What are the types,history and prevention methods of malware

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The Most Infamous Types of Malware 1 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION: ............................................................................................................................................ 3 Types of Malware:......................................................................................................................................... 4 Viruses:...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Macro Viruses: .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Worms:...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Trojan Horse:............................................................................................................................................. 6 Adware: ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Spyware:.................................................................................................................................................... 6 Rootkits: .................................................................................................................................................... 7 Bots: .......................................................................................................................................................... 7 History of Malware. ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Virus .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Trojan horse: ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Adware: ................................................................................................................................................... 10 Rootkit..................................................................................................................................................... 10 Spyware:.................................................................................................................................................. 11 Worm ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 Attacks ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 Using Viruses ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Using Worms ........................................................................................................................................... 15 Using Trojans Horse: ............................................................................................................................... 15 Using Rootkits ......................................................................................................................................... 16 Malware Symptoms and Prevention: ......................................................................................................... 16 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 17 GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................................................... 17 References .................................................................................................................................................. 20 2 INTRODUCTION: The Information Technology world consists of a lot of fields from System Administrators to Customer Support, nowadays more and more companies rely on technology, as a result, the attack surface in these companies has increased dramatically over the years which resulted in the theft of identities and personal data such as financial information. Most cyberattacks come from unaware personnel running an infected program which results in infecting the system and opening a backdoor for a hacker to get advantage of it. This report is aimed to raise awareness on the types, dangers and the history of malware and most importantly the most infamous cyberattacks that happened in history. 3 Types of Malware: “Many network attacks are malicious, initiated to prevent a business from operating. Malware is malicious software, such as a virus, worm, or Trojan program, introduced into a network for just that reason. The main goal of malware used to be to destroy or corrupt data or to shut down a network or computer system. The goal today is about making money. Scores of cybercrime organizations have warehouses full of programmers who do nothing but write malware with signatures unknown to antivirus programs.” (Michael Simpson, 2010, p.52) Viruses: A virus is a program that attaches itself to a file or another program, often sent via e-mail or auxiliary devices. A virus can’t survive on its own, so it can’t replicate itself or operate without a host. A virus attaches itself to a file or a program (such as movies, games or music files), just as a parasite attaches itself to a host organism, and then executes whatever the creator planned it to do. For example, a virus attached to a .mp3 file. The virus sender uses a common ploy: free music to download. This ploy lures a naive computer user into clicking and therefore running the attached infected file. The bad news about viruses is that there’s no certain method of preventing them from attaching themselves to hosts, no matter how skilled you are. Many antivirus software programs are available, but none of them can assure you absolute protection because new viruses are created constantly. Antivirus software looks for virus signatures of known viruses against signatures of every file on a computer; if there’s a match, the software sends a warning to you that the program or file you just opened is contaminated. These signatures are kept in a virus signature file that the antivirus software updates frequently. If the virus is brand new, however, the antivirus software doesn’t detect a match. Therefore, it doesn’t detect it, updating virus signature files regularly is crucial. Many antivirus software 4 programs offers automatic updates. For example, with AVG Antivirus, administrators can configure a server that manages pushing antivirus updates to client computers in an organization. Macro Viruses: A macro virus is a virus written as a macro in programs that support a macro programming language, such as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). For example, you can write a macro, which is basically a set of instructions that the macro could do. Macro commands are also considered to be a doubleedged sword it could help you do things more efficiently, however, it can be also be used in destructive ways. Micro viruses can be made to run automatically as soon as a file is opened or clicked on, as in an e-mail attachment. “The most infamous macro virus is Melissa, which appeared in 1999. It was initiated after a user opened an infected document; the virus then sent an e-mail message to the first 50 entries it located in the infected computer’s address book.”(Michael T. Simpon,2010 P.30) In the past, viruses were created by programmers who found the challenge of creating a dangerous/malicious program rewarding or wanting recognition. Today, anyone can create macro viruses easily. In fact, anyone with Internet access and some common sense can find many sites to learn how to create a macro virus step by step. It’s helpful to put yourself in the mindset of a computer hacker, like a detective trying to solve a case. Worms: A worm is a program that replicates and propagates itself without having to attach itself to a host (unlike a virus, which needs to attach itself to a host). The most infamous worms are Code Red, Nimda, and Conficker. 5 some of the most infamous worms that have cost businesses millions of dollars because of lost productivity caused by computer downtime and time spent recovering lost data, reinstalling programs and operating systems, and hiring or contracting IT personnel. Security professionals are also working to protect automated teller machines (ATMs) from worm attacks, such as the Slammer and Nachi worms. Cyberattacks against ATMs are a serious concern for the banking industry and law enforcement agencies worldwide. Trojan Horse: One of the most dangerous attacks against networks and computers worldwide takes place via Trojan programs, which masquerades themselves as useful programs and can install a backdoor or rootkit on a computer. Backdoors or rootkits are programs that give attackers a means of regaining access to the attacked computer later. Adware: There is a clear line between Adware and Spyware, both can be installed without users being aware of their presence. The purpose of Adware is to determine a user’s purchasing habits so that Web browsers can display advertisements tailored to this user. The problem with adware is that it will slow down the users’ computer and sometimes completely stop it from working. Spyware: “A spyware program sends information from the infected computer to the person who initiated the spyware program on your computer.”() This information could be personal such as: • Financial data • Passwords • PIN Codes 6 Users should make sure that they understand that information collection is possible. This type of technology not only exists but is abundant. It can be used to record and send everything to an anonymous person across the world. You shouldn’t assume that physical security measures, such as locked doors, are enough to keep all intruders out. Rootkits: Rootkits exist for all operating systems, rootkits can modify parts of the OS or install themselves as kernel modules, drivers, libraries, and even applications. Rootkit-detection tools and some antivirus software can detect rootkits and prevent them from being installed. However, the problem becomes more difficult if the OS has already been compromised. Installing these tools on an infected system doesn’t normally trigger alerts because rootkits can monitor the OS for anti-rootkit tools and neutralize them. They tend to be extremely small, are loaded in low-level nonvolatile storage that anti-rootkit tools can’t access readily and can persist even after the hard drive has been reformatted. Bots: “Bots, or Internet robots, are also known as spiders, crawlers, and web bots. While they may be utilized to perform repetitive jobs, such as indexing a search engine, they often come in the form of malware. Malware bots are used to gain total control over a computer.”(US. Norton,2018) self-reproducing malware that attack a host and reports back to the attacker is defined as a malicious bot. The attackers workstation acts as a “control center” for a botnet, ‘Malicious bots can: • Gather passwords • Log keystrokes 7 • • • • • Obtain financial information Capture and analyze packets Launch DoS attacks Open back doors on the infected computer Exploit back doors opened by viruses and worms Bots are usually used to infect large numbers of computers. These computers form a “botnet,” or a bot network.”(US. Norton, 2018) History of Malware. Virus The computer virus was found in the early 1980s, there were many viruses at this time. The first virus to be publicly discussed was created by Rich Skrenta who was studying high school in the United States. The virus was even released was called (Elk Cloner), It would attach itself to the Apple DOS 3.3 disk operating system. The virus was designed to infect and spread hard disk and was originally designed as a joke. When a computer starting spread and infected other systems by the Elk Cloner, it would multiply itself into a video game and would be set off on the 50th play of the game. Once a computer virus is activating, a display poem shows about the virus on the computer screen. The first personal PC computer virus was created by Basit Alvi and Amjad Alvi and was called (Brain). The reason brothers created the virus was simply to protect their own work from piracy and to capture those who infringed on their copyright. In this same timeline, there was another different of 8 source code mention as the Ashar virus, which may have been authored prior to the Brain malware, but was not publicly documented until later. Computer viruses have been a long time as before the personal computer has existed. With the advent of the Internet, the potential of viruses to develop fast and has increased significantly. Although the increase the ability to infect a large portion of computers throughout worldwide, the meaning and understanding of a computer virus has not stable to change over time. Trojan horse: Trojan horse – virus but not quite was found in the 1980s when many computers were infected. As it was mentioned Trojan horse viruses was created to steal useful information such as passwords, give hacker back door, to control unknown person computer, It was made unknown hackers, who, after stealing data, they use information for many purposes, such as blackmailing. The first Trojan horse viruses attack was able to infect Windows32, but since then the Trojan horse evolved, now this century the Trojan horses can do more harm but in another way, it used as a backdoor to let malicious malware to get into the system. The reason they call Trojan horse came from a story Greek mythology about the siege of Troy. Greeks were unable to capture the city until they had an idea to build a huge wooden Trojan horse and hide a number of warriors in it. When the Trojan horse was entered inside the city, the small army of Greeks warriors waited till dark and then attacks the Troy, destroying it. Indifference to the wooden Trojan horse, the Trojan horse virus has the same concept and it can spread all over the world and is still popular today. Numerous individuals frequently don’t know or mistakenly mention to any program that gives remote control or a remote order shell on an person machine as a Trojan horse(Ed Skoudis,Lenny Zeltser” Malware: Fighting 9 Malicious Code” 2004, Ch.6 slide 252). The Trojan horse represents an infectious program it can seriously damage computers. The Trojan horse can infect a user's software and OS, without As soon as Trojan horse penetrate a computer, then the next step it will scan it with the goal of stealing personal data information. Adware: Adware was found roughly in 1995, from some industry experts considered all adware to be spyware. Later, as the legal of adware grew, it was thought of as only a potentially unwanted program. As its use rapidly was bad quality done to monitor its legitimacy. It wasn't until the top adware in between 2005 and 2008 when adware vendor started to monitor and shut down uncertain activities. Today, however, adware continues, it is common once again viewed as a form of (PUP) potentially unwanted program, which is still a threat level lower then malicious malware. Nonetheless, adware is steadily improving. It is now Malware byte’s top consumer detection, accounting for roughly a whopping 40 per cent of our detections. One of the reasons is, the capacity of adware is on the rise, perhaps thanks to the proliferation of mobile devices and adware making. It's way into mobile apps software. However, adware makers today are consolidating power. In order to stay afloat, they’re using techniques more hostile than just simply hijacking, including hiding within Trojans, bundling with ad fraud components, or demonstrating rootkit capability, making them difficult to remove. Rootkit The rootkit wasn’t originally created from Brain virus; however, as some of period time became related to malware targeting the UNIX operating system. On UNIX, admin access referees to as (root), while the malicious payload of the malware is referees as the (kit). The first sight case of a 10 rootkit was written by Steven Dake and Lane Davis in 1990 on half of Sun Microsystems for the UNIX OS. Following months, Ken Thompson who was working for Bell Labs at the time and was one of the real writers of UNIX exploited the Unix C software in the public distribution of the OS that is now considered equal to a rootkit. Rootkit malware is not made to harm or do damage to the server, in other case Rootkit was made as a camouflage, hide themselves among other legitimate processes and data’s running onto the system, which the Rootkit increases discovery vulnerability and eliminating times system. The first sight of the still was detecting in Windows NT system in 1999, from a creator Greg Hoglund a Hacker Defender which he called malware NTRootkit. Hacker Defender in 2003 and a later that they developed rootkits since then. Even Apple Mac OS X is admitting that the rootkit attack starting in 2009. However, Stuxnet worm was the first sight publicly documented rootkit to target logic controllers in 2010. Interesting that the first rootkit wasn’t just used from cyber criminals or teenagers, but in a matter fact music industries were using on it to digital media piracy. Spyware: Spyware was found in 16th October 1996. It appeared on the Usenet. Basically, it was on an article joking aimed at the business goals of the global leader Microsoft. Later around about the year 1999, it was used to spy equipment such as random cameras, microphone, or unknowing private conversation such as a phone. Recent upon year in a press release of Zone Alarm Personal Firewall by the Zone Labs Company it was used in the specific way we know it today. 11 Spyware has evolved many years in the cyber network and security as the most dangerous, damaging and threaten technology devices in current history. It is no compound of statement that if you are linked to the Internet, there’s every chance of being affected by the malware. So, it is a good time for us to possess a surrounding view about spyware. The word came from (spyware) was an instant hit in the huge media and other general mass it must be stated that the term (spyware) was little of confusion. Though the word renders a notion of information being sent back to certain individuals, but not every spyware applications have the same purpose of role. Many computer personnel dealing with data security management would suggest the word of malware in replace of (spyware) as it indicates software that is particularly shown to the computer system. Another word (adware) is also popular to specify software applications like key loggers and Trojans, which are nothing but spyware in usage. Worm Computer worm was released and used on November 2 in 1988, from a student named Robert Morris, who was studying at Cornell University. Robert Morris used worm virus first onto the Internet from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it was an experiment to measure the size of the internet, not to apply damage. Morris knows of much vulnerability in the systems he targeted and used them to get access. These included a hole in the debug mode of the UNIX send mail program, a buffer overrun hole in the fingered network service, and lack of password requirements in rexec and rsh network logins. Morris programmed his worm to check each computer it found to determine if an infection was already present, then copy itself 14 per cent most of the time. The result was unpredictable. Approximately 6,000 UNIX machines were infected by Worm. The US Government released total cost of the damage at somewhere between $100 million. 12 ” However throughout the years there was numerous destructive worms computer such as: • • • • • • • • • • MyDOOM Sobiq.F, ILOVEYOU, CONFICKER, CODE RED , Melissa Virus, SQL Slmmer, Sasser, Blaster, CIH.” (Fauzi Adi and Pratama, A “Computer Worms Classification” 2012 page.2) 13 Attacks Using Viruses Gumblar: “First Detected in March 2009, it spread by mass hacking of hundreds of thousands of Websites, which then exploited visiting browsers via Adobe PDF and Flash vulnerabilities. The malware steals FTP credentials that are used to further compromise websites” (Michael T. Simpon,2010, p.53) Gpcode: “This ‘ransomware’ virus was detected in 2008 isn’t widespread but its unique because it uses practically unbreakable 1024-bit asymmetric key encryption to hide a user’s documents until the victim pays the ransom” (Michael T. Simpon,2010, p.53) 14 Using Worms Waledac: “This email worm harvests and forwards passwords and spreads itself in email with an attachment called eCard.exe, it has many variants that can be controlled remotely, A recent variant uses a geographical IP address lookup to customize the email messages sit gat it looks like a Reuters news story about a bomb that exploded near the victim. (Michael T. Simpon,2010, p.59) Slammer: “Detected in 2003, this worm was purported to have shut down more than 13,000 ATM’s of one of the largest banks in America by infecting database servers located on the same network.” (Michael T. Simpon,2010, p.59) Using Trojans Horse: “Storm Worm was a Trojan horse that infected computers, sometimes turning them into zombies or bots to continue the spread of the virus and to send a huge amount of spam mail.” (UK, Norton 2018) 15 Using Rootkits Sony rootkit scandal In 2005, a partnership between Sony and BMG sold around 22 million CDs that contained deceptive and illegal digital rights management protection measures which installed system-level rootkits. the software reported back to Sony with reports on the private listening activities of users. The recording and sharing of a user's listening activity with Sony was not mentioned in the end-user license agreement. Malware Symptoms and Prevention: • Computer Freezes, Crashes and Restarts If you find your computer crashing all too often. Then it is a clear sign of your system having problem, typically crashes occur due to two things malware issues and technical incompatibility, to fix this issue users should make sure to download a trusted malware removal tool such as Malware bytes to help you remove the malware. • Pop-ups or Scary warnings This is considered being one of the most common ways to identify that your computer is infected with malware, these annoying messages keep appearing on your screen and could be harmful, these pop-ups could brick your computer making it unusable to prevent this malware from infecting 16 your computer you should be careful of which websites you visit and what applications you download Conclusion GLOSSARY Words: Cyber Security Malware Viruses Trojans Worms Bots Definition: the protection of Internet-associated frameworks, including equipment, programming and information, from Cyber Attack A Program that is designed to harm or take advantage of a computer. These are the programs that spread to other software in the system.i.e., program that incorporates copies of itself into other programs. This is a malicious program with unexpected additional functionality. It includes harmful features of which the user is not aware. Program that replicate itself through a network. Bots is a computer program you 17 Adware typically interact with through words or spoken language to a user. Is designed to display advertisements on computer or mobile phone redirect your search request to advertising websites and collect information about you. DoS (denial of service) Combines computing power of all computers/systems it infects to launch an attack on another computer system. Floods the system with traffic, hence it crashes. Key Strokes one stroke of any key on a machine operated by a keyboard, as a computer terminal, typewriter. Comprise of the center elements of the working framework and the gadget drivers with the capacity to stack modules at runtime. is the component that holds all the Information of entire organization Cybercriminals often meet in online “underground” The purpose of these meetings is to trade information and coordinate attacks around the world Machine performing multiple tasks, multiuser PC working frameworks that get from the first AT&T Unix. Encryption where keys come in sets. Kernel OS Cybercriminals UNIX machine Asymmetric Key Encryption 18 What one key encrypts, just the other can decrypt. Botnet Zombie attack Firmware Stuxnet worm rexec and rsh network A malware that stands for robot network that means that there is virtual robot inside of computer performing function that are being command to it. Is similar to Botnet attack, which it will spread infection everywhere. Product program or an arrangement of guidelines modified on a hard ware. Is a group of astutely composed malware worms that basically target SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquistition) control frameworks for substantial foundations, for example, mechanical power plants. Enable the client to run shell directions on a remote PC. 19 References • https://us.norton.com • Hands on Ethical Hacking and Network Defense by Michael T. Simpson • Malware: Fighting Malicious Code by Ed Skoudis, Lenny Zeltser • . Rafrastara, F. A., & Pratama, A. (2012 April). International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security. Computer Worm Classification. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299580232_Co mputer_Worm_Classification. 20
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Running Head: MALWARE

MALWARE
Institution:
Student:

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MALWARE

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Contents
Abstract .............................................................................................................................................3
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................4
Types of Malware ...............................................................................................................................4
Adware ..........................................................................................................................................4
Bot.................................................................................................................................................5
Bug ................................................................................................................................................6
Ransomware ..................................................................................................................................6
Rootkit ...........................................................................................................................................7
Spyware .........................................................................................................................................8
Trojan horse ...................................................................................................................................9
Virus ............................................................................................................................................ 10
History of malware ........................................................................................................................... 11
Early Days..................................................................................................................................... 11
Contemporary history ................................................................................................................... 13
Michelangelo virus .................................................................................................................... 14
Melissa virus ............................................................................................................................. 14
Present day .................................................................................................................................. 15
Cybercriminal increased level of trickery and craft ...................................................................... 16
Real time malware .................................................................................................................... 17
Prevention methods of malware........................................................................................................ 17
Use of legal court law .................................................................................................................... 18
Education ..................................................................................................................................... 18
Protecting Vulnerabilities .............................................................................................................. 19
Practicing safe browsing................................................................................................................ 20
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 20
References ....................................................................................................................................... 22

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Abstract
Malware is a malicious software that is utilized by cybercriminals to gain direct benefits. There
are many types of malware including: Adware, Bot, Bug, Ransomware, Rootkit, Spyware,
Trojan horse and Virus. This different types of malware are structurally different and
functionally different although some can perform similar tasks. Also the different types of
malware utilize different strategies to ensure infection some being more crafty than others.
The Historical development of the malware is divided into different time periods, starting with
the early periods of 1970s which basically conceive the concept of malware in theories and
experiments. Historical evidence of malware is closely knit with the history of computerization
and internet connectivity. The second time period is the contemporary phase where there is
actual rise in malicious software due to the increased computerization. Here there is a rise of
cybercriminals and the benefits of malware is utilized though unethical and illegal. Lastly, the
present times is a phase between the 20th and 21st century where there is rapid internet revolution.
There is significant improvement in the sophistication of the malwares as well as strategies
utilized. It is noted that in this period risks associated with malware are at the highest.
Lastly, prevention of malware is seen to be of significant contribution to the filed given the
extent of damage that is accrued to malware. The only way to outsmart the clever cybercriminals
is by implanting preventive measures such as use of the legal court law, education, protecting
vulnerabilities, practicing safe browsing.

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Introduction
The internet revolutions has indeed created great efficiencies in the way processes are done
nowadays. As advances are made towards utilization of the internet connectivity, a parallel but
opposite effort is also being done towards utilization of internet connectivity but with ill motives.
Malware is a software program that is intentionally developed to cause damage to either
computer hardware, or the network or to affect functionality of different commands; otherwise
referred to as malicious software. In recent times, cybercrimes have been on the rise with more
and more sophisticated methods being used. The rise of the information age, puts at risk the type
of data and information stored online as privacy cannot be guaranteed. The extent of damage
caused by such malware can be devastating. I will discuss the different types of malware, history
and prevention in the following paragraphs.

Types of Malware
Malicious softwares range widely. The development of these softwares is real time in addition to
that the configuration is different and is designed for achievement of objective of the developer.
Some of the types include:

Adware
Adware is a malicious software that automatically delivers advertisement. This software is
designed to create pop up or pop down adverts on other hosts. While definitely not the most
dangerous software. It can create annoyance while performing tasks online.
Adwares initially are more common in PC applications, however, recently, some adware are
found in mobile apps. Critically, the softwares do not expose the client to any risk, they are

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rather unsolicited information. In addition to this, it is known that this kind of software can be
utilized to track user online behavior which now infringes on personal privacy. Such kind of
information can be beneficial to third parties such as product developers etc.
This kind of software usually is found attached to free downloads such as downloads of such
desktop programs as tool kit and antivirus, especially free trials. Regardless of the compliance
requirement that all mobile applications should not have adware. It is common behavior to
expect such softwares.

Bot
Bots are system software that is designed to perform a particular task as prescribed by the
developer. This programs can be used as malicious softwares in which they act to destroy
specific data in the broader system. ...


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