other those thoughts and emotions—“Hey, been named the leader. In addition, studies indicate. I’m feeling as if I should rule the the leaders were more likely to The consequences can be eat with their mouths open, lips far-reaching. The abuse of power regions of our frontal lobes that smacking, and crumbs falling onto ultimately tarnishes the reputations help us keep our worst impulses their clothes. of executives, undermining their in check. When we recognize and opportunities for influence. It also label feelings of joy and confidence, Studies show that people in positions of corporate power are three times as likely as other employees to interrupt coworkers, raise their voices, and say insulting things at the office. decisions inspired by them. When we Studies show that wealth and credentials can have a similar effect. In another experiment, Paul Piff of UC Irvine and I found that whereas drivers of the least expensive vehicles—Dodge Colts, Plymouth Satellites—always ceded the right-of-way to pedestrians in a crosswalk, people driving luxury cars such as BMWs and Mercedes yielded only 54% of the time; nearly half the time they ignored the pedestrian and the law. Surveys of employees in 27 world right now”—we can engage we’re less likely to make irrational acknowledge feelings of frustration (perhaps because subordinates aren’t behaving the way we want), we’re less likely to respond in adversarial or confrontational ways. You can build this kind of self-awareness through everyday mindfulness practices. One approach starts with sitting in a comfortable and quiet place, breathing deeply, countries have revealed that wealthy creates stress and anxiety among and concentrating on the feeling individuals are more likely to say it’s their colleagues, diminishing rigor of inhaling and exhaling, physical acceptable to engage in unethical and creativity in the group and sensations, or sounds or sights in behavior, such as taking bribes or dragging down team members’ your environment. Studies show that cheating on taxes. And recent engagement and performance. In spending just a few minutes a day research led by Danny Miller at HEC a recent poll of 800 managers and on such exercises gives people Montréal demonstrated that CEOs employees in 17 industries, about greater focus and calm, and for that with MBAs are more likely than those half the respondents who reported reason techniques for them are without MBAs to engage in self- being treated rudely at work said now taught in training programs at serving behavior that increases their they deliberately decreased their companies like Google, Facebook, personal compensation but causes effort or lowered the quality of their Aetna, General Mills, Ford, and their companies’ value to decline. work in response. Goldman Sachs. October 2016 Harvard Business Review 113 EXPERIENCE Small expressions of gratitude It’s also important to reflect on your demeanor and actions. Are also yield positive results. Studies you interrupting people? Do you show that romantic partners who check your phone when others are acknowledge each other’s value in talking? Have you told a joke or story casual conversation are less likely to that embarrassed or humiliated break up, that students who receive someone else? Do you swear at the a pat on the back from their teachers office? Have you ever taken sole are more likely to take on difficult credit for a group effort? Do you problems, and that people who forget colleagues’ names? Are express appreciation to others in a you spending a lot more money newly formed group feel stronger than in the past or taking unusual ties to the group months later. Adam physical risks? Grant of Wharton has found that when managers take the time to If you answered yes to at least a few of these questions, take it as an thank their employees, those workers early warning sign that you’re being are more engaged and productive. tempted into problematic, arrogant And my own research on NBA teams displays of power. What may with Michael Kraus of Yale University seem innocuous to you probably shows that players who physically doesn’t to your subordinates. display their appreciation—through Consider a story I recently heard head raps, bear hugs, and hip about a needlessly hierarchical and chest bumps—inspire their lunch-delivery protocol on a cable- teammates to play better and win television writing team. Each day nearly two more games per season when the team’s sandwiches arrived, (which is both statistically significant they were doled out to the writers and often the difference between in order of seniority. In failing to making the play-offs and not). Simple acts of generosity can correct this behavior, the group’s be equally powerful. Studies show leaders were almost certainly diminishing its collaborative and that individuals who share with creative potential. For a contrast, others in a group—for example, by consider U.S. military mess halls, been shown to sustain benevolent contributing new ideas or directly where the practice is the reverse, leadership, even in the most assisting on projects not their own— as the ethnographer and author cutthroat environments. are deemed more worthy of respect Simon Sinek notes in the title of his most recent book, Leaders Eat Last. Officers adhere to the For example, Leanne ten Brinke, and influence and more suitable for Chris Liu, Sameer Srivastava, and leadership. Mike Norton at Harvard I found that U.S. senators who Business School has found that policy not to cede authority but to used empathetic facial expressions when organizations provide an show respect for their troops. and tones of voice when speaking opportunity to donate to charities at to the floor got more bills passed work, employees feel more satisfied than those who used domineering, and productive. Practicing Graciousness Whether you’ve already begun to threatening gestures and tones in succumb to the power paradox or their speeches. Research by Anita It might seem difficult to constantly follow the ethics of “good not, you must work to remember Woolley of Carnegie Mellon and power” when you’re the boss and and repeat the virtuous behaviors Thomas Malone of MIT has likewise responsible for making sure things that helped you rise in the first place. shown that when teammates subtly get done. Not so. Your capacity for When teaching executives and others signal understanding, engagement, empathy, gratitude, and generosity can be cultivated by engaging in in positions of power, I focus on interest, and concern for one another, three essential practices—empathy, the team is more effective at tackling simple social behaviors whenever the gratitude, and generosity—that have hard analytical problems. opportunity presents itself: a team 114 Harvard Business Review October 2016 HBR.ORG meeting, a client pitch or negotiation, a 360-degree feedback session. Here are a few suggestions. To practice empathy: • Ask a great question or two in every interaction, and paraphrase important points that others make. • Listen with gusto. Orient your body and eyes toward the person speaking and convey interest and engagement vocally. • When someone comes to you with a problem, signal concern with phrases such as “I’m sorry” and “That’s really tough.” Avoid rushing to judgment and advice. • Before meetings, take a moment to think about the person you’ll be with and what is happening in his or her life. contributes to your team, including the support staff. • Use the right kind of touch— pats on the back, fist bumps, or high fives—to celebrate successes. • Give praise generously. • Share the limelight. Give credit to all who contribute to the success of your team and your organization. Pixar director Pete Docter is a When Douglas Conant was CEO of the Campbell Soup Company, he master of this last practice. When I first started working with him on the emphasized a culture of gratitude movie Inside Out, I was curious about across the organization. Each day he a cinematic marvel he’d created five and his executive assistants would years before: the montage at the spend up to an hour scanning his start of the film Up, which shows the e-mail and the company intranet protagonist, Carl, meeting and falling for news of employees who were “making a difference.” Conant would in love with a girl, Ellie; enjoying a long married life with her; and then then personally thank them— watching her succumb to illness. everyone from senior executives When I asked how he’d accomplished to maintenance people—for it, his answer was an exhaustive list their contributions, usually with of the 250 writers, animators, actors, handwritten notes. He estimates story artists, designers, sculptors, that he wrote at least 10 a day, for editors, programmers, and computer a total of about 30,000 during his modelers who had worked on it with Arturo Bejar, Facebook’s decade-long tenure, and says he him. When people ask about the director of engineering, is one would often find them pinned up box-office success of Inside Out, he executive I’ve seen make empathy in employees’ workspaces. Leaders gives a similar response. Another a priority as he guides his teams of Facebook executive I’ve worked designers, coders, data specialists, Campbell Soup CEO Douglas Conant handwrote at least 10 thank-you notes to his employees each day. with, product manager Kelly Winters, and writers. Watching him at work, I’ve noticed that his meetings all tend to be structured around a cascade of open-ended questions and that he never fails to listen thoughtfully. He leans toward shares credit in a similar way. When she does PowerPoint presentations or talks to reporters about the success of her Compassion team, she always lists or talks about the data analysts, engineers, and content specialists who made it happen. whoever is speaking and carefully writes down everyone’s ideas on a I’ve taught have shared other tactics: notepad. These small expressions giving small gifts to employees, of empathy signal to his team that taking them out to nice lunches or he understands their concerns and dinners, hosting employee-of-the- wants them to succeed together. month celebrations, and setting up To practice gratitude: • Make thoughtful thank-yous a part of how you communicate with others. • Send colleagues specific and timely e-mails or notes of appreciation for jobs done well. • Publicly acknowledge the value that each person which coworkers can thank one real or virtual “gratitude walls,” on another for specific contributions. To practice generosity: • Seek opportunities to spend a little one-on-one time with the people you lead. • Delegate some important and high-profile responsibilities. YOU CAN OUTSMART the power paradox by practicing the ethics of empathy, gratitude, and generosity. It will bring out the best work and collaborative spirit of those around you. And you, too, will benefit, with a burnished reputation, long-lasting leadership, and the dopamine-rich delights of advancing the interests of others. HBR Reprint R1610K Dacher Keltner is a professor of psychology at University of California, Berkeley, and the faculty director of the Greater Good Science Center. October 2016 Harvard Business Review 115 Harvard Business Review Notice of Use Restrictions, May 2009 Harvard Business Review and Harvard Business Publishing Newsletter content on EBSCOhost is licensed for the private individual use of authorized EBSCOhost users. It is not intended for use as assigned course material in academic institutions nor as corporate learning or training materials in businesses. Academic licensees may not use this content in electronic reserves, electronic course packs, persistent linking from syllabi or by any other means of incorporating the content into course resources. Business licensees may not host this content on learning management systems or use persistent linking or other means to incorporate the content into learning management systems. Harvard Business Publishing will be pleased to grant permission to make this content available through such means. For rates and permission, contact

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School: Cornell University done with the work,i passed it through grammarly just to make sure that the work is perfectly done.feel free to ask any question.thank you.


BUS ADM 330 Organizations – Friday November 30, 2018

The purpose of this week’s discussion session is to give you the opportunity to apply some of the organizational behavior concepts and theories you have learned to an
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