Data can be passed either By Reference or By value
Parameters can be sent to a subroutine By Reference (ByRef) or By Value (ByVal). ByRef is the default, and means that changes to the variable in the subroutine will result in changes to the source variable outside of the subroutine. ByVal literally copies the values of the variables from the calling subroutine into the called subroutine. By doing this, the variables can be changed, but their values will not change outside of the called subroutine. ByVal can also be a lot slower with large variable types, however, since memory has to be copied from one location to another. If you don't have any reason to do so, there is no need to pass variables ByVal. You can explicitly state the way that a variable is passed to a subroutine by using these keywords before the variable name. Using the ByRef keyword, one could write a Swap function, which switches the values of 2 variables.