Science
Patient Advocacy and Autonomy

Question Description

Read "The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research" (1979):

http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html

Write a 1,250-1,500 word paper that addresses the significance of autonomy, patient advocacy, and informed consent. Your paper should include:

  1. A description of the concepts of autonomy, patient advocacy, and informed consent.
  2. A discussion of the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki and a summary of the events that led up to the development of ethical guidelines for conducting human clinical trials, including Institutional Review Boards (IRB).
  3. Three examples of ways "The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research" works to protect special populations (e.g., minors, prisoners, persons with mental illness).

A minimum of three references are required.

Final Answer

Attached.

Running header: PATIENT ADVOCACY AND AUTONOMY

Patient Advocacy and Autonomy
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course

PATIENT ADVOCACY AND AUTONOMY

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Patient Advocacy and Autonomy
Introduction
Autonomy is the ability to make informed and uninfluenced decisions and is a greatly
considered principle in healthcare. In medicine, patient autonomy is viewed as one of the basic
ethical practices. Autonomy is therefore closely related to informed consent. In the past, there
were trials known as the Nuremberg trials which involved illegal and very exploitative human
experiments. These experiments violated a person’s free will and autonomy. These illegal and
inhuman activities led to a call for the safeguarding the rights of human subjects. An example of
intervention was the Nuremberg code which emphasized on the significance of voluntarily
participating in any medical experiment or research. The Nuremberg code became the basis for
the many documents concerning ethical research.
Patient advocacy in healthcare deals with the provision of advocacy for caregivers,
survivors and patients. A patient advocacy can be an organization or an individual. The role of a
patient advocate is to advise and guide a client through the healthcare system. This may include
assisting the client through the processes of diagnosis, screening, treatment and follow-up of a
given medical condition.
Informed consent is the process of obtaining permission from a person, before the
conducting of a healthcare proceeding such as an operation, or before sharing any personal
information. A provider of healthcare services may need to obtain consent from a patient before
conducting any kind of operation on them.
Significance of autonomy
Autonomy is a key aspect in healthcare.an autonomous person will be in a perfect
position to decide what will be good or bad for them. An autonomous person will be able to

PATIENT ADVOCACY AND AUTONOMY

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make their own decisions without ha...

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University of Virginia

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