No specific question, please respond to the 4 Discussion posts as directed (100 words each)

timer Asked: Dec 2nd, 2018
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Provide responses to each post using a minimum of 100 words. In your peer replies, you are encouraged to challenge responses to promote critical thinking on all sides of a discussion.

HS305: Research Methods of Health Science

Discussion Post #1

A visual representation of data can be shown in many ways, including graphs and charts. We use these every day in our lives. According to an article in Forbes Magazine, in 2013 65% of Americans were visual learners. This was due to the increase of technology in the United States (McCue, 2018). I think more people nowadays are considered visual learners because we are all now attached to our phones and technology more than ever.

In healthcare we can use visual representations of data to help explain things to patients. Many diagnosis terms can be very confusing for patients to understand so giving them something that they can see helps them understand. My office often uses a Body Mass Index (BMI) graph to show patients were they're at on the scale in comparison to propel of the same hight and weight. We also use graphs to show how different medications have worked for hundreds of patients and/or how they haven't.



Visual representations of data are used on a daily basis, we live in a very visual world. Every person looks through their phones looking through social media. Many places using graphs and such to show data, for example this many people prefer. Personally, in my job, I work at a retail company, I see graphs comparing last year’s sales to this year’s sales both of which are compared to what they want us to be working towards. I think that we can apply this to the health industry because having the visual representation of the numbers or statistics makes it easier to read. Seeing a visual where one half is twice the size of the other seems more drastic than the number 100 next to 50. There is also the fact that you can put more information in one place, reading through the statistics takes more time than looking through several charts.


HS415: Environmental Health


In my understanding, biodegradation and mineralization are opposites. According to, biodegradation is the process of breaking down and decomposing into a possible harmful substance while mineralization is converting a substance into a mineral which could be harmful if mixed with toxins causing a series of health problems, as well as environmental. (Dictionary [1], 2018 / Dictionary [2], 2018) Recalcitrant toxicants can cause a series of health issues such as deformities, mutations, and even cancers. (NIH, 2013) These toxicants can also cause DNA mutations through a series of bio-accumulation in living organisms. (NIH, 2013) The word recalcitrant from the dictionary is essentially hard to deal with, or harmful toxins. (Dictionary [3], 2018) As we discussed in seminar, the biodegradation and mineralization both can cause recalcitrant toxicants which can in turn cause red tide, and other harmful algae that can pollute food, water, and air sources for not only humans, but also other living organisms in the environment.



Biodegradation, like the name suggest means the degrading (break down) of organic matter by microorganisms. The major difference between biodegradation and mineralization is the that microorganisms breaks than the organic matter in biodegradation while organic matters are broken down and decomposed by chemical compounds to enhance formation of or soluble inorganic compounds in mineralization. Because most recalcitrant toxicants are resistance to environment degradation, thereby causing soil contaminants and hazardous waste sites they have also been known to known to cause histopathological, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity among other abnormalities in humans and animals. The presence of chemicals in our environments as a result of various usage has cause a negative effect in the quality of air, water soil, and human health (Igbinosa 2013).

One of the most popular recalcitrant toxicants is the chlorophenols. Chlorophenols are so recalcitrant that they may conserve great toxicity levels in the environment, most especially in aquatic and for a very long time. Exposure to this recalcitrant has been known to be from industries that produce textiles, leathers products, and petrochemical industries. Organic chemicals that are recalcitrant to biodegradation are common ground water and soil contaminants at hazardous waste sites (Gerald etc. 1998).


Tutor Answer

School: Purdue University

Hi, please see the attached paper. Have...

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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