RE: Discussion Question

Jun 3rd, 2015
Price: $30 USD

Question description

Could you help with the following questions:

Discussion Question: (Fabric of the mind at least 150 words with reference included)

This video generates amusefor me.  For some reason (I no longer ask why) I felt the need to pursue this term that is being used to describe an important aspect of cognitive psychology -generally, and specifically - the termiconin relationship with memory.

Memory and the study of thisepiphenomenonof the mind is utterly fascinating and I do not believe our text (Galotti 2014) gets into this as deeply as this post generated a pursuit of thought in me.

So, in order to bolster this stimulus somewhat let me offer a quote that really got me going here -

Memory is a biological abstraction. There is no place in the brain that one could point at and say, Here is memory. There is no single activity, or class of activities, of the organism that could be identified with the concept that the term denotes. There is no known molecular change that corresponds to memory, no behavioral response of a living organism that is memory. Yet the term memory encompasses all these changes and activities. (Galotti, p. 117 2014)

This quote by in our text (Galotti 2014) by Tulving follows some thinking on the subject with what the main author states

It is not clear which aspects of memory are localized in one place in the brain and which are distributed across different cortical regions. It is not clear what kinds of basic neural processes are involved in any one particular complex cognitive activity. (Galotti, p. 117 2014)

My interpretation of all of this, based on being around the academic block for a few years is despite all of the "technological" advances and cool graphics available to academia today, there are some pretty mysterious forces at work within our brain.  The text quoted above, translated, is this -we like to think we know exactly what is going on, but we still are not completely sure.

So, after a little research based on your post - I offer the following tidbits for your "quiver".

First the Oxford English Dictionary gives the definition of "icon".

1.a.An image, figure, or representation; a portrait; a picture, 'cut', or illustration in a book; esp. applied to the 'figures' of animals, plants, etc. in books of Natural History. (OED Online, 2014).

Secondly - from our video we hear/see

So that from the vast amount of temporary storage in photographic memory or iconic memory, a little bit is maintained in short term memory for a matter of seconds. It then fades away, unless you rehearse it or unless it becomes important to you, it fades away. But if it becomes important, then you store it in long term, permanent memory. (Memory: Fabric of the mind 1988)

Now - this, and in addition to the post, is what fascinates me.  This is, essentially an ancient idea.  It is not new.  It is, most definitely of Judeo-Christian origin. It comes from the idea of the Latinsimulare/similare. This is where we get our word Simulate.  From here we can directly track from the Greekeikon, where we get our present use of the word icon.

To end this rather meandering piece on "iconic" memory - it is my proposition-voilá-based on the above - that one of the things that makes us "god-like" (term used loosely here) is our iconic memory process!

Any thoughts?


Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

"icon, n."OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2014. Web. 18 June 2014.

Into the mind: Broken brains. (2010). Retrieved June 4, 2014, from

Discussion Question: (Living Without Memory) 150 words and reference in text citation with reference used)

Hi Everyone:

One of the videos for the week is Living without a memory (2003). I am in the process of reviewing this video and as I do so I cannot help but to recall material regarding the story of H. M. This is a tragic tale of medical surgery removing a part of the brain in the pursuit of helping with epileptic seizures.

The result of this operation - which is quite well covered in our other video - Into the mind: Broken brains (2010) - is quite well documented.

Please share your thoughts on what is being learned from this week's material regarding the brain, cognitive psychology and memory.

I look forward to your thoughts.


Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Into the mind: Broken brains. (2010). Retrieved June 4, 2014, from

Living without a memory. (2003). Retrieved June 17, 2014, from


Discussion Question: (Living without Memory Response to Classmate) 150 with reference

Hello Instructor Crose and class:

I think it's very touching to hear stories about individuals who have lost their memories. I can't even fathom the thought of not remembering my loved ones, and the memories we've created together. Two concepts from this week that I believe ties well into this discussion are those of anterograde and retrograde amnesia. The story of Gene is a great example provided by (Galotti, 2014) to explore anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

(Galotti, 2014) states, "Gene, for example, survived a motorcycle accident in 1981 (when he was 30 years old) that seriously damaged his frontal and temporal lobes, including the left hippocampus. Gene shows anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. In particular, Gene cannot recall any specific past events, even with extensive, detailed cues. That is, Gene cannot recall any birthday parties, school days, or conversations" (p.131).

Moreover, the video"Living Without Memory" also makes me think about the concept of episodic memory, which (Galotti, 2014) defines as "Any of your memories that you can trace to a single time" (p. 131). Examples of episodic memory include: the ability to remember your first date, first time driving a car, or your first job.


Galotti, K.M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory (5th ed.). Los Angeles, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Discussion Question – Response to Classmate (150 word with reference included)

Devlin and My Classmates:

Chapter 5 is so fascinating and so much of Chapter 4 is intertwined in the studies of  Short-Term Memory (STM) or Working Memory (WM) (Galotti, 2014, chap. 5).  I am very fascinated with the concept of central executive resources and I prefer to call our STM, Working Memory. Working Memory does seem to be more of a system that allocates resources to task that we are attending to (Galotti, 2014, p. 111).  Stimulus-Independent Thoughts (SIT) (Galotti, 2014, p. 113) are of particular interest to me. SIT are daydreams or intrusive thoughts about problems or issues of concern in our lives (Galotti, 2014, p. 113). Intrusive thoughts seem to haunt you and you have to find a way to distract yourself so they do not engulf all your mental energy.

 What I found to be of interesting was how Baddeley referred to the use of executive cognitive resources being effected by the familiarity or complexity of the task being attended to (Galotti, 2014, p. 113).  As in chapter 4, unfamiliar and complex tasks require more cognitive resources than familiar tasks.  In Chapter 5, Baddeley relates that unfamiliar and complex tasks require more executive cognitive resources, in the same way chapter 4 related attentional task to cognitive resources.  

I think Baddeley has the right idea that WM is more of a processing system for attentional task that deals with the way cognitive resources are allocated (Galotti, 2014, p. 111). So the central executive would be the system that controls many of the phenomena reviewed in Chapter 4 (Galotti, 2014, p. 111). 

If you are experiencing intrusive thoughts (SIT) and they aren't pleasant daydream, start a task that requires your full attention and use the full capacity of the WM to ward off the intrusive thoughts.  WM in chapter 5 is fundamentally like attention in chapter 4. Tasks that are familiar require less executive cognitive resources and the likelihood of interruption in cognition due to daydreams or intrusive thoughts is highly likely (Galotti, 2014, p. 113).  On the other hand, doing an unfamiliar or complex task requires more executive cognitive resources and there is no room in WM for the daydreams or the intrusive thoughts to interrupt the attentional task (Galotti, 2014, p. 113)

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