The Treaty of Versailles (1919) and its various consequences

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WRTG 391Advanced Research Writing

University of Maryland University College

Description

  • Task: The multiple-source essay asks you to synthesize the arguments of at least 10 scholarly sources
  • Length: 2000-3000 words
  • Format: APA. On Writing Resources, see “Sample paper to demonstrate appropriate formatting for APA papers”

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My topic is about how the Treaty of Versailles affected not only Germany but other countries as well.

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Writing Assignment #4 The Multiple-Source Synthesis Essay: Literature Review Summary of assignment • • • • Task: The multiple-source essay asks you to synthesize the arguments of at least 10 sources Length: 2000-3000 words Format: APA Sources: a total of at least 10 sources, all of which you will find through library searches. Please use the same topic that you used for writing assignment #3. It is recommended that you focus on or expand on the essay that you wrote for writing assignment #3. You will continue with the topic you have selected and will conduct additional searches in the library databases, hopefully focus the topic more, and determine the 10 or more sources to use in this essay. Strategies in Developing the Topic for this Essay Up to this point in the semester, you have completed an annotated bibliography. You have also incorporated and synthesized four sources into writing assignment #2 and six sources into writing assignment #3. The work you have completed for these assignments provides a solid foundation for writing assignment #4. In this assignment you will synthesize the ideas of at least 10 sources in a synthesis essay, or literature review. For your annotated bibliography, you selected a topic based on your interests and, possibly, your major. You constructed a list of five references and summarized and critically analyzed them in 150-200 words each. You then completed the four-source essay and the six-source essay. Through this process, you may have seen patterns in the scholarly literature in the topic on which you conducted research. For example, consider the following examples: •You may have researched studies in criminal justice and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth. •You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories. •You may have researched articles on gerontology and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance. •You may have researched articles on environmental management and found studies on climate change. You noticed that various demographic factors influence whether individuals believe in climate change and, if so, whether they believe it is caused by human activity. In the synthesis essay, you will focus your research efforts in a particular area, perhaps as a response to what you found while writing the annotated bibliography and in constructing the four-source and six-source essays. You will then conduct more research and synthesize your findings in this literature review. Please note that the annotated bibliography, the four-source essay, and the six-source essay represent a journey in your research. You might decide to disregard several of the articles you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography or in the following two essays because they don’t speak to the specific area on which you have decided to write your multiple-source literature review. You might select one article that you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography, look up the articles cited in that article, and “snowball” your research in that way. In other words, this process is a recursive one. You might find reasons to hone in on and narrow your topic even further after you have written the annotated bibliography. For these reasons, you are strongly encouraged to write on the same general topic on which you wrote writing assignment #3. You might focus the topic more for writing assignment #4. Or you might expand on the topic for writing assignment #4. How to organize the multiple-source essay: You will divide the essay into categories. Each category will be labelled with a heading. In order for you to see this concept with a real-life example, you can access a sample synthesis or literature review from a psychology student by clicking here. The student writes her paper on the following topic: Emotional Eating: The Perpetual Cycle of Mood-Food Influence. She divides her literature into the following categories, which are used as headings throughout the paper: •Influence of Mood on Eating Behavior •Gender Differences •Influence of Eating Behavior on Later Moods •Chronic Stress Response Network Notice how she synthesizes and integrates the research into the different categories, labelled by headings. Strategies in Developing Categories When you have focused on your topic, determine how you will divide the literature. In other words, consider the following examples we described above: You may have researched studies in criminal justice and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth. You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body •Category 1: “A” view on responding to criminal behavior. •Category 2: “B” view on responding to criminal behavior. •Category 3: “C” view on responding to criminal behavior. •Category 4: “D” view on responding to criminal behavior. Conclusion You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories. You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body •Category 1: “A” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse •Category 2: “B” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse •Category 3: “C” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse •Category 4: “D” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse Conclusion You may have researched articles on gerontology and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance. You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body •Question 1 •Question 2 •Question 3 Conclusion You may have researched articles on environmental management and found studies on climate change. You noticed that various demographic factors influence whether individuals believe in climate change and, if so, whether they believe it is caused by human activity. You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body •Political affiliation and its impact on belief in climate change •Socio-economic status and its impact on belief in climate change •Religious and other influences on belief in climate change Conclusion Point of view For this essay, you will use third-person point of view. Please do not use first person point of view (e.g., “I,” “me,” “we”) in writing this essay. In addition, please do not use second-person point of view (“you” or “your”) in writing this essay. For example, instead of “Smith argues that, as a director, you have a duty to coordinate cybersecurity efforts...” you would write, “Smith argues that directors have a duty to coordinate cybersecurity efforts…” APA Style The paper should be formatted in APA style. The video How to format your paper according to APA style might be helpful to watch. In summary, you should observe the following: • • • • • • • • Use one-inch margins. Double space. Use size 12 Times New Roman font. Include a running head. Include page numbers. Include a title page. Include a “References” page on which you list the articles in APA style Do not include an abstract. This paper is not long enough to warrant an abstract. Submitting the assignment: You will submit a first draft of the essay to the assignment folder. The first draft will not be graded. The instructor will provide comments to it. After receiving comments from the instructor, you will submit a revised draft. The final draft will be graded. Helpful Resources • Graff, G. and Birkenstein, C., They Say / I Say: The Moves that Matter in Academic Writing with Readings. This chapter in in the e-reserves of our class. It mentions various techniques to apply in stating what an author said and your response to the author. It is recommended that you read through that chapter so that you might apply these techniques to this essay.
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Outline

Introduction
Body
Conclusion
References


Running head: THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

The Treaty of Versailles; Its Impact on Germany and other States
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THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

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The Treaty of Versailles; Its Impact on Germany and other States
Introduction
In January of 1919 at Versailles, the Paris Peace Conference was convened with the
primary objective being to establish terms of peace at the end of World War 1. Many nations
participated in the forum, but it was largely dominated by the ‘big four' who included
representatives from Great Britain, USA, France, and Italy (DOS, 2009). The four would set the
pace of the meeting and even decide on the terms that would see Germany cornered, the country
was not part of the peace conference and would only late be invited to sign off on what was
agreed by the other over thirty countries or face another round of war. Part of what was agreed
and considered as the pivotal issue of the agreement was the plan to develop a League of Nations
which would serve as an international forum and a collective security agreement something that
was strongly being pushed by the U.S delegation to which President Woodrow Wilson was a
strong advocate (DOS, 2009). The President firmly believed that it is only through the League
that future wars could be prevented. The grueling War had resulted in massive loss of lives
estimated to be more than eight million and approximately $260 billion which could be
compared to six times more than the sum of all the national debt that was accumulated by the
whole world from the end the 18th century up to 1914 (Henig, 2011). It was a costly war.
The negotiations in Paris were weakened by the absence of key stakeholders like Russia
who had been an allied force up to the end of 1917 when under the new government-the
Bolshevik, resorted to pulling out of the war. It was for that reason and the decision by the same
government to repudiate the outstanding financial debts of Russia to the Allies that the Allied
Powers refused to invite them into the negotiations. Russia had angered them even further after
exposing the secret agreements that the Allies had concerning the War. Another important

THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

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stakeholder in the negotiations that were excluded was the Central Power made up of Germany,
Austria and Hungary, and Bulgaria that despite being on the opposing side ought to have been on
the negotiation table (Weiner, n.d). The goal of the negotiations leaned more towards a
punishment directed on the Central Powers predominantly on Germany, an issue that France
pushed for and with the backing of the Allied Powers. Germany had to accept the responsibility
or face another war. The allies had the upper hand, the terms were preposterous, but they were
determined to punish Germany. In the agreement they demanded reparations, they pushed to
completely disable the German forces by making major cuts to their troops. The Germans were
enraged and even went on to brand the politicians that appended their signatures to the Paris
agreements as ‘November Criminals' (Weiner, n.d).
The Treaty of Versailles, overall, did not form the basis of stability within Europe as it
was hoped, the agreements were imposed on Germany by the top three Western power following
their triumph in the First World War where the U.S had joined at the latter part as an associate.
The settlement's two parts which included the territorial provision...


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