Write a literature review, to be part of your research proposal, based on the following guidelines

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Write a literature review, to be part of your research proposal, based on the following guidelines:

  1. Choose 7-10 articles that relate to your topic. These articles do not need to provide a direct response to your research question(s).
  2. Summarize the relevant information contained in each article (e.g., questions, methods, results).
  3. Organize your review based on themes from groups of articles, theories used in groups of articles, or another factor of your choice. (Do not simply list and summarize each article in sequence).
  4. Provide a critical evaluation of the research you have reviewed, comparing and contrasting between the articles you are summarizing.
  5. Describe the way that the literature you have reviewed relates to your research question.
  6. Provide suggestions for future research in the area you have chosen.
  7. Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the findings of your review.
  8. Your literature review should include a title page, abstract, and reference section, and range in total length from 7-10 pages
  9. All references must be listed in APA style format, and properly cited as they appear in your narrative using correct APA style. Refer to the APA manual for examples of how to do this.

1 Running head: SAMPLING PLAN Alex Bonilla 2018GF2-MAMP-507-A 19 November 2018 SAMPLING PLAN 2 Describing the population of the study. The specifics (like location, age, gender, socioeconomic status, experience, etc.) The research seeks to address the veterans, how they are dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder and how therapy helps in alleviating the suffering. The population that is targeted by this research consists of the individuals who have served in a particular field and how they are dealing with post-traumatic disorder, commonly known as PSTD. The sample collected is spread across several towns and it targets the individuals who are between 65 to 85 years of age. The criteria for balancing the gender is the ration 2:1 where for every three individuals that are selected for the sample, one is a lady. The simple reason for this approach is that this ratio reflects what used to happen especially in the field where individuals were called to serve. The sample data will also consider the socio-economic status of the individuals since it will bring out the facts which might be the key factors as to how they deal with PSTD, that is, whether they are socially accepted and if they live in deplorable conditions due to financial constraints. The research will also consider the intensity of the experiences that were encountered by the veterans when they were serving. Identify the inclusion and exclusion criteria For the sake of the clarity and precision of the data to be collected, the sample must have predefined characteristics which will determine whether they will be included or excluded from the research study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria define who can be included or excluded from the study sample (Stanley, 2007). In this case, those to be included must be of the set age group which is 65-85 years. However, this criterion will accommodate those who are slightly younger or older by 3 years. This does not mean that all who have this qualification are fit for the research. The second determinant is the health status and more particularly the mental capability to recount or even explain the experience back then and the SAMPLING PLAN 3 present conditions they are living in. This inclusion, and subsequently exclusion will rule out those who might be suffering from conditions like Alzheimer or other senility complications. The last criteria will be those who are willing to participate in the research since not all are expected to share the most personal experiences. Elaborate on the research questions The hypothesis that seeks to be addressed by this research is whether the veterans are recognized by society and if the conditions they are living in are worth the sacrifice they made for their country. As it is the case with the elderly, the experiences which they went through left lasting marks or memories which are reminisced with anxiety or even bitterness. This can lead to stress and may take toll on their health. Thus, by the end of this research, the reasons would be identified and possible solution(s) suggested for the action to take place. Whether the current conditions, both social and economic can contribute to the current situation and if therapy will help in solving the problem that is already there. How will the research contribute to the current body of literature? With the data collected and analysis made, the information from the research will give the present picture of how the veterans are catered for and whether the services they get are enough to make the rest of their lives comfortable. The information collected also will help the relevant bodies to know where there is a need to be addressed and what must be improved on what that is already there. For instance, the research will be beneficial to those who deal with the elderly especially in nursing homes or therapy centers. They will be able to understand better why individuals behave differently and what might have contributed to their agitation if at all they happen to come across such a scenario. SAMPLING PLAN 4 Select a design for the study (true experimental or quasi-experimental) The preferred design for the is true experimental since the predictor variables is already known. As opposed to quasi-experimental, this design will be more engaging and the first-hand information will be readily available. Each individual in the sample cluster will give the experiential input to the research data. Discuss the details of the design plus how it will help the research question and the rationale for the design With this design, the outcome will not prove a difficulty to measure since the individuals will be the independent variables which will be expected to differ with the others. Then the outcome will then be compared and the final outcome determined as the sought information. This design will address in a more detailed approach the ‘Why?’ questions since, the facts that happened back then are the contributors to the present situation(s). Predictors variable manipulation will be helpful since the experiences will defer from one individual to another. The random sampling will facilitate the collection of data afresh without relying on the existing one. This method is easily employed since the environment within which the research is conducted can be controlled carefully and the causal-effect of the variable outcome becomes easy to estimate. 5 SAMPLING PLAN References BABBIE, E. R. (2016). PRACTICE OF SOCIAL RESEARCH (14th ed.). Belmont Cengage Learning. Stanley K. Design of randomized controlled trials. Circulation. 2007; 115:1164–9. [PubMed] Retrieved ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037944/
Running Head: PRÉCIS SUMMARY 1 Précis Summary Institution affiliation Date PRÉCIS SUMMARY 2 Weber, D. (2018). A Qualitative Examination of Veteran Participation and Experiences in MilSim and Effects on Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ann Arbor: ProQuest LLC. Summary of the article This article deals with the study and the analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a condition that is normally linked to military personnel and affects individuals who have closely faced death and other dangerous phenomena. Associated PTSD symptoms include depression, hypervigilance, flashbacks, emotional numbness, avoidance of associated stimuli, weight loss/gain and engaging in risky behaviors such as substance abuse and suicide. People who suffer from this condition have difficulty in finding and maintaining employment. The US has been involved in many wars including the World War 2 where about 16 million soldiers took part. This war alone resulted in 291,557 fatalities, and 670,846 war related injuries. Other notable wars include the Vietnam and Gulf war and more recently the operation in Iraq and Afghanstan. Those who take part in such military operations are referred to as veterans and are estimated to be about 20 million. Out of these, nearly 7.7 million individuals suffer from PTSD during their lifetime. Receiving treatment in order to address the psychological symptoms associated with PTSD is not always easy. This is due to cost for the adequate treatment, accessibility to the treatment as well as stigma within the macho military culture. Research has shown that military veterans who receive therapy to treat PTSD see an increase in quality of life. The study presented in the article, explores the relationship between Exposure Therapy and reduction of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Airsoft as an exposure PRÉCIS SUMMARY 3 therapy was hypothesized to reduce the impact of combat-related mental illness and offers potential benefits that other CR-PTSD treatments lack. Ten male participants aged between 26 to 60 years were non randomly selected to take part in the phenomenology research. Participants were selected through a specified criteria targeting only male veterans who actively use Airsoft. The participants were then required to take part in an indepth interview lasting between 60 to 90 minutes. A thematic data analysis across participant interviews revealed that Airsoft helps with symptoms of CR-PTSD and it may be a viable treatment for the symptoms of CR-PTSD. Strengths and weaknesses of the article This article outlines the effects of the PTSD and the possible ways of treatment. The article provides a rich and detailed account of the experiences of the veterans using Airsoft and a subjective self-reported account of the possible impact on their PTSD symptoms. The research design provides a comfortable outlet for the veterans to freely discuss their experiences which are sometimes sensitive. This is demonstrated by the personal details revealed in the researcher’s notes. However, due to the length of the interview ( lasting between 60 to 90 minutes), only 4 participants out of the 10 complete the study. The sample is too small and narrow to help in making generalized inferences about the possible effect of Airsoft on CR-PTSD. Furthermore, the study selected only white male Airsoft active users and did not compare this group to a control group. It is therefore impossible to make any meaningful conclusions about the impact of Airsoft on the treatment of PTSD among veteran population which is more varied in terms of gender and race. PRÉCIS SUMMARY Practical applications The results of this study encourage further exploration of the reported benefits among veterans affected by PTSD. If further research supports the data revealed in this study, Airsoft could become a viable independent or supplemental treatment with veterans who struggle with CR-PTSD. 4

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