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The serosa (outermost layer) secretes fluids that keep the outer surfaces moist so organs can slide against one another for digestion and movement. The muscle layer contains two sub-layers: the circular muscle layer and the longitudinal muscle layer. When these muscles contract and relax they move the chyme through the intestinal tract. The submucosa contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. The mucosa (innermost layer) consists of a thin layer of epithelial cells lying on top of a base of connective tissue and smooth muscle. It contains folds called plicae circulares. These folds have tiny projections called villi that increase the area for nutrient digestion.
2)The pancreas is a soft, pink, triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum. It produces a wide spectrum of enzymes that break down all categories of digestible goods.The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is located below the diaphragm, more to the right side of the body. There is no question that the liver is one of the body's most important organs. It has many metabolic and regulatory roles - however, its digestive function is to produce bile. Bile leaves the liver through the common hepatic duct and enters the duodenum through the bile ductThe gallbladder is a small, thin-walled green sac that fits in a shallow fossa in the inferior surface of the liver. When food digestion is not occurring, bile backs up the cystic duct and enters the gallbladder to be stored.
Three pairs of salivary glands empty their secretions into the mouth.
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