Rough Draft of Argumentative Research Paper (1000 words)

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In order to receive full points for this rough draft assignment, you must submit a minimum of 1,000 words, not including the Works Cited page. Since this assignment is credit/no-credit, there will not be a grading rubric used. Students will earn points based on whether they met the minimum word count. However, please submit a draft even if you are not finished for partial points. Note that I will not be marking grammar or looking at the "small stuff" for this rough draft. I also want this feedback to be focused and based on your questions/concerns.Therefore, when you upload this file, you will include 2-3 questions/concerns you have about your draft in the "Submission Comments" section of the submission area, and when I provide feedback, I will only be addressing these questions/concerns. I also highly recommend that you call/visit during office hours or set up an online appointment via Zoom if you would like more substantial feedback on your draft.

Please review the Research Paper Guidelines before submitting your rough draft.

i included samples too so you can look at them and have an idea

and the topic is  Technology and Addiction

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Argumentative Research Paper Checklist  A clear thesis. Make a specific argument about your topic. Bold this sentence.  Reasons. Provide reasons to support your argument. Aim for one reason per body paragraph.  Rhetorical Appeals. Make sure you utilize a balance of appeals. o Logos o Pathos o Ethos  Make Concessions. Acknowledge the opposition (counterargument) and refute it. Highlight this blue. Choose a topic that addresses how technology has impacted your field of study or chosen career. What are the improvements? Are there any controversies? Above all, choose a topic that interests you, and craft a 1,500-2,500-word research paper, which makes a clear argument. Below are some possible topics:  Technology and Bullying (Cyberbullying)  Technology and Crime (Cyberstalking)  Technology and Addiction  Technology and Education           Technology and Human Interaction Technology and Social Justice Movements Technology and Privacy Technology and Sense of Self (Identity) Technology and Food Technology and Transportation Technology and the Medical Field Technology and the Military Technology and the Workforce Another topic approved by the instructor  Signal Words & Phrases. Include at least 15 different types of transition words and signal phrases from the “Templates & Transitions” and “Making Moves with Sources” handouts. Highlight these yellow.  Works Cited. Include a Works Cited page, which contains 4-6 credible and current outside sources you quoted in your paper. Highlight your quotes in the text of your essay green. English 120 Fall 2018 Prof. Sarah Martin Sample 1 Student Sample Professor Sarah Martin English 120 24 May 2017 Word Count: 1,513 Hungry for Technology When I think of technology and food, the first thing that comes to mind is my Instagram feed. All the yummy food that bloggers and foodies post to their social media feeds makes me think happy thoughts. However, there is more to food and technology than just pictures of food and trying to find the location they’re from. Advancement in communication and technology are helping with the understanding of the food industry and community. In this day in age we are becoming more aware of what we eat, where it comes from, how it’s made and why it matters. This is now the golden age of technology and there are many things in our everyday lives that it affects without us paying much attention. Technology isn’t just one thing; it’s a broad word that includes information, biotechnology, and automation to name a few. In addition, corporations, government offices, researchers and scientists are using technology to track data, help farmers and promote food to consumers. Our countries population is growing by the minute, not to mention the global population as well. We are connected to one another so easily through technology. As this number grows, so do our needs. Technology is imperative to help us as societies understand the importance of food and how our “hunger” is connected to technology like never before. As consumers, we do our best to understand what we are putting in our bodies. For the most part we read labels, do research, look online and try to be healthy. The reality is many Sample 2 people do not do the things I listed. Genetically modified food ingredients or what we know them by GMO’s have been around for a very long time. GMO’s are generally safe for people and the earth. That’s why now it’s more important than ever that technology play a part in helping farmers who in turn help consumers and the environment. For example, a genetically engineered crop called DroughtGard was approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture six years ago. This crop can continue to grow even throughout droughts. In addition to this crop, there is a soybean genetically modified being used in Argentina that can withstand water shortages. These GMO’s are helping farmers around the world provide food in safe way. However, this is not without concerns. While many countries in Europe have not fully embraced this type of technology, it may be only a matter of time. In his article, “Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops”, Danny Hakim states, “An analysis by The Times using United Nations data showed that the United States and Canada have gained no discernible advantage in yields – food per acre – when measured against Western Europe, a region with comparably modernized agricultural like France and Germany”. Although I grant that these are valid numbers, I still maintain changes are already happening in the ecosystems, climate changes and at this point farmers need all the help they can get. The benefits of GMO’s with changing technology will only improve as time goes on. Agriculture and farmers are now turning to technology to provide support on farms across the country. Farmers are now using drones, satellites, soil sensors, smart phones and computers to name a few, to assist with all aspects of keeping the farm running and feeding America. According to Jayson Lusk, in his article “Why Industrial Farms Are Good for the Environment”, “That’s one reason they’re turning to high-tech solutions like precision agriculture. Using location-specific information about soil nutrients, moisture and productivity of Sample 3 the previous year, new tools, known as ‘variable rate applicators,’ can put fertilizer only on those areas of the field that need it (which may reduce nitrogen runoff into waterways)”. Technology is helping with the use of water, fertilizer, gmo’s and even herbicide-resistance crops. These crops are a good example of helping famers control weeds, all without plowing. It has become common today to dismiss farmers. However, they are the reason we are alive and this new technology will help ease the burden on farmers of having to feed us. A long time ago there was an animated show called The Jetsons. It was set in a futuristic utopia with robots, aliens and other innovative things. So when I read about 3-D food printing, I envisioned Rosie the Robot “cooking” food for the family using a 3-D printer. Although that was just a kid’s show about the future, the reality is 3-D food printing does exist now. Granted, this technology is still in its early stage, it does have a promising future. As Chris Horton states, in his article “Commercial Kitchens Getting a Taste of 3-D Printed Food”, “At the heart of this concept is 3-D printing technology, still in its earliest stages, but offering the promise of greater efficiency in the production of food, with less waste and more customization”. The costs of these machines are quite expensive, which is why it’s mostly being used in commercial settings. Not to mention it’s taking away from the art of cooking. Here many chefs would probably object that these will replace chefs and cooks. However, once all the flaws and kinks are worked out, this technology will help the average person provide nutrient filled meals for themselves and their family. These may even become as common as a microwave in the future. Hunger in the United States, has been an underreported, sad problem that’s been going on since the first days of this country. We live in a time where people throw away and waste food like it’s no big deal. Except it is a big deal and it’s one that needs to addressed. According to Tina Rosenburg, in her article “Going Digital to Rescue Food”, “By some estimates, about 40 Sample 4 percent of all food in America is wasted. Much of it ends up in landfills, where it emits dangerous-to-the-plant methane gas”. Yet many families are going to be hungry because they don’t have enough food. New technology is helping organizations like Feeding America, Food Rescue USA and Rescuing Leftover Cuisine. Using an algorithm, recipients and donors are matched up through Meal Connect. This will give restaurants instant connections with their closest food banks. Smaller organizations like Food Rescue USA use apps to guide volunteers. Giving those instructions and calendars on where they can find food and where to take it. I too am guilty of throwing food away, when it’s perfectly good. But with this new technology, hopefully it will make people more aware and eager to help the less fortunate. Food is one of the most popular topics on social media. As technology is growing so is the marketing of food products. Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, apps for your smart phone are altering the way we view food. Social media “Influencers” are changing the game. Influencers are typically average people on social media that take it upon themselves to promote things they like. Companies send them free goods or even pay them to promote their products on social media. Madeleine Shaw who is food vlogger and blogger is a good example of this. She would blog her healthy recipes to her website and started building a following. She has over 200,000 followers on Instagram and is working on a cookbook. Technology is taking this type of marketing by storm, proving you don’t always need a celebrity or a super bowl ad to get the word out. In her article, “Social Media ‘Influencers’: A Marketing Experiment Grows into a Mini-Economy”, Sarah Halzack maintains that “In other words, while influencer marketing rose to prominence as a raw, credible antidote to the slick world of television and glossy magazines, it has metastasized into something every bit as calculated”. Anyone familiar with technology should agree that social media has changed the way we view things like food. Influencers, of Sample 5 course, may want to question whether changing technology will either hurt or help them. Nonetheless, technology has revolutionized the landscape of marketing and promoting food on social networks. In conclusion, we can’t think about food without truly thinking about technology. Technology is important because it has made it easier to farm, sell, promote, prepare and eat food. Sure we can start a garden in our backyard and throw a few chickens and cows back there too. Except for most people that’s not a reality. Ultimately, what is at stake here is the simple way we consume food. Technology keeps growing and changing, and it affects every single one of us. For example, when I sit down for dinner the last thing on my mind is the farmer who used new gmo’s to grow the soybeans, which were bought by the company that made the pasta, which I then purchased after seeing it advertised online. I even acknowledge that I might throw away my leftovers, of course that is before writing this paper. Now I look at food and technology different and understand there’s more to it. My conclusion is that we have to remind ourselves how important technology is in all aspects of our lives, including the food we eat. Sample 6 Works Cited Hakim, Danny. "Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops." The New York Times. The New York Times, 29 Oct. 2016. Web. 18 May 2017. Halzack, Sarah. "Social Media 'influencers': A Marketing Experiment Grows into a Minieconomy." The Washington Post. WP Company, 02 Nov. 2016. Web. 18 May 2017. Horton, Chris. "Commercial Kitchens Getting a Taste of 3-D-Printed Food." The New York Times. The New York Times, 24 Oct. 2016. Web. 17 May 2017. Lusk, Jayson. "Why Industrial Farms Are Good for the Environment." The New York Times. The New York Times, 23 Sept. 2016. Web. 17 May 2017. Rosenberg, Tina. "Going Digital to Rescue Food." The New York Times. The New York Times, 02 May 2017. Web. 09 May 2017. . Senthilingam, Meera. "The Tech Solutions to End Global Hunger." CNN. Cable News Network, 24 Feb. 2017. Web. 08 May 2017. . Ortiz 1 Genevieve Ortiz Sarah Martin English 120 #9676 15 July 2016 Word Count: 1,500 How Technology Negatively Affects Human Interaction and Relationships Technology has been vastly advancing and spreading throughout the world for years and continues to become bigger and better more and more each year. With new models of computers, new upgraded phones, versions of 3D televisions, and even more, consumers and lovers of technology are always seeking the new and next big item on the market. But in today’s society, people are losing sight of what is most important in life which is human interaction. All of the extravagant technology is becoming detrimental to our society and it is not difficult to see how it has impacted and made an effect on human interaction and relationships. Here, many teenagers especially would probably object that technology has such a negative impact on our lives. Technology has a negative effect on our brains, family relationships, romantic relationships, friendships, and human behavior. Technology has its negative effects on the brain. In Chris Morris’ news article “Is Technology Killing the Human Brain” from CNBC, he addresses, “Scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that the brain chemicals of people who habitually used the internet had abnormal connections between the nerve fibers in their brain. These changes are similar to other sorts of addicts, including alcoholics.” Morris argues that as people are becoming more connected to cyberspace, that new behaviors are evolving, explaining how technology is killing the human touch because of how many people are connected to the internet as well as the amount Ortiz 2 of hours society uses technology in a day. Ultimately, some things that are at stake here are communications, relationships, and day-to-day interactions with others. Morris continues his article with a look on a research study in 2014: “The iPhone effect: the quality of in-person social interactions in the presence of mobile devices.” This study observes 100 couples who had a 10-minute conversation while their phone was present. Researchers concluded that the individuals continued to use their phones communicated less. When the same individuals engaged in conversation without their phones, the conversations resulted in greater empathy. While some people might disagree with this research because they don’t think their cell phone use is negatively affecting their lives, I agree with the results of this research by having similar experiences in situations with a phone present. For example, phones at the dinner table distract from conversations. It is commonly found that in today’s time many people will be out to eat with loved ones or friends using their phone. Morris’s article emphasizes how the addiction to technology is negatively affecting our brains and I think that most readers would be able to agree. Furthermore, in Jim Steyer’s article, “How Does Addiction to Technology affects behavior?” from CNN, Steyer explains what addiction means and how kids and adults spending time with their screens is affecting their behavior but in fact we don’t know how technology is altering behavior. A statement in the article mentions, “It is important to reflect on how our human connections are being altered by our technological connections. The truth is, we simply don’t know enough about how our human interactions and behaviors.” The author was writing this article to warn parents whose children who are glued to their electronic devices. Therefore, parents especially should be responsible for limiting their children’s time with social media to help promote a healthier lifestyle. Ortiz 3 In addition to how technology affects our brains, technology can also have a negative impact on family relationships. In Dr. Jim Taylor’s blog “Is Technology Creating a Family Divide” from Huffington Post, Taylor informs readers how the impact of pop culture and technology is growing more noticeable on children’s relationships with their families. Children absorbing technology by texting and playing video games limits the availability to engage in conversation with parents. Children who are victims of technology put a divide on the family with the barrier of their phone, computer, or television. Taylor mentions, “Consider this. In previous generations, if children wanted to be in touch with a friend, they had to call them on the home phone which might be answered by a parent.” Now parents, cannot monitor their children’s social lives as easily as they once could. At the same time that I believe children are using technology way too frequently putting a divide on the family, I also believe the parents are just as guilty. Furthermore, in an article from Nancy Shute titled, “Parents Not Kids, Are the Biggest Abusers of Technology,” Shute emphasizes how parents are just at fault as children are for the time spent on phones and all other electronic devices. Shute gives readers an example of a parent who gives more attention to her phone than to her son, “The mom who’s on the phone while pushing the kid on the swing has defeated the whole point of taking him to the playground.” Not only children are responsible for not communicating with parents and siblings from spending too much time with electronic devices but so are parents just as equally. Unfortunately, parents are losing sight of the importance of the family bond by giving their phones their full attention rather than their children. Children and parents are creating a family divide with the time spent with technology, negatively affecting the relationships within the family. Ortiz 4 Technology does not only affect family relationships, but also makes an impact on romantic relationships. In Sharelle Burt’s article “Work, Relationships, and self,” from New York Daily News, she argues that the internet and all sources of technology affects relationships and I agree because in today’s time, it’s highly likely to see couples in a restaurant, one if not both of them, on their phones. Facts stated by Burt include, “73% of women believe that technology will make their relationships less authentic and 71% of men agree.” Phone addiction begins when people start their day by checking Facebook, answering texts, and emails before even getting out of bed. People are starting to be more connected to the internet than human lives. Burt also claims, “More than one-third of the younger generation admitted to having a relationship end due to technology.” How did this society become so addicted to technology that some people let it ruin their relationships? I agree that technology can interfere with relationships, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people are blindsided by how technology is disconnecting them from human lives. Friendships are also affected by technology. In Hilary Stout’s article, “Antisocial Networking?” from the NY Times, she addresses how technology is affecting kid’s friendships. Kids used to actually talk to each other by calling from home phones and playing outside with friends after school which in today’s time seems to be somewhat of ancient idea. Technology is affecting children’s friendships because more children are spending more time on technology and less time interacting with friends face to face. Research findings from the Kaiser Family Foundation found that, “American between the ages of 8 and 18 spend on average 7 ½ hours a day using some sort of electronic device, from smartphones to MP3 players to computers.” The evidence shows that that is 7 ½ hours a day children could be spending time with friends, building friendships, participating in physical activities, making new friends, and engaging in Ortiz 5 conversations with friends face to face rather than through a screen. Hilary Stout’s goal in this article is to inform parents as to how how technology is negatively affecting the fri ...
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