Is the gender earnings gap caused by choice or circumstance? Define gender earnings gap. What evidence that caused by choices made by men/women? What evidence that caused by circumstances? Based on this evidence, how you think? Choice/circumstance?
At EU level, the gender pay gap is defined as the relative difference in the average gross hourly earnings of women and men within the economy as a whole. In 2012, the EU average is estimated at 16.4 %.
In general, two main reasons for the pay gap can be identified (UNDP 2006): direct gender discrimination in labour markets and occupational segregation. Direct discrimination occurs when people who have the same level of educational attainment and work experience are treated differently because of their gender: different pay levels for the same work or different job requirements for the same pay level. Efforts and achievements in the field of direct discrimination have been made in many countries by passing laws or establishing supportive institutions.