Week 15 Assignments

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Assignment A

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Complete the file attached called "earth-the_bio_oceans.doc". - Earth: The Biography - Oceans

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Assignment B

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Earth the Biography Oceans - Video

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After watching the video, answer the following questions: 1. How was the vastness of ocean currents illustrated through an accident? 2. What would happen if no cold water sank down to the bottom of the ocean at the poles? 3. What happens to life on earth when the oceans go through a major change?

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Assignment C

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Forum: the Importance of Oceans

After viewing the class Ocean lectures, as well as viewing the video: Earth the Biography: Oceans, think about how important oceans are. Pick an aspect that is particularly important to you and describe it. Discuss how you are thankful for something related to the ocean.

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Instructor's example post: There are many ways that the ocean is important to us. Half of the earth's oxygen that we breathe comes from phytoplankton blooms in the oceans. We utilize many ocean resources such as salt, minerals, and food. But I think what I am most thankful about has to do with the opportunity for discovery: as a person who loves snorkeling and scuba diving I continue to be amazed by the beauty and diversity of lifeforms in the ocean. A few months ago I went sailing in Newport Bay with my family. My husband had taken sailing classes at Orange Coast Community College, and we rented one of their boats for the afternoon. As we were docking the boat in the evening (it had gotten completely dark), we noticed bright green flashes in the water just by the dock. My son scooped up some of the green material and shone his flashlight onto it: it was a worm! I had never seen that before. The area around the docks was swarming with these bio-luminescent creatures, leaving glowing trails behind them as they moved through the water (see picture). I never get tired of visiting the beach and watching the waves, shorebirds, whales....... I am thankful we live close enough to visit and see these amazing things.

What is it that you enjoy (or are thankful for) about the ocean?

marine glow worms

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Thank You So Much!

Name: Pd. Date: Earth: The Biography - Oceans While watching the documentary “Earth: The Biography - “Oceans”, answer the follow questions. # 1 Question How long have the oceans been on Earth? 2 Where do Hawaii’s waves form? 3 What do waves transfer, water or energy? 4 Where does the energy to create Earth’s tides come from? What happens in the Amazon when the moon and sun’s effects combine? What was one of the gases released by Earth’s early volcanoes that helped form the oceans? How much of Earth’s water was delivered by volcanoes? About how much water do comets contain? 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Has the amount of water in Earth’s oceans changed since their formation? How many more times does the Mediterranean Sea lose to evaporation than it gains from the Atlantic Ocean? How long ago did the Straight of Gibraltar close up last? How much salt was left behind after the Mediterranean dried up? Where does most of the ocean’s salt come from? 15 Why do the find elephant fossils in Sicily cause confusion? What are phytoplankton? 16 How do phytoplankton help sea creatures breathe? 17 How was the vastness of ocean currents illustrated through an accident? What does the Gulf Stream transport? 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 What current change is responsible for changing Earth’s weather patterns? What would happen if no cold water sank down to the bottom of the ocean at the poles? What is being created at the bottom of Green Lake in New York? Why is Palau a good place to observe changes in ocean carbon dioxide levels? How much did the water temperature change in 1998 to almost destroy the golden jellyfish population? How much carbon dioxide does the ocean absorb every year? What happens to life on Earth when the oceans go through a major change? Answer
The Dynamic Ocean Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing Chapter 15, you should be able to: • • • • • • • • • List the factors that influence surface ocean currents. Discuss the importance of surface ocean currents. Describe deep-ocean circulation. Describe wave characteristics and types. Describe wave erosion and the features produced by wave erosion. Discuss shoreline erosional problems and solutions. Explain the differences between an emergent and submergent coast. Discuss the factors that influence tides. Describe the monthly tidal cycle, three main tidal patterns, and tidal currents. The Dynamic Ocean Summary The following statements summarize the primary objectives presented in the chapter. • • • • The ocean's surface currents follow the general pattern of the world's major wind belts. Surface currents are parts of huge, slowly moving loops of water called gyres that are centered in the subtropics of each ocean basin. The positions of the continents and the Coriolis effect also influence the movement of ocean water within gyres. Because of the Coriolis effect, subtropical gyres move clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Generally, four main currents comprise each subtropical gyre. Ocean currents are important in navigation and for the effect that they have on climates. Poleward-moving warm ocean currents moderate winter temperatures in the middle latitudes. Cold currents exert the greatest influence during summer in middle latitudes and year around in the tropics. In addition to cooler temperatures, cold currents are associated with greater fog frequency and drought. Upwelling, the rising of colder water from deeper layers, is a wind-induced movement that brings cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface. Coastal upwelling is most characteristic along the west coasts of continents In contrast to surface currents, deep-ocean circulation is governed by gravity and driven by density differences. The two factors that are most significant in creating a dense mass of water are temperature and salinity, so the movement of deep-ocean water is often termed thermohaline circulation. Most water involved in thermohaline circulation begins in high latitudes at the surface when the salinity of the cold water increases due to sea ice formation. This dense water sinks initiating deep-ocean currents. • Waves are moving energy and most ocean waves are initiated by the wind. The three factors that • • • • • • • • influence the height, wavelength, and period of a wave are 1) wind speed, 2) length of time the wind has blown, and 3) fetch, the distance that the wind has traveled across open water. Once waves leave a storm area, they are termed swells, which are symmetrical, longer-wavelength waves. As waves travel, water particles transmit energy by circular orbital motion, which extends to a depth equal to one-half the wavelength. When a wave travels into shallow water, it causes the water particle motion to experience changes that can cause the wave to collapse, or break, and form surf. Beaches are composed of any locally derived material that is in transit along the shore. Wave erosion is caused by wave impact, pressure, and abrasion (the sawing and grinding action of water armed with rock fragments). The bending of waves is called wave refraction. Owing to refraction, wave impact is concentrated against the sides and ends of headlands and dispersed in bays. Most waves reach the shore at an angle. The uprush and backwash of water from each breaking wave moves the sediment in a zigzag pattern along the beach. This movement is called beach drift. Oblique waves also produce longshore currents within the surf zone that flow parallel to the shore and transport more sediment than beach drift. Erosion features include wave-cut cliffs (which originate from the cutting action of the surf against the base of coastal land), wave-cut platforms (relatively flat, benchlike surfaces left behind by receding cliffs), and marine terraces (uplifted wavecut platforms). Erosional features also include sea arches (formed when a headland is eroded and two caves from opposite sides unite), and sea stacks (formed when the roof of a sea arch collapses). Depositional features include spits (elongated ridges of sand that project from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay), baymouth bars (sand bars that completely cross a bay), and tombolos (ridges of sand that connect an island to the mainland or to another island). Along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, the coastal region is characterized by offshorebarrier islands, which are low ridges of sand that parallel the coast. Local factors that influence shoreline erosion are 1) the proximity of a coast to sediment- laden rivers, 2) the degree of tectonic activity, 3) the topography and composition of the land, 4) prevailing winds and weather patterns, and 5) the configuration of the coastline and nearshore areas. Hard stabilization involves building hard, massive structures in an attempt to protect a coast from erosion or prevent the movement of sand along a beach. Hard stabilization includes groins (short walls built at a right angle to the shore to trap moving sand),breakwaters (structures built parallel to the shoreline to protect boats from the force of large breaking waves), and seawalls(armoring the coast to prevent waves from reaching the area behind the wall). Alternatives to hard stabilization include beach nourishment, which involves the addition of sand to replenish eroding beaches, and relocation of damaged or threatened buildings. Because of basic geological differences, the nature of shoreline erosion problems along America's Pacific and Atlantic Coasts is very different. Much of the development along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts has occurred on barrier islands, which receive the full force of major storms. Much of the Pacific Coast is characterized by narrow beaches backed by steep cliffs and mountain ranges. A major problem facing the Pacific shoreline is a narrowing of beaches caused by irrigation and flood control dams that interrupt the natural flow of sand to the coast. • One commonly used classification of coasts is based upon changes that have occurred with respect to sea level. Emergent coasts often exhibit wave-cut cliffs and marine terraces and develop either because an area experiences uplift or as a result of a drop in sea level. Conversely, submergent coasts commonly display • • • drowned river mouths called estuaries that are created when sea level rises or the land adjacent to the sea subsides. Tides, the daily rise and fall in the elevation of the ocean surface at a specific location, are caused by thegravitational attraction of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, by the Sun. Near the times of new and full moons, the Sun and Moon are aligned and their gravitational forces are added high and low tides. These are called the spring tides. Conversely, at about the times of the first and third quarters of the Moon, when the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun are at right angles, the daily tidal range is less. These are calledneap tides. Three main tidal patterns exist worldwide. A diurnal tidal pattern exhibits one high and low tide daily; a semidiurnal tidal pattern exhibits two high and low tides daily of about the same height; and a and mixed tidal pattern usually has two high and low tides daily of different heights. Tidal currents are horizontal movements of water that accompany the rise and fall of tides. Tidal flats are the areas that are affected by the advancing and retreating tidal currents. When tidal currents slow after emerging from narrow inlets, they deposit sediment that may eventually create tidal deltas. Earth Science, 10th edition Chapter 15: The Dynamic Ocean I. Ocean water movements A. Surface circulation 1.Ocean currents are masses of water that flow from one place to another 2. Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across the surface 3. Huge, slowly moving gyres 3. Five main gyres a. North Pacific Gyre b. South Pacific Gyre c. North Atlantic Gyre d. South Atlantic Gyre e. Indian Ocean Gyre 4. Related to atmospheric circulation 5. Deflected by the Coriolis effect a. To the right in the Northern Hemisphere b. To the left in the Southern Hemisphere 6. Four main currents generally exist within each gyre 7. Importance of surface currents a. Climate 1. Currents from low latitudes into higher latitudes (warm currents) transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas 2. Influence of cold currents is most pronounced in the tropics or during the summer months in the middle latitudes b. Upwelling 1. The rising of cold water from deeper layers 2. Most characteristic along west coasts of continents 3. Brings greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients to the ocean surface B. Deep-ocean circulation 1. A response to density differences 2. Factors creating a dense mass of water a. Temperature – cold water is dense b. Salinity – density increases with increasing salinity 3. Called thermohaline circulation 4. Most water involved in deep-ocean currents begins in high latitudes at the surface 5. A simplified model of ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific Oceans and back again C. Waves 1. Energy traveling along the interface between ocean and atmosphere 2. Derive their energy and motion from wind 3. Parts a. Crest b. Trough 4. Measurements of a wave a. Wave height – the distance between a trough and a crest b. Wavelength – the horizontal distance between successive crests (or troughs) c. Wave period – the time interval for one full wave to pass a fixed position 5. Wave height, length, and period depend on a. Wind speed b. Length of time the wind blows c. Fetch – the distance that the wind travels 6. As the wave travels, the water passes energy along by moving in a circle a. Waveform moves forward b. At a depth of about one-half the wavelength, the movement of water particles becomes negligible (the wave base) II. Beaches and shoreline processes A. Beaches are composed of whatever material is available 1. Some beaches have a significant biological component 2. Material does not stay in one place B. Wave erosion 1. Caused by a. Wave impact and pressure b. Abrasion by rock fragments 2. Breaks down rock material and supplies sand to beaches C. Wave refraction a. Bending of a waves b. Wave arrives parallel to shore c. Results 1. Wave energy is concentrated against the sides and ends of headland 2. Wave erosion straightens an irregular shoreline D. Longshore transport a. Beach drift – sediment moves in a zigzag pattern along the beach face b. Longshore current 1. Current in surf zone 2. Flows parallel to the shore 3. Moves substantially more sediment than beach drift III. Shoreline features A. Erosional features 1. Wave-cut cliff 2. Wave-cut platform 3. Marine terraces 4. Associated with headlands a. Sea arch b. Sea stack B. Depositional features 1. Spit – a ridge of sand extending from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay with an end that often hooks landward 2. Baymouth bar – a sand bar that completely crosses a bay 3. Tombolo – a ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland 4. Barrier islands a. Mainly along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains b. Parallel the coast c. Originate in several ways IV. Stabilizing the shore A. Shoreline erosion is influenced by the local factors 1. Proximity to sediment-laden rivers 2. Degree of tectonic activity 3. Topography and composition of the land 4. Prevailing wind and weather patterns 5. Configuration of the coastline B. Responses to erosion problems 1. Hard stabilization - building structures a. Types of structures 1. Groins a. Barriers built at a right angle to the beach b. Trap sand 2. Breakwaters a. Barriers built offshore and parallel to the coast b. Protects boats from the force of large breaking waves 3. Seawalls a. Armors the coast against the force of breaking waves b. Stops waves from reaching the beach areas behind the wall b. Often these structures are not effective 2. Alternatives to hard stabilization a. Beach nourishment by adding sand to the beach system b. Relocating buildings away from beach C. Erosion problems along U.S. Coasts 1. Shoreline erosion problems are different along the opposite coasts 2. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts a. Development occurs mainly on barrier islands 1. Face open ocean 2. Receive full force of storms b. Development has taken place more rapidly than our understanding of barrier island dynamics 3. Pacific Coast a. Characterized by relatively narrow beaches backed by steep cliffs and mountain ranges b. Major problem is the narrowing of the beaches 1. Sediment for beaches is interrupted by dams and reservoirs 2. Rapid erosion occurs along the beaches V. Coastal classification A. Shoreline classification is difficult B. Classification based on changes with respect to sea level 1. Emergent coast a. Caused by 1. Uplift of the land, or 2. A drop in sea level b. Features of an emergent coast 1. Wave-cut cliffs 2. Marine terraces 1. Submergent coast a. Caused by 1. Land adjacent to sea subsides, or 2. Sea level rises b. Features of a submergent coast 1. Highly irregular shoreline 2. Estuaries – drowned river mouths VI. Tides A. Changes in elevation of the ocean surface B. Caused by the gravitational forces exerted upon the Earth by the 1. Moon, and to a lesser extent by the 2. Sun C. Monthly tidal cycle 1. Spring tide a. During new and full moons b. Gravitational forces added together c. Especially high and low tides d. Large daily tidal range 2. Neap tide a. First and third quarters of the Moon b. Gravitational forces are offset c. Daily tidal range is least D. Tidal patterns 1. Many factors influence the tides a. Shape of the coastline b. Configuration of the ocean basin c. Water depth 2. Main tidal patterns a. Diurnal tidal pattern 1. A single high and low tide each tidal day 2. Occurs along the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico b. Semidiurnal tidal pattern 1. Two high and two low tides each tidal day 2. Little difference in the high and low water heights 3. Common along the Atlantic Coast of the U.S. c. Mixed tidal pattern 1. Two high and two low waters each day 2. Large inequality in high water heights, low water heights, or both 3. Prevalent along the Pacific Coast of the U.S. 3. Tidal currents a. Horizontal flow accompanying the rise and fall of tides b. Types of tidal currents 1. Flood current – advances into the coastal zone 2. Ebb current – seaward moving water c. Sometimes tidal deltas are created by tidal currents
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck ◆ Lutgens 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Temperature Variation ◆ The ocean’s water temperature varies with the amount of sunlight received, which is a function of latitude. ◆ Temperature Variation with Depth • The thermocline is the layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters where there is a rapid change of temperature with depth. • The thermocline is a very important structure because it creates a barrier to marine life. Variations in Ocean Surface Temperature Variations in Ocean Water Temperature 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Density Variation ◆ Density is how much it weighs, compared to its size. ◆ Factors Affecting Seawater Density • salinity and temperature made seawater more dense. The coldest that seawater at the bottom of the ocean can get is 4º C. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Density Variation ◆ Density Variation with Depth • The pycnocline salinity, and about the same as the thermocline. Variations in Ocean Water Density 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Layering ◆ Surface Zone • Shallow (Zero to 300 or 450 meters) • Zone of mixing • Sun-warmed zone 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Layering ◆ Transition Zone • Thermocline and pycnocline ◆ Deep Zone • Sunlight never reaches this zone. • Temperatures are just a few degrees above freezing. • Constant high-density water Ocean Zones Chapter 16 The Dynamic Ocean 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation ◆ Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. ◆ Surface Currents • Surface currents are movements that flows horizontally in the upper part of the ocean’s surface. • Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across its surface. Ocean Surface Currents 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation ◆ Gyres • Gyres are huge circular-moving current systems that dominate the surfaces of the oceans. • The Coriolis effect is the deflection of currents away from their original course as a result of Earth’s rotation. Right in the northern hemisphere, and left in the southern hemisphere. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation ◆ Ocean Currents and Climate • Currents transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas on Earth. Equator to poles. • Cold current will keep some land chilly. San Diego, or Monterey, or some place of your choosing. False-Colored Satellite Image of the Gulf Stream 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation ◆ Upwelling • Upwelling is cold water being pulled up with nutrients. • Upwelling brings “fertilizer” to the ocean’s life. Effects of Upwelling 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Deep-Ocean Circulation ◆ Density Currents • Density currents are vertical currents of ocean water that result from density differences among water masses. • An increase in seawater density can be caused by a decrease in temperature or an increase in salinity. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Deep-Ocean Circulation ◆ High Latitudes • Most water involved in deep-ocean currents begins in high latitudes at the surface. ◆ Evaporation • Density currents can also result from increased salinity of ocean water due to evaporation. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Deep-Ocean Circulation ◆ A Conveyor Belt • In a simplified model, ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and back again. Conveyor Belt Model Cross Section of the Arctic Ocean 16.2 Waves and Tides Waves ◆ Wave Characteristics • Most ocean waves obtain their energy and motion from the wind. • The wave height is the vertical distance between the trough and crest. • The wavelength is the horizontal distance between two successive crests or two successive troughs. 16.2 Waves and Tides Waves ◆ Wave Characteristics • The wave period is the time it takes one full wave—one wavelength—to pass a fixed position. • Fetch is the distance that the wind has traveled across open water. • The height, length, and period that are eventually achieved by a wave depend on three factors: (1) wind speed, (2) length of time the wind has blown, and (3) fetch. Anatomy of a Wave 16.2 Waves and Tides Waves ◆ Wave Motion • Circular orbital motion allows energy to move forward through the water while the individual water particles that transmit the wave move around in a circle. 16.2 Waves and Tides Waves ◆ Breaking Waves • Changes occur as a wave moves onto shore. • As the waves touch bottom, wave speed decreases. The decrease in wave speed results in a decrease in wavelength and an increase in wave height. Breaking Waves 16.2 Waves and Tides Tides ◆ Tides are daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface. ◆ Ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction exerted upon Earth by the moon and, to a lesser extent, by the sun. ◆ Tide-Causing Forces • The force that produces tides is gravity. Tide Bulges on Earth Caused by the Moon 16.2 Waves and Tides Tides ◆ Tide Cycle • Tidal range is the difference in height between successive high and low tides. • Spring tides are tides that have the greatest tidal range due to the alignment of the Earth– moon–sun system. • Neap tides are tides that have the lowest tidal range, occurring near the times of the firstquarter and third-quarter phases of the moon. Earth–Moon–Sun Positions and the Tides 16.2 Waves and Tides Tides ◆ Tidal Patterns • Three main tidal patterns exist worldwide: diurnal tides, semidiurnal tides, and mixed tides. 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Forces Acting on the Shoreline ◆ A beach is the accumulation of sediment found along the shore of a lake or ocean. ◆ Waves along the shoreline are constantly eroding, transporting, and depositing sediment. Many types of shoreline features can result from this activity. 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Forces Acting on the Shoreline ◆ Wave Impact • The impact of large, high-energy waves against the shore can be awesome in its violence. Each breaking wave may hurl thousands of tons of water against the land, sometimes causing the ground to tremble. ◆ Abrasion • Abrasion is the sawing and grinding action of rock fragments in the water. • Abrasion is probably more intense in the surf zone than in any other environment. 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Forces Acting on the Shoreline ◆ Wave Refraction • Wave refraction is the bending of waves, and it plays an important part in the shoreline process. • Because of refraction, wave energy is concentrated against the sides and ends of headlands that project into the water, whereas wave action is weakened in bays. Wave Refraction 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Forces Acting on the Shoreline ◆ Longshore Transport • A longshore current is a near-shore current that flows parallel to the shore. • Turbulence allows longshore currents to easily move fine suspended sand and to roll larger sand and gravel particles along the bottom. Longshore Currents 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Erosional Features ◆ Shoreline features that originate primarily from the work of erosion are called erosional features. Sediment that is transported along the shore and deposited in areas where energy is low produces depositional features. 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Erosional Features ◆ Wave-Cut Cliffs and Platforms • Wave-cut cliffs result from the cutting action of the surf against the base of coastal land. A flat, bench-like, wave-cut platform forms in front of the wave-cut cliff. ◆ Sea Arches and Sea Stacks • When two caves on opposite sides of a headland unite, a sea arch results. Eventually, the arch falls in, leaving an isolated remnant, or sea stack, on the wave-cut platform. Sea Arch and Sea Stack 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Depositional Features ◆ Spits, Bars, and Tombolos • Where longshore currents and other surf zone currents are active, several features related to the movement of sediment along the shore may develop. - A spit is an elongated ridge of sand that projects from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay. - A baymouth bar is a sandbar that completely crosses a bay. - A tombolo is a ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island. Evolution of Shoreline Features 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Depositional Features ◆ Barrier Islands • Barrier islands are narrow sandbars parallel to, but separate from, the coast at distances from 3 to 30 kilometers offshore. Barrier Islands 16.3 Shoreline Processes and Features Stabilizing the Shore ◆ Protective Structures • Groins, breakwaters, and seawalls are some structures built to protect a coast from erosion or to prevent the movement of sand along a beach. ◆ Beach Nourishment • Beach nourishment is the addition of large quantities of sand to the beach system. Miami Beach Before and After Beach Nourishment

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ANundez
School: University of Maryland

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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