Data analysis

timer Asked: Nov 28th, 2018
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Question description

Here’s your step-by-step instructions:

  1. Consult the 2016 and 2017 City of Flint Annual Water Quality reports (on Canvas) for data on lead testing, specifically the following values.

90th percentile values for lead for each of the four test periods:

  • Jan 1, 2016-June 30, 2016
  • July 1, 2016-Dec 31, 2016
  • Jan 1, 2017-June 30, 2017
  • July 1, 2017-Dec 31, 2017
  1. Create a bar chart with a trend line (see Lecture for an example), which demonstrates how these measurements have changed over time.
  • Design the graph so that the x-axis demonstrates the time period, and the y-axis conveys the 90th percentile lead values.
  • Label each axis accordingly (e.g., “Testing date,” and “Lead values in ppb”).
  • Include a key, if necessary.
  1. Title the graph
  1. Write up a 300-400 word memo explaining the graph, and relating your analysis to the theme of urban access to water.

To guide your memo, consider the following questions:

  • What do values that are at the 90th percentile mean?
  • What do the acronyms AL and MCLG mean?
  • Did the lead measurements exceed AL and MCLG for each time period? Or were they less than the AL and MCLG? If at all, how did this change?
  • What are the implications of the number of samples above AL and MCLG for understanding the evolving lead-related health risks for the City’s residents?
  • Apply your analysis, by outlining one policy implication.
  1. Cite your sources!

You may cite the reports according to the APA format as follows:

City of Flint. (2016). Annual Water Quality Report. Flint, MI.

City of Flint. (2017). Annual Water Quality Report. Flint, MI.

By now you are likely a whiz at this. Remember to cite the sources provided as well as any other sources you might choose.

The Owl Purdue website is an excellent resource if you have questions on how to cite other sources correctly: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.


  • A graph that is clearly labeled, defined, and has a title
  • Font: Times New Roman, 11 or 12 point font
  • Line spacing: double-spaced, 1-inch margins
  • Memo number of words: 300-400

Tutor Answer

School: University of Virginia


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