short essay answers!!

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I Attached Final Exam Study Sheet. Please, note that you are asked to prepare short essay answers (3-5 sentences) for each question.

Ethical Systems PHIL.210, Fall 2018 Final Exam Study Questions Prof. Ventzislavov Final Exam Study Questions* Ways of Living and Moral Character. Epicureanism, Stoicism, Self-Realization. (Epicurus, Epictetus, Aristotle) 1. What is Epicurus’ understanding of death? 2. Identify at least three Stoic principles. 3. Why does Aristotle place such importance on moderation? 4. Is virtue, according to Aristotle, a fixed value or does it change relative to situations, needs etc.? Explain. Ethical Motivation. Egoism, Altruism, Egalitarianism. (Hobbes, Singer) 5. Describe Hobbes’ concept of the ‘state of nature.’ 6. What are the first three laws of nature that Hobbes identifies? Where do these laws come from? 7. What kind of government does Hobbes recommend and why? 8. What is the difference between passive non-giving and active non-giving? 9. Identify two objections Singer faces and explain how he addresses them. 10. Does Singer find human nature to be altruistic or otherwise? What is your opinion? Utilitarianism. (Smart, Rachels) 11. What is the difference between ‘act utilitarianism’ and ‘rule utilitarianism’? 12. What is Smart trying to illustrate with the “rules of the road” example? 13. What is the ‘utility monster’? What weakness of utilitarianism does it demonstrate? 14. Would a utilitarian choose to kill Hitler if they could go back in time with a time machine? What challenges are there to the utilitarian choice? 15. Is any action morally right if it maximizes pleasure and minimizes pain? Explain. 16. What is the utilitarian argument for euthanasia and what is Rachels’ opinion of it? The Ethics of Duty. (Kant, Ross) 17. What is the categorical imperative? What is its significance for ethics? 18. What is Kant trying to show with the shopkeeper example? 19. Which are the duties based on the categorical imperative? 20. What objections are there to Kantian ethics? 21. Define ‘prima facie duty.’ What does this concept do for Ross? 22. Is Ross a deontologist or a utilitarian? Explain. *Two optional questions will provide an extra credit opportunity.

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