1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
- Growth of th brain and neural tissue
- Susceptible to influence of teratogens
- Sensory development also takes place.
- Reflexes present at birth:- Babinski, breathing, grasping, moro, rooting, sucking and
- Cognitive development is a two-fold process:- It is a two-fold process:Assimilation- transforming experiences to fit existing schemas
Accomodation- Existing schema is changed to deal with new situation
Newborn’s schema- reflexes
Primary circular reaction- from 2-4 months. Repeat of movements.
Secondary cisrular reaction-(4-8 months) - Accidental discovery of activity and attempt
Object permanence (8-12 months)
Tertiary circular reaction – dropping of objects to experiment
Skills learnt- motor and sensory
-Development occurs head-down and inside-out.
Early childhoos development
The pre-oprational stage
Children learn through pretend play but struggle with logic and ideal
Concentrate only on focus of object
Confuse appearance and reality
Do not have cause-effect reasoning . ‘
The concrete operational stage
Think more logically but rigidly
Can noe decenter their thinking
Conservation thinking- some properties change, some remain the same.
Decreased egocentrism, think about others.
The formal operational stage shcaracterized by:
Increase in logical thinking
Advanced in perspective-taking and new body changes
Increased understanding of abstract ideas
Involves acceptance and adjustment to pshychosocal changes.
Involves acceptance and adjustment to physiological changes
Changes( Gains and loses in
Decline in memory and attention
Acceptance of physical changes.
-No significant social development
Environmental learning through i...