Philosophy Essay 3

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Philosophy Essay 3

This assignment asks you to apply several of the normative ethical theories explored in class to a business case.

Essay 3: Apply normative theories Essay 3: Apply normative theories The assignment This assignment asks you to demonstrate your understanding of several of the moral theories discussed in class and in the assigned readings. Apply those theories to a case selected from several listed below. Read these instructions carefully and completely before beginning. It includes questions to answer, details about the required organization of the paragraphs, and formatting guidelines. You may not consult or cite any material not assigned for this course or specified in these instructions. Note: Be sure to read and follow the formatting instructions for essays as well as the explanation of the rubric criteria used in assessing the essays. Explain the case First paragraph: summary First you will need to select one of the cases from the list below. Summarize the case. For cases that involve decisions already made (Pinto, Nestlé, Malden Mills, Merck, Kraft, ESPN layoffs, Sherron Watkins, VW cheating, and casino tracking), who chose what and what were the outcomes? What other choice could have been made instead? For ongoing or impending situations (antibiotics, chocolate), what are the options available and what might be the outcomes of each? Be sure to be specific, citing relevant facts mentioned in the articles. Describe the situation in a way that someone unfamiliar with the situation would be able to understand it sufficiently to follow your thinking through the rest of your essay. The specific decision that you are to consider is given with the case below. Apply the normative theories Second paragraph: Act Utilitarianism First, explain (a) what determines which action in any situation is morally required according to Act Utilitarianism and (b) the purpose of secondary rules within Act Utilitarianism. Second, discuss the choice facing the individual using Act Utilitarianism. What considerations would be relevant to determining which choice is the morally required choice? Be sure to consider both the negative and positive aspects of each options, including all those potentially affected and the value of these effects. Read and reflect on the linked articles included for your case. Be sure consider both immediate and remote consequences. Consider both (1) comparative probability and (2) comparative value. Also, consider how the individual should go about deciding what to do using any relevant secondary rules. Would the person need to rely on secondary rules or would the morally required choice be sufficiently apparent in this situation? Note: you need not arrive at a definite conclusion about which would be the required choice according to Act Utilitarianism nor about what the person ought to choose—rather, demonstrate your understanding by discussing which consideration in this situation would be relevant for arrive at a conclusion. Third paragraph: Immanuel Kant (humanity formulation only) First, explain how the morality of actions are assessed according to Kant’s Humanity Formulation of the Categorical Imperative. Second, discuss the choice facing the individual using Kant’s Humanity Formulation of the categorical imperative. How does each decision accord with Kant’s suggestion that we ought always to treat other people as ends and never merely as means? For each choice, does doing it fail to treat anyone as an end? Does it treat anyone as a mere means? Is there a clearly right answer for Kant here? Explain. Fourth paragraph: Ross’s theory of prima facie ethics First, explain Ross’s theory of prima facie duties. Second, discuss the choice facing the individual using Ross’s Theory of Prima Facie Ethics. Answer these questions in your discussion: What prima facie duties does the individual have in this situation? List all of those that would require the individual choose each option. Be clear about which prima facie duties go with which decision. Note: Don’t just list Ross’s general categories of prima facie duties. Rather, list which prima facie duties the individual (or group of individuals) has and to whom. For example: Don’t just say that the individual has prima facie duties of fidelity, gratitude, beneficence, etc. Say, rather, that the individual has a duty to keep a promise to X to do Y, and a duty not to harm Z. Doing this will make more evident whether the individual has multiple instances of the same kind of duty (say, a duty to keep promises to a number of different people). Fifth paragraph: Virtue ethics First, explain virtue ethics as discussed in class and in Audi's essay. Second, discuss the choice facing the individual using the virtue ethical theory of morality. Which considerations would be relevant to the situation, according to the virtue ethical theory? Discuss at least two virtues involved in the situation. Business cases For each case below, read the primary article for your case first. If there is more than one listed, choose one. As you work on your essay, consult any supplementary articles listed. There is no requirement that you read the supplementary articles; however, in many cases, they will help to deepen your understanding of the situation and provide further ideas for addressing the questions of the essay assignment. Feel free to search for additional articles on the internet if you think there is additional information you need that is not included in any of the articles linked below. Merck and River Blindness Consider the decision by Merck executives to provide Mectizan free rather than charge for it or continue to seek external funding partners. Primary article • Merck and River Blindness (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Supplementary articles • • Merck Offers Free Distribution of New River Blindness Drug (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., New York Times (October 1987) (also on Canvas) More Than 25 Years: The Mectizan Donation Program (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Merck.com Nestlé infant formula Consider the decision by Nestle executives to market infant formula in impoverished, developing nations. Primary article (choose one) • • Nestle: The Infant Formula Controversy (Canvas) Selling Infant Formula Overseas (Canvas) Supplementary articles • Every Parent Should Know The Scandalous History Of Infant Formula (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Business Insider (June 2012) Casino tracking Consider the efforts by casino managers to engage “use surveillance technology and algorithms to monitor and manipulate players and convince them to wager more.” Primary article • Inside the casino, the house is always watching (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Christian Science Monitor (June 2015) Supplementary articles • • How Casinos Enable Gambling Addicts (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Atlantic (December 2016) Engineers of addiction (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Verge (May 2015) Kraft advertising to children Consider decision by Kraft and other corporations to advertise unhealthy food to young children. Primary article • Kraft Foods Inc.: The Cost of Advertising on Children’s Waistlines Supplementary articles • Kraft Limits on Kids’ Ads May Cheese Off Rivals, Wall Street Journal (January 2005) (Canvas) • • • • Food Makers Propose Tougher Guidelines For Children’s Ads, Wall Street Journal (July 2005) (Canvas) Small Bites: Why Kraft Decided to Ban Some Food Ads to Children, Wall Street Journal (October 2005) (Canvas) Panel Faults Food Packaging For Kid Obesity, Wall Street Journal (December 2005) (Canvas) Activists Plan to Sue Viacom and Kellogg Over Ads to Children, Wall Street Journal (January 2006) (Canvas) Chocolate Consider whether corporate executives of chocolate companies are obligated to investigate use of child labor—including but not limited to enslavement of children and others—by suppliers. Consider as well the moral obligation to switch to certified child labor-free sources. Primary article • Inside Big Chocolate’s Child Labor Problem (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Fortune (March 2016) Supplementary articles • • • • • • Nestlé admits slavery in Thailand while fighting child labour lawsuit in Ivory Coast (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Guardian (February 2016) Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Food Empowerment Project Slave Free Chocolate: The Situation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Slave Free Chocolate The Truth behind the Chocolate Industry Will Leave a Bitter Taste in Your Mouth (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Paste Magazine (February 2017) Nestle is being sued for allegedly using child slaves on cocoa farms (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Independent (January 2016) Chocolate and Child Slavery: Say No to Human Trafficking this Holiday Season (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Huffington Post (December 2014) Antibiotic crisis Consider whether corporate executives of pharmaceutical corporations have an obligation to pursue research in new antibiotics for the public good—even though doing so will be less profitable than pursuing researching other new drugs. Primary article • Antibiotic Resistance Will Kill 300 Million People by 2050 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Scientific American (December 2014) Supplementary articles • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Post-Antibiotic Era is Here. Now What? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Wired (August 2017) Pharma leaders announce alliance to fight antimicrobial resistance (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (May 2017) WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., World Health Organization (February 2017) As antibiotic resistance rises, so do research, development: Protecting, advancing antibiotics (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Nation’s Health (October 2016) A ‘slow catastrophe’ unfolds as the golden age of antibiotics comes to an end (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Los Angeles Times (July 2016) Pharma levy proposed in superbugs battle , The Financial Times (May 2016) (Canvas) Big Pharma has to lose resistance to antibiotic research, The Financial Times (May 2015) (Canvas) The true value of a life is not about the pharmaceutical costs, The Financial Times (March 2015) (Canvas) New antibiotic expected to fight bacteria for decades, The Financial Times (January 2015) (Canvas) Pharma’s Poor Reputation Doesn’t Help In The Fight Against Superbugs (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Forbes (July 2014) We risk disaster if drugs giants don’t invest in research (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., The Guardian (May 2014) Antibiotic-resistant superbugs now a global epidemic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., New Scientist (April 2014) More Americans die each year from antibiotic-resistant bacteria than AIDS, and there are no new drugs coming (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Quartz (November 2013) Big Pharma Exit: Who’s Fighting the Superbugs? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., CNBC (April 2013) Malden Mills Consider Aaron Feuerstein’s decision to rebuild manufacturing plants and provide financial support to employees during rebuilding. Primary article • The Case of Malden Mills (Canvas) Supplementary articles • • • Despite bankruptcy, former Malden Mills owner glad he saved jobs after historic fire, Portland Press Herald (December 2015) (Canvas) 20 years after fire, Polartec will close Lawrence facility, Boston Globe (December 2015) (Canvas) The Mensch Of Malden Mills (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., CBS News (July 2003) Volkswagen cheating Consider decision by individuals at Volkswagen to cheat on diesel-emission tests Primary article (choose one) • • Inside VW’s Campaign of Trickery (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., New York Times (May 2017) (also on Canvas) Everything You Need to Know about the VW Diesel-Emissions Scandal (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Car and Driver (May 2017) Supplementary articles • • • Volkswagen: The scandal explained (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., BBC (December 2015) Volkswagen must pay $2.8B criminal fine for emissions cheating (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., USA Today (April 2017) A year of digging through code yields “smoking gun” on VW, Fiat diesel cheats (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Ars Technica (May 2017) ESPN layoffs Consider the decision by ESPN executives to lay off employees even if the actual financial savings is negligible—when the intended effect of the layoffs is to reassure shareholders. Primary article • ESPN’s Diminished Future Has Become Its Present (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Deadspin (April 2017) Supplementary articles • • • ESPN’s Latest Layoffs Are Just A Way To Buy Time (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Deadspin (April 2017) ESPN Layoffs: The Struggling Industry Giant Sheds On-Air Talent (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., New York Times (April 2017) (also on Canvas) Related: American Airlines gave its workers a raise. Wall Street freaked out (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Vox (April 2017)
Explanation of rubric criteria for essays Explanation of rubric criteria for essays Complete Good essays (a) stay on topic and (b) complete the entire task set forth by the instructions. (Adding a few short things that are not particularly relevant to the assignment task will not necessarily hurt your grade, but it can if you spend too much space on it and then not enough on the real task at hand.) Clear Good essays demonstrate a command of the writing process and the author’s care in crafting it. They avoid many errors of spelling, punctuation, grammar, sentence structure, verb tense, and vocabulary. All sentences are complete and grammatical. All words are chosen for their precise meanings. Paper has been proof-read and no rhetorical questions or slang. Organized Good essays have paragraphs that are (a) organized in a logical manner, (b) appropriate in length, and (c) framed by topic sentences. They provide a user-friendly guide to that organizational plan, use transitional words, phrases, or sentences to show how the various ideas, sentences, and paragraphs relate to the paper’s central aims and to each other. Accurate Good essays clearly and accurately explain philosophical views, concepts, and arguments relevant to the essay. They explain key philosophical terms, concepts, and distinctions in an illuminating way. Integrative Good essays skillfully use appropriate texts in appropriate places. They use quotations as needed, but they don’t rely too heavily on them. (When you use quotes, be sure to introduce them; don’t just insert them without any explanation of who said it and what the relevance is.) When appropriate, they give an accurate, precise, and charitable summary, description, or interpretation of the pertinent philosophical texts and views. They provide textual support where appropriate to support claims. Insightful Good essays move beyond simple description and summary to reflect an in-depth understanding of the topic and material. They discuss all and only the relevant points. A good essay goes beyond a typed-up version of your class notes by demonstrating that you know how all the material connects conceptually. They use relevant examples when appropriate to illustrate key ideas and explain what issues the examples highlight. Arguments, issues, views, or concepts are broken down into relevant parts and the connections between those parts are explained clearly and accurately. Relevant ideas and concepts are integrated into a coherent whole. Ideas for these guidelines as well as some of the ways some ideas are phrased come from the following sources: • • • • • http://www.joshdmay.com/wp-content/media/may-grading-rubric.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. http://www.buffalo.edu/content/cas/philosophy/undergradstudy/learningoals/ug_rubrics/_jcr_content/par/download/file.res/PHI-Rubric1.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. http://www.public.asu.edu/~dportmor/Grading%20Rubric%20for%20Term%20Papers.pd f (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/Teaching/CourseDesign/AssessmentGrading/Rubrics/PhilosophyPaperRubric.doc (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8bgHt_KMbvANXNLY1dsdjZHVTg/view (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Formatting instructions for essays Formatting instructions for essays Format Do not include any identifying information at the top. Do not include your name, section, semester, word count, or any such. The first line of text should be the first sentence of your first paragraph. Your submission will be associated with your Canvas account, so there won't be any problems with your essay getting lost. We would like to be able to grade anonymously if we need to--that is, grade without knowing the name of the student—which is only possible if no identifying information is included. Use single-spaced lines with an additional space between each paragraph. Use 12-point font. One inch margins. Citations Any citations of the readings can be in the form of simple in-text parentheses. If it is clear from the context which author is being discussed, you can simply include a page number at the end of the sentence. If it is not clear, include both the author’s name and the page number. If it is an online article with no page numbers, then you do not need to include page numbers. If you are citing an online article, then no page citations will be possible. If you are citing from a pdf that does not have page numbers on the pages, use the page number of the pdf. No ‘Works Cited’ page is required. For articles and books assigned for the course, you only need to make it clear within the essay which author you are discussing. For articles specific to your essay assignment that are not otherwise assigned for the course, the author and title of article should be clearly indicated when first discussed in the essay. Sample
Explanation of rubric criteria for essays Explanation of rubric criteria for essays Complete Good essays (a) stay on topic and (b) complete the entire task set forth by the instructions. (Adding a few short things that are not particularly relevant to the assignment task will not necessarily hurt your grade, but it can if you spend too much space on it and then not enough on the real task at hand.) Clear Good essays demonstrate a command of the writing process and the author’s care in crafting it. They avoid many errors of spelling, punctuation, grammar, sentence structure, verb tense, and vocabulary. All sentences are complete and grammatical. All words are chosen for their precise meanings. Paper has been proof-read and no rhetorical questions or slang. Organized Good essays have paragraphs that are (a) organized in a logical manner, (b) appropriate in length, and (c) framed by topic sentences. They provide a user-friendly guide to that organizational plan, use transitional words, phrases, or sentences to show how the various ideas, sentences, and paragraphs relate to the paper’s central aims and to each other. Accurate Good essays clearly and accurately explain philosophical views, concepts, and arguments relevant to the essay. They explain key philosophical terms, concepts, and distinctions in an illuminating way. Integrative Good essays skillfully use appropriate texts in appropriate places. They use quotations as needed, but they don’t rely too heavily on them. (When you use quotes, be sure to introduce them; don’t just insert them without any explanation of who said it and what the relevance is.) When appropriate, they give an accurate, precise, and charitable summary, description, or interpretation of the pertinent philosophical texts and views. They provide textual support where appropriate to support claims. Insightful Good essays move beyond simple description and summary to reflect an in-depth understanding of the topic and material. They discuss all and only the relevant points. A good essay goes beyond a typed-up version of your class notes by demonstrating that you know how all the material connects conceptually. They use relevant examples when appropriate to illustrate key ideas and explain what issues the examples highlight. Arguments, issues, views, or concepts are broken down into relevant parts and the connections between those parts are explained clearly and accurately. Relevant ideas and concepts are integrated into a coherent whole. Ideas for these guidelines as well as some of the ways some ideas are phrased come from the following sources: • • • • • http://www.joshdmay.com/wp-content/media/may-grading-rubric.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. http://www.buffalo.edu/content/cas/philosophy/undergradstudy/learningoals/ug_rubrics/_jcr_content/par/download/file.res/PHI-Rubric1.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. http://www.public.asu.edu/~dportmor/Grading%20Rubric%20for%20Term%20Papers.pd f (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/Teaching/CourseDesign/AssessmentGrading/Rubrics/PhilosophyPaperRubric.doc (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8bgHt_KMbvANXNLY1dsdjZHVTg/view (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

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