the development of primates brain - research paper.

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hello. It is a research paper. Only introduction sections with good hypothesis and method sections. it has to be from scholar sources.

Biol113L- Evolution and Diversity Lab Evolution Experiment Assignment #1 1. List the names of your group members: After meeting and discussing papers and topics at least 2 times (during lab and at least once outside of lab), your group should begin to develop ideas for an evolution experiment. You should also read chapter 10 in Pechinik for an overview of the expectations of research proposals and suggestions for choosing a research question. 2. List and briefly describe the following possible directions for your proposed experiment. (You may list one to several under each category depending on how much you have narrowed your direction.) A. The evolutionary topic or concept: B. The field or lab techniques you might propose to use: C. The organism(s) you’d like to propose to study: 3) For each of 2 A-C, give the references to at least two primary sources that your group has found. If you have relevant review articles or other secondary sources, list those in addition to the primary sources. Review the prependix for the proper format for the references. A. The evolutionary topic or concept: B. Possible technique: C. Possible organism: 4) What is your tentative research question and/or hypothesis? ** Your next steps are to: 1. continue researching and discussing this project with your group 2. Start designing the experiment you want to propose. Use the Guidelines for Designing an Experiment in the prependix, Campbell Biology, Pechenik, and your instructor as important resources.
Biol113L- Evolution and Diversity Lab Proposal Guidelines for your evolution study: The final products of this assignment will be a written proposal and a classroom presentation. The most important sources for guidelines and expectations are Pechenik (2016), the Guidelines for Designing an Experiment in your lab manual, and your instructor. For the paper, you should include: - an Introduction that provides an overview of relevant research and a clear statement of your research question and hypothesis. For this project, we don’t expect you to “demonstrate your complete mastery of the relevant literature” as described in Pechenik (2016, p. 217) for the Background section of a proposal. However, you should offer enough background to help your reader understand the question you’re asking and why it’s a good question to ask. - a Methods section that describes how you will address your research question. Your goal here should be to communicate the broad experimental or study design and the techniques you would use. It’s a good idea to: introduce the organisms you’ll study, describe the treatment you’ll use / environmental variable you’ll study, clearly identify the independent and dependent variables, and specify the number of replicates you’ll include. However, we don’t expect you to include specific details like the primer you’ll use for your DNA extraction, the make and model of your flow cytometer, or the specific location of your field experiment. - a Literature Cited section that includes all cited sources using CSE (Author YEAR) format. For the presentation, you should be presenting similar information and making the same logical argument. - Briefly describe background and relevant literature so your audience understands the question you’re asking. Clearly state your question and hypothesis. - Briefly describe your proposed methods. - In a presentation, pictures, diagrams, and graphs should function much more effectively than the words you use in your written proposal. A lot of text will result in you and your audience reading from the projector screen. Rather than describing your study design with detailed text, use bullet points. Better yet, create a diagram that illustrates key components of your study so you can clearly and efficiently describe it to your audience. Show pictures of your study organisms and/or important equipment and supplies. Lots of pretty pictures and fancy slide designs don’t guarantee a good presentation (in fact they can be distracting), but lots of text in a presentation probably guarantees an ineffective presentation.
Guidelines for Designing an Experiment in Biol 113L Below are broad guidelines for developing an experiment for this semester’s project. There are many additional sources you may find useful. For example, Chapter 1 in your Campbell Biology textbook (Urry et al. 2016) should be especially useful because concept 1.2 will remind you that evolution is a core theme in biology, concept 1.3 will highlight the ways we use a flexible scientific process, and 1.4 reinforces that scientists build their research on the work of others. In Biol 113L this year, you will design an experiment that relates to evolution and builds on published research. Don’t forget about some basic concepts we introduced in the first few labs. For example, it is very likely that your experiment will be designed to measure the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. To get meaningful results, you have to minimize error or unexplained variation among measurements. To do this, the following should be taken into consideration. ➢ Replication • How many replicates (identical repeats of the experiment) do you need to effectively measure variation within groups (e.g., variation in pigment concentrations in multiple individuals of the same plant species) and among groups (e.g., differences in mean pigment concentrations among several plant species)? • More replicates are better, but researchers are always limited by the availability of resources (time, money, research assistants, and equipment). . ▪ The more variables you measure, the greater the sample size (# of replicates) you need. ➢ Controlling unwanted variables • Ideally, the only difference among your experimental groups (treatment and control; before and after the treatment; or species 1, 2 & 3) is the independent variable you are testing. Sometimes, this isn’t possible, especially when conducting research with animals (especially humans) or “wild” populations. • What other conditions do you need to hold constant to minimize their effects on your results? (If not controlled properly, your results may not be meaningful.) • What experimental procedures are important for accurate measurement of your dependent variable? 1 Hypotheses: Develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis that clearly explains the expected relationship between your dependent and independent variables. (One of the first steps in designing your experiment is to develop your null and alternative hypotheses.) Remember that if your results do not concur with your hypothesis, it does not necessarily mean that your experiment has an error. Concentrate on biological meaning. Scientifically, if your experiment is well-designed and well-conducted, any results are meaningful, even if they do not support your hypothesis. Steps to designing your experiment (due dates for each step will be provided by your lab instructor): 1. Each group member will obtain at least one published research article that relates to evolution. 2. Building on the research in 1 or more of the articles, develop 2 plausible ideas for experiments a scientist could conduct. Do your best to frame these ideas as questions or hypotheses, and develop a brief description of how you would design the experiments. Your instructor will confer with you and help you choose which experiment is the best one to pursue further. 3. Continue researching the topic to gather at least a couple more research articles. You must have at least three peer-reviewed journal articles, but you will also find it useful to use other sources such as your Campbell Biology textbook (Urry et al. 2016), review articles, other secondary sources, and webpages. Use these resources to provide background and the rationale behind your hypothesis. 4. Throughout the semester, you will write and submit drafts of a description of your experimental plans that considers the organisms you will use, your broad experimental design (replicates, treatment(s), control, independent and dependent variables), and the specific techniques you would use to measure your variables. 5. After receiving feedback from your instructor, submit your final paper and develop a presentation for the class. 2
CHECKLIST • Title gives specific indication of the proposed work • Introductory material leads to a clear statement of the specific goal(s) and hypotheses • The questions posed follow logically from previous work in the area of interest • The logic behind all hypotheses presented is made clear • Final paragraphs of the Introduction and Background sections address the issues raised in the introductory paragraphs • All statements are supported by reference, data, or example • Proposed methods will address the questions posed and are designed to distinguish among all alternative hypotheses • A rationale is provided for each step proposed • Controls are appropriate and clearly indicated • Sample sizes and number of replicates per treatment are indicated • Plans for data analysis are clear • Each sentence follows from the preceding sentence and leads logically to the one that follows • Work has been carefully proofread and revised according to the guidelines presented in Chapter 6 • Citations are provided for every reference cited in the report • Each listing in the Literature Cited section includes names of all authors, title of paper, year of publication, volume number, and page numbers and is in the correct format • Text of the report is double-spaced • All pages are numbered

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