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Jun 3rd, 2015
There are significant and systematic differences between men’s and women’s jobs, whether across sectors, industries, occupations, types of jobs, or types of firms. Women are more likely than men to work in agriculture (37 percent of all employed women, against 33 percent of all employed men) and in services (47 percent of all employed women, against 40 percent of all employed men). The opposite is true for manufacturing.34 Women also are overrepre- sented among unpaid and wage workers and in the informal sector. Women account for about 40 percent of the total global workforce, but 58 percent of all unpaid work, 44 percent of wage employment, and 50 percent of informal em- ployment. These differences are also pervasive when comparing men and women within sectors— female and male farmers and entrepreneurs, and female and male wage workers. Women are more likely than men to own and operate smaller farms and to cultivate subsistence crops.
Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across cultures and time (some arguing that it is inversely related to social evolution). In 1980, the United Nations summed up the burden of this inequality: Women, who comprise half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one tenth of the world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property.