presentation will contain 10-15 slides on: Human development

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timer Asked: Nov 27th, 2018
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Question description

n lieu of your paper, you will turn in (print and give it to me) a PowerPoint presentation

The presentation will contain 10-15 slides focused on:

Human development through the lens of cognitive development, social development, cultural influence, and political impacts.

You will address each of the abovementioned areas through the stages of conception to early adulthood.

The powerpoint should be written as if you were going to present it in class. It should include 1-2 activities and 1-2 videos. The first slide should be an introductory slide and the last slide should be a references & resources slide.

3rd ed. What is development? What develops? If you had to group the lifespan into different sections, how would you do it? Four Prominent Stage Theories of Development Conventional Piaget Erikson Freud Vygotsky Infancy (0-2) Sensorimotor Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame Oral Affiliation Anal Early Childhood (2-6) Pre-operations Initiative vs. Guilt Phallic Play Middle Childhood (6-12) Concrete Operations Industry vs. Inferiority Latency Learning Adolescence (12-19) Formal Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Genital Peer activity Adulthood (19-65) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work Older Adulthood (65-death) Ego integrity vs. Despair Theorize Operations Stages of development we will use in this class: For each of the 4 items below choose either A or B: 1. A) Development is a continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, and knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace. B) Development occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change. 2. A) Children respond to the world in much the same way as adults. The main difference is that children’s thinking is less sophisticated and complex than adults’. B) Children have unique ways of thinking about and responding to the world that are very different from those of adults. 3. A) All humans follow the same general sequence of development. B) Each individual has a unique course of development. 4. A) An individual’s personality is mostly determined by heredity (genes). B) An individual’s personality can be modified through caregiving experiences. The lifespan perspective views development as a lifelong process.
Ch. 2 Genetic Inheritance Inside the nucleus of a cell: Proteins: A = Adenine T = Thymine C = Cytosine G = Guanine Approximately 20,000 genes A gene = a segment of DNA on a chromosome All cells in the human body reproduce by a process called mitosis https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?fr=mcafee&p=video+of+mitosis%2C+genetic+variability+through+mitosis&durs=short #id=2&vid=de236c0dbdb5e9bc63984dba80d99c5f&action=view EXCEPT the gametes = germ cells = sperm and ova, which reproduce by meiosis. Click here for an animation of meiosis: https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?fr=mcafee&p=video+of+mitosis%2C+genetic+variability+through+mitosis#id=1&vid= 61719724005dcc3739b9defb6339d2dd&action=click Sperm and ovum each have 23 chromosomes, once they unite cells in the zygote are generated by mitosis. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Example: Blood type Possible alleles: O = recessive A = dominant B = dominant Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Example: Blood type Mother has Type A blood (A,O) Father has Type B blood (O,B) Possible alleles: O = recessive A = dominant B = dominant Father O A Mother O B Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Example: Blood type Mother has Type A blood (A,O) Father has Type B blood (O,B) Possible alleles: O = recessive A = dominant B = dominant Father’s Genes O B AO AB OO OB A Mother’s Genes O Genotype Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Example: Blood type Mother has Type A blood (A,O) Father has Type B blood (O,B) Possible alleles: O = recessive A = dominant B = dominant A Mother’s Genes O Father’s Genes O B AO Type A AB Type AB OO Type O OB Type B Genotype Phenotype Punnett Square Activity – do front page To do this you need to know: 1. For blood type A and B alleles are dominant and O is recessive. 2. For Rh-factor of blood type + is dominant, - is recessive. 3. Having dimples is an (irregular) dominant trait. Terms to know: homozygous (2 copies of the same gene) heterozygous (1 each of two different genes) For a recessive trait to be inherited, a person needs two copies of that gene. X Linked Inheritance Example: Hemophilia XX X = hemophilia gene X, X, Y = healthy genes XY X Linked Inheritance Example: Hemophilia XY XX XX XY Carrier Affected X Linked Inheritance Example: Hemophilia XY XX XX XY Carrier Affected XX Not Carrier XY Not Carrier Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy is another example of an X-linked disease, as seen in: Scientific American Frontiers: Tackling a Killer Disease https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Z5f8Fr1PKg Now complete the 2nd side of the Punnett Square Activity sheet. To do this you need to know that the most common form of red-green color blindness is recessive x-linked and so is Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. BUT genes can be influenced by the environment and genetic inheritance accounts for only a small % of problems with newborn infants Causes of Prenatal Abnormalities Gene-environment interactions Canalization = species-universal characteristic little influenced by environmental variation Examples: language development physical growth Gene-environment interactions Range of Reaction = all possible phenotypes for a single genotype 150 Ben 125 Ron IQ 100 Score Linda 75 50 0 Level of Stimulation in Environment
Ch. 3 Prenatal Development – environmental influences Causes of Prenatal Abnormalities Sensitive Periods in Prenatal Development Gray = highly sensitive period; pink = less sensitive but damage possible. Influence of teratogen depends upon: 1) Timing 2) Specific toxin acts in a specific way on specific developing tissue and causes specific pattern of abnormality. (DES) 3) Not all organisms affected in same way by particular teratogen (alcohol) 4) Maternal factors (nutritional deficiency, disease, heredity) 5) Dose (generally drug = damage) (smoking) 6) Diseases/drugs w/little or no effect on mom can have lasting effect on dev. organism What can a pregnant woman do to increase her chances of having a healthy baby? Stages of Childbirth Apgar Scale – Physical Condition Vital Sign 0 1 2 Heart rate Absent Slow (< 100) Over 100 Respiratory effort Absent Slow, irrelgular Good, crying Reflex responsivity No response Grimace Vigorous cry Muscle tone Flaccid Weak reflexes Active motion Color Blue, pale Body pink, Completely extremities blue pink 1, 5 min; score >= 7 is good Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Eyeblink Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Protection against light, objects Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Eyeblink Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Protection against light, objects Grasping Disappears 3-4 mos Normal neurological devt, voluntary grasping Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Eyeblink Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Protection against light, objects Grasping Disappears 3-4 mos Disappears ~6 mos Moro (aka startle) Normal neurological devt, voluntary grasping Disputed; neurological devt or mom-inf bonding Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Eyeblink Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Protection against light, objects Grasping Disappears 3-4 Normal neurological devt, mos voluntary grasping Disappears ~6 mos Disputed; neurological devt or mom-inf bonding Moro (aka startle) Rooting ~3 mos becomes voluntary Nursing Reflexes Present at Birth Reflex Babinski (foot stroked, toes fan then curl) Devt Course Disappears 8-12 mos Significance Normal neurological condition Breathing Permanent Eyeblink Permanent Provides oxygen, removes carbon dioxide Protection against light, objects Grasping Disappears 3-4 Normal neurological devt, mos voluntary grasping Disappears ~6 mos Disputed; neurological devt or mom-inf bonding Moro (aka startle) Rooting Sucking ~3 mos becomes voluntary Permanent Nursing Nursing This replaces Table 3.4 in book Infant States of Arousal State Description Hrs/Day Quiet sleep (NREM) 8-9 Hours Active sleep (REM) 8-9 Hours Drowsiness Varies Quiet alert 2-3 Hours (10%) Active alert 1-4 Hours Distress 1-4 Hours
Infancy What are the developmental tasks of infancy? • • • • Physiological - Adapting to the life outside the uterus Physical – Walking (locomotion) Cognitive – Language (symbolic thought) Emotional - Attachment Where do you think the U.S. ranks in terms of Infant mortality? Which country has the highest infant mortality? Which country has the lowest infant mortality? CIA World Factbook Rank Order - Infant mortality rate (deaths per 1000 live births) Countries for which no information is available are not included in this list. Rank is 1 to 224; a rank of 1 means that country has the highest infant mortality https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2091rank.html See also: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html FYI, Film: Amazing Talents of the Newborn (Klaus & Kennell – bonding research) • some reflexes demonstrated • infant states of arousal • infant sensory capacities • beliefs about newborns Common misunderstandings about newborns and parenting: If you pick up a baby every time the baby cries you will spoil baby. Human mothers bond with their babies right after birth. Infant states of arousal Shape Perception Infants prefer: • Curves to straight lines • Concentric to nonconcentric patterns • Multiple to same orientation • Movement Gains in Height and Weight during Infancy and Toddlerhood (N.Amer children) Organize the following motor skills in the order in which they are developed: Gross motor skills: • Crawls • Holds head erect • Jumps in place • Rolls (back to side) • Rolls (side to back) • Pulls self to stand • Pushes up body by arms • Sits alone • Stands alone • Walks alone • Walks on tiptoe • Walks up stairs w/assistance Esther Thelen – Baby Body Sense Scientific American Frontiers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI3t_hsFzX0 Crawling (7 mos.) Depth perception, Social Referencing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F87RcxJPIbo
Chapter 5 Language Development What is the difference between communication and language? Language and speech? “Well, nothing so far…the usual sign language and stuff… 1 23 456 789 0 …but when they get the phone bill I suppose I’ll have to come up with something!” Theories of Language Acquisition Theory Major Causal Factor Biological Heredity Maturation (nativist) Chomsky Social Learning (behaviorist) Bandura Cog Devtmental (interactionist) Piaget Cultural Context Vygotsky Social Environment Social and Biological Culture mediate soc + biol Mechanism Phenomenon Explained LAD is triggered syntax=grammar Imitation Assimilation Accommodation c = change schema Coordination of cultural scripts word meaning relation betw cognitive and linguistic devt lang-thought relations Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior Birth more sensitive to complex noises than pure tones phoneme (sound) perception Phonemes (Eimas, Werker) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXWGnryjEaY Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior Birth more sensitive to complex noises than pure tones phoneme (sound) perception discriminate language from non recognize mothers’ voice crying Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior 2 mos cooing 4 mos babbling 6 mos 9 mos babbling takes on char of language community understands words pointing Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior 12 mos can no longer tell difference betw or produce phonemes outside of native language (6 mos) 1st words holophrases 18 mos vocabulary spurt Individual differences in vocabulary development (Bates et al.) Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior 18 mos vocabulary spurt underextension or overextension of new words first 2 word sentences Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior 2 yrs correct responses to indirect requests (Did you wash your hands?) 2½ yrs create indirect requests (You have my cookie!) modifies speech to take listener into account begins to be aware of grammar (order, prepositions) Sequence of Language Development Age Behavior 3-6 yrs grammatical overgeneralization increasing grammatical complexity 5-7 yrs critical period Applying what you’ve learned… Your friend tells you that she is concerned because her 18-month-old child has not started talking. What will you tell your friend? The Human Ear Cochlea Auditory nerve Ear Drum Eustachean tube Language is sometimes ambiguous: The French bottle smells. “Although humans make sounds with their mouths and occasionally look at each other, there is no solid evidence that they actually communicate with each other.”

Tutor Answer

ACADEMICARSENAL
School: Cornell University

Attached.

DEVLOPMENT

1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
a) Pre-natal
- Growth of th brain and neural tissue
- Susceptible to influence of teratogens
- Sensory development also takes place.
- Reflexes present at birth:- Babinski, breathing, grasping, moro, rooting, sucking and
Eyeblink
b) Infancy
- Cognitive development is a two-fold process:- It is a two-fold process:Assimilation- transforming experiences to fit existing schemas
Accomodation- Existing schema is changed to deal with new situation
Newborn’s schema- reflexes
Primary circular reaction- from 2-4 months. Repeat of movements.
Secondary cisrular reaction-(4-8 months) - Accidental discovery of activity and attempt
to recreate
Object permanence (8-12 months)
Tertiary circular reaction – dropping of objects to experiment
Skills learnt- motor and sensory
-Development occurs head-down and inside-out.

Early childhoos development
The pre-oprational stage
Children learn through pretend play but struggle with logic and ideal
constancy
Concentrate only on focus of object
Confuse appearance and reality
Do not have cause-effect reasoning . ‘
Middle childhood
The concrete operational stage
Think more logically but rigidly
Can noe decenter their thinking
Conservation thinking- some properties change, some remain the same.
Decreased egocentrism, think about others.

Adolescence
The formal operational stage shcaracterized by:
Hypo-thetico-deductive reasoning
Increase in logical thinking
Advanced in perspective-taking and new body changes
Increased understanding of abstract ideas
Early adulthood
Involves acceptance and adjustment to pshychosocal changes.
Middle adulthood
Involves acceptance and adjustment to physiological changes

Late adulthood
Changes( Gains and loses in
cognition)
Decline in memory and attention
Acceptance of physical changes.

Social development
Pre-natal period
-No significant social development
Infancy
Environmental learning through i...

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