PowerPoint Presentation

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Question description

For this discussion, I need to create and post a PowerPoint presentation that summarizes the key points of my introduction, methods, and results sections of my research paper. Be sure to include slide notes as well. I have included the Introduction/Literature Review and the Method and Results section that you already completed for me. It did not specify how many slides it had to be, but as long as it covers all the key points, I am sure it will be fine.

Running Head: CYBERBULLYING 1 Cyberbullying Student’s Name: Instructor’s Name: Institutional Affiliation: Date: CYBERBULLYING 2 Introduction Cyberbullying is increasing at an alarming rate in the society. What is worrying is that it is amongst adolescents as it is amongst adults. A research was carried out to discuss this issue. The following is the methodology used during the research, causes of cyberbullying and ways that can be used to mitigate cyberbullying. A description of the experimental procedure and the setting for the study The research to investigate the causes and effects of cyberbullying among children was done in schools all over the United States. Schools were randomly selected to ensure that there was no discrimination. A school was selected at random in every state in each state and for the bigger states like California and Alaska, two schools were randomly picked. The schools selected had fifty students picked at random and they became the respondents for the study. The selection of students was also random while giving boys and girls equal chances. The student respondents were of the average age of fourteen years. Other participants in the interview were people who have frequent interactions with students like their teachers and parents or guardians. The types of subjects and how they were selected and assigned The subjects were selected randomly and assigned randomly as well. The randomness was supposed to make sure that the information was not biased or leaning towards a group of people. The subjects discussed were the causes of cyberbullying and the ways to mitigate this in society. CYBERBULLYING 3 How data was collected, recorded, and analysed, and a description of the instrumentation used In the research study, a questionnaire is a tool that is carefully designed for collecting data in accordance with the research questions specification the data for the study was mainly taken through questionnaires. The selected students were given questionnaires that had questions relevant to the topic at hand; the causes and effects of cyberbullying among adolescents. The questionnaire was especially helpful because the information obtained was first-hand and was from different people’s point of views. Considering the research was countrywide, there was a diversity of views which helped us get a clear picture and unbiased opinion about the causes and effects of cyberbullying among adolescents. The other method used to obtain information was from reviewing literature from past cases on cyberbullying. Other places used to obtain the information was newspaper articles from different states in the United States. The research also heavily relied on information from organizations like the World Health Organizations, and also information gathered from police departments. Social psychologists who had dealt with cases of cyberbullying were also particularly very helpful. These are secondary sources of information. They are quite helpful when comparing the data obtained from primary sources in order to determine the consistency in findings of the past and the current findings. How data was recorded and analysed, and a description of the instrumentation used After the collection of the data, a cross-examination was done to make sure that the data was accurate, complete as well as identify items that had been responded to in a wrong way. Grammatical errors like spelling mistakes were checked, and the spelling mistakes were recorded. The respondents were also guided towards filing spaces that they left blank during the study. The qualitative data was entered into the computer so that calculation of CYBERBULLYING 4 percentages and comparisons was possible. The representation of the data obtained was done through tables and descriptive reports. Observation schedule data was analysed into themes while qualitative data were thematically analysed. The instruments that were utilized were computers that were used to analyse data obtained. Questionnaires utilized paper leaflets that had questions written in them and black spaces where the respondents were to write their opinions. The methods for the ethical treatment of subjects During the research, the research team was very keen on treating the respondents ethically. They were treated with utmost respect during the entire process hence there was not a single complained received. For starters, some respondents wanted their identities kept a secret because of fear of victimization. Hence, their names were not included in the reports. The respondents were also told that they were free to withdraw from the research if they felt like they wanted to without being questioned. The research team obtained informed consent. All respondents were aware that the information given was for a research and what was expected of them. In addition to these, the respondents were not coerced into giving information. They volunteered to do it willingly. Data analysis methods used There were two data analysis methods used. These are comparison and calculation of percentages. The comparisons were used to identify the biggest cause of cyberbullying while the percentage tool was showing exact comparisons as a percentage. The biggest cause could be determined by how much it led with as a percentage. Findings of the study Possible causes of cyberbullying among adolescents CYBERBULLYING 1. 5 Seeking revenge The research showed that the leading reason for cyberbullying was from children who had been bullied before (Ševčíková, 2012). These adolescents felt like the only way to get over what happened to them was seeking revenge. They then proceeded to identify those who bullied them and cyberbullied them. This was aided by the fact that they could maintain total anonymity over the internet. Others looked for other adolescents that seemed weaker than them and hence felt like they were the perfect targets. Bullying others made them feel like they are courageous again, even if they were putting someone else in the exact position they were. 2. Power hungry The adolescents who bully others in school are looking for ways to feel powerful. It is the same concept behind an attractive girl who victimizes the less attractive ones. Through cyberbullying, some adolescents can make someone less powerful so that they will be perceived as powerful themselves (Schenk, 2012). Also, people can use the internet to gain control over people or cause altercations that will make them be perceived as powerful. Unfortunately, the concept of mean girls is very much alive in schools and nowadays, the internet is a tool used to fuel it. 3. They do it for fun The students are also motivated by fun. Some people believe having control over someone can actually generate pleasure without really knowing the real effects of cyberbullying. The fact that they have unlimited access to the internet and the use is uncontrolled too fuelled it. The adolescents have this common belief that whatever they are doing, everyone else is doing it too. This caused them to be more persistent in their CYBERBULLYING 6 cyberbullying activities, not to add the adrenaline rush that came with knowing that they could manoeuvre around the internet without really getting caught. Ways through which cyberbullying can be mitigated 1) Parental control Every child is legally under the parents as long as they are below eighteen years of age. The activities of the adolescents on the internet should be closely monitored by their parents through features like parental control. This way, parents can see what children are up to on the internet and acts like cyberbullying can be stopped before they become serious. Cyberbullying is not just an injustice, it is also a crime which is punishable by law and should be approached with such seriousness. The chances of someone getting bullied directly depending on their online presence. The parents should also limit the time adolescents spent online lest someone becomes victimized or the victimizer. 2) Creating awareness One of the findings of the study is that adolescents start cyberbullying for fun. This just goes to show that they are clueless about the effects they are having on someone else’s life. Cyberbullying should be discussed deeply in schools or rather taught to the students. The students should be taught real stories of what cyberbullying has done to their fellow students emotionally (Nixon, 2014). In addition to this, they should be told how illegal it is and how it can actually land someone in jail because it is a criminal offense. When students really know what they are dealing with, there is a good chance that they will stop it. Conclusion Cyberbullying among adolescents occurs more often than we would like to admit. From data gathered from social psychologists, a lot of victims of cyberbullying are young CYBERBULLYING 7 children around the age of fourteen years. The cyberbullies are also young and they do it for reasons like fun, to feel powerful, seeking revenge, availability of unlimited internet access for the mare thought that they will never get caught. From the study, one thing is clear. Adolescents do not know the seriousness of the crime. This is why the study suggests that the best way to fight cybercrime is to create awareness so that the students are fully informed about what they are dealing with.in addition to this, parents should be more involved in the fight by monitoring the activities of their children online and also limiting the amount of time their children spent online. CYBERBULLYING 8 REFERENCES Nixon, C. L. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 5, 143 Schenk, A. M., & Fremouw, W. J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of School Violence, 11(1), 21-37. Ševčíková, A., Šmahel, D., & Otavová, M. (2012). The perception of cyberbullying in adolescent victims. Emotional and behavioural difficulties, 17(3-4), 319-328.
Running head: CYBERBULLYING 1 Cyberbullying: Hypothetical Study/Research Project Name Institutional Affiliation CYBERBULLYING 2 Cyberbullying: Hypothetical Study/Research Project Introduction Cyberbullying has been associated with suicide among adolescents. Cyber harassment or cyberbullying can be defined as the use of technology to cause obscene comments, harassing behaviors, and sexual harassment's through the virtual world user (Wright, 2017). Specifically, such misbehavior over the virtual world includes harassing blogs, nasty comments, offensive emails, and nasty comments that are provocative to the readers or viewers (Wright, 2017). According to Young, Subramanian, Miles, Hinnant, and Andsager (2017), there has been a link between cyberbullying and suicide among adolescents. Furthermore, Young et al. (2017) continued to state that public attention has been drawn to cyberbullying following the puzzled suicides among the adolescents. It is, therefore, clear that cyberbullying is the number one cause of suicides among high school students and other adolescents. However, the current literature has been unable to adequately present the causes of cyberbullying and how the problem can be prevented from occurring. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present a research proposal that is aimed at investigating the possible factors that may cause cyberbullying among adolescents and the ways by which cyber harassment can be mitigated. Literature Review Various researchers have been interested in studying the causes and management of cyberbullying amongst the adolescents. It has already been shown that cyberbullying is highly associated with adolescent suicides. It, therefore, means that there is a need to investigate the possible causes of the problem and the effective ways that can be used to manage the problem. CYBERBULLYING 3 Ang, Huan, and Florell (2014) is one of the researchers who study cyberbullying. Ang, Huan, and Florell (2014) stated that bullying among adolescents has simply been moved from physical to virtual world. There has been an advancement in technology and it is for this reason that bullying has been identified by a new form. Ang, Huan, and Florell (2014) further stated that it is undeniable that the internet usage has been flooded with teenagers as they interact socially. As a result, adolescents have been able to communicate anonymously with limited monitoring of the adults. Cyberspace is characterized by insensitivity since people make posts and comments while they are not self-aware of what other people think of their comments and posts in the cyberspace. The study by Ang, Huan, and Florell (2014) generally investigated cyberbullying among the adolescents in Singapore and the United States (US). The study investigated the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression in relation to cyberbullying. It was established in the study that proactive aggression is a risk factor of cyberbullying and bullying. The study has added to the research topic by showing that proactive and reactive aggressions are risk factors for cyberbullying. However, the Ang, Huan, and Florell (2014) study have still been insufficient in stating how cyberbullying can be managed. Aboujaoude, Savage, Starcevic, and Salame (2015) also studied cyberbullying as a public health problem among adolescents. It was shown in the study that scientific explorations have resulted in less attention being put on the media causing less awareness of cyberbullying which is just a new problem in the cyberspace. Aboujaoude, Savage, Starcevic, and Salame (2015) used data from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO database to explain the state of cyberbullying. The results indicated that up to 40% of adolescents have been victims to cyberbullying with sexual minorities and females being at the highest risks of cyberbullying. The CYBERBULLYING 4 flaws in the designs of methodology in the study are that the researchers have not used primary data in making their conclusions. The direct causes and management of cyberbullying have not been addressed in the research but the researchers have suggested the need for more research on cyberbullying. The currently proposed research is, therefore, justified following the existing gap in the literature. Cyberbullying has also been investigated by Sasson and Mesch (2017) to determine the severity of the issue. Sasson and Mesch (2017) suggested that parental guidance can be a mediating factor in the management of cyberbullying. Risky online activities and peer norms have also been identified as the major causes of cyberbullying. The researchers investigated sixth to eighth-grade students using a sample of 495 students to measure the causes and mediating factors in the management of cyberbullying. The findings demonstrated that the likelihood of being bullied online is highly associated with risky behavior and peer norms (Sasson & Mesch, 2017). Moreover, the results also showed that restrictive supervision of the adolescents had a significant impact on cyberbullying implying that parents can easily detect that their children are being bullied over the internet. Inasmuch as the study addressed the possible causes and management proposals for cyberbullying, it is still unclear on the specific ways by which the management strategies can be employed by parents. It is for this gap that the proposed research is still necessary and justified to proceed. Additionally, Young et al. (2017) also researched on the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide amongst the adolescents. Young et al. (2017) also investigated the social representation of adolescent suicides in social life. The study was based on the content analysis of about 184 newspaper articles in the US. The contents were specifically associated with the death of adolescents as a result of cyberbullying and aggression. The study found that CYBERBULLYING 5 most of the news articles showed individual deaths through suicide were as a result of failure to promptly attend to the concerns that have been raised on cyberbullying. Although the study has significantly contributed to the current knowledge on cyberbullying by showing how suicides are caused by cyberbullying, it still lacks primary data on the findings made. In addition, there is still no clarity on the methodology used since it has not been shown where the newspaper articles were selected from across all the states of the US or only in some states and the others left. Following these deficiencies in research, it is essential to investigate the specific causes and interventions factors related to the management of cyberbullying. Moreover, Wright (2017) also assessed the risk factors associated with the involvement of adolescents in cyber harassment. Wright (2017) demonstrated that parental mediation on the use of technology by adolescents can be significant in preventing cyberbullying among adolescents. The parental monitoring techniques include restrictive, co-viewing, and instructive controls over adolescents’ use of electronic technology. The also explored the effects of gender as a moderating factor in the parental guide and the involvement of adolescents in cyber harassment (Wright, 2017). The sample used in the study included 568 female adolescents in the US eighth grade students. It was established that restrictive mediation strategies were more applicable to girls as compared to boys. On the other hand, there was a positive relationship between instructive mediation and cyber victimization as compared to girls. The implication of the results is that there is a need to involve parents in the management of cyberbullying as the parents can assist in monitoring the involvement of adolescents in cyberspace. Although Wright (2017) stated clear management strategies that can be taken by parents to prevent the severity of cyber harassment, it still has not found the specific causes of cyber harassment and involvement. CYBERBULLYING 6 Therefore, there is a need to adequately study the possible causes of cyberbullying and how they can be managed. In sum, the current literature in cyberbullying has not been specific in identifying the causes of cyberbullying. Furthermore, no research has investigated the effectiveness of the specific mediation strategies in the management of victimization of adolescents in the cyberspace. Apparently, there is a gap in the literature. It is for this reason that the current research is being proposed to investigate the possible causes of cyberbullying and the ways by which these cases can be prevented and managed. Hypothesis Based on the present literature in the research of cyberbullying, it can be hypothesized that adolescents who lack proper guidance from their parents are at higher risks of being a victim of cyber harassment as compared to children who receive proper monitoring from parents and guardians. The null hypothesis is, children who are at high chances of browsing over the internet are at higher chances of experiencing cyberbullying as compared to children who cannot access the internet. Research Strategy to be used The investigation of causes and management of cyberbullying requires a review of both primary and secondary data. For this reason, there will be a need for case study across the US. The study will involve the students, teachers, and parents. Schools will be randomly selected from all the states within the US. One school will be selected from each of the states but two schools for bigger states. The selection of the schools will be totally random. After the schools have been selected, a random selection will be made to get a sample of 50 students in every CYBERBULLYING 7 school. The students will be of an average age of 14 years. Also, both girls and boys are to be included proportionately in the study. After the sample has been made, data will then be collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires will be spread to the students and the teachers. From the responses of the students, it will be sufficient to reduce the effectiveness of parent involvement in cyberbullying to the adolescents. Indeed, Wright (2017) also found that the questionnaire was effective in collecting data on cyberbullying research. It is, therefore, appropriate to use the questionnaire as a data gathering tool in this research. Secondary data will also be necessary for this research. Secondary data will be helpful in ensuring that there are reliability and validity of the primary data that have been collected. Secondary data helps in ensuring that there is consistency between the current research and the previous research findings. In this research, secondary data will be collected from a literature review of the previous research on cyberbullying. Information will also be collected from the database of other organizations such as the World Health Organization and newspaper articles from all the states in the US. The data will then be analyzed and compared with what has been obtained from the case study. Conclusion In conclusion, this paper has presented a research proposal to investigate the possible causes of cyberbullying among adolescents and the ways by which cyber harassment can be mitigated. The current literature in cyberbullying has not been specific in identifying the causes of cyberbullying. Furthermore, no research has investigated the effectiveness of the specific mediation strategies in the management of victimization of adolescents in the cyberspace. Apparently, there is a gap in the literature. It is for this reason that the current research is being CYBERBULLYING 8 proposed to investigate the possible causes of cyberbullying and the ways by which these cases can be prevented and managed. The study will be conducted through case study across the US schools. Data will be collected using a questionnaire. On the other hand, secondary data will be collected from a literature review of the previous research on cyberbullying. Information will also be obtained from the database of other organizations such as the World Health Organization and newspaper articles from all the states in the US. CYBERBULLYING 9 References Aboujaoude, E., Savage, M. W., Starcevic, V., & Salame, W. O. (2015). Cyberbullying: Review of an Old Problem Gone Viral. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(1), 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.04.011 Ang, R. P., Huan, V. S., & Florell, D. (2014). Understanding the Relationship Between Proactive and Reactive Aggression, and Cyberbullying Across the United States and Singapore Adolescent Samples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(2), 237–254. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513505149 Sasson, H., & Mesch, G. (2017). The Role of Parental Mediation and Peer Norms on the Likelihood of Cyberbullying. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 178(1), 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1195330 Wright, M. F. (2017). Parental mediation, cyberbullying, and cyber trolling: The role of gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.059 Young, R., Subramanian, R., Miles, S., Hinnant, A., & Andsager, J. L. (2017). Social Representation of Cyberbullying and Adolescent Suicide: A Mixed-Method Analysis of News Stories. Health Communication, 32(9), 1082–1092. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1214214

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