Research Paper

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Question description

SFTY 580

Research Paper Guide

Each student is required to research a topic in the field of

Environmental Protection and Management

and complete an original, scholarly research paper based on the topic researched. It is most important

to research the selected topic in its entirety, i.e., research and analyze the topic from different angles.

This research paper must be submitted in APA format with all required components (i.e., title page,

abstract, introduction, thesis statement or statement of the problem, findings, conclusions and

recommendations, reference page, etc.).

Some broad examples of acceptable topics are presented below for student consideration. However,

this is not an exhaustive list and students


may select other topics in the field of

Environmental

Protection and Management

for the research paper. Instructors will provide helpful feedback on topic

selection in the early weeks of the term.

For this research paper submittal, students are to submit a paper as if it were going to be submitted to a

national professional society of one’s choice, such as

National Association for Environmental

Health & Safety Management Professionals (NAEM), American Academy of Environmental

Engineers and Scientists (AAEES), or American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Journal

of Public Health, Journal of Environmental Protection, etc.

for publication. The submission should be

worthy of submission to a journal in one of these societies/associations, geared toward the appropriate

audience, and should be leading-edge work. In other words, this is not just a research paper on an

environmental topic. This paper should identify an area of concern, or research an area of concern,

and propose a solution.

The research should identify what knowledge already exists on the topic and what additional

information can be obtained to further the knowledge base in the field which can benefit corporations. In

other words, information should not be a rehash of what is already known in the field. It should be new

and worthy of advancing the field of occupational safety, health, and/or environmental management.

Although the research paper should be worthy of publication, students are not required to submit their

papers for publication, or use the journal’s style guide (APA format is to be used instead). However,

submission of papers is encouraged, but students should be sure to address any issues, comments or

suggested edits noted by their instructor before submission, and be sure the format meets the journal’s

required style guide.

The final paper should be between 8-12 pages (approximately 3000-3500 words), not including cover

page, abstract, references, etc. The final paper is due and must be submitted during Module Week 8.

Tutor Answer

toto
School: New York University

Attached.

Running Head: BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE
MANAGEMENT OUTLINE

Biodegradation and Composting as a means of Waste Minimization OUTLINE
Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE

2

Abstract


In contemporary society, waste management is a big headache to many urban and towns.



Increasing urban wastewater and solid waste are worrying trends that need urgent
attention to avert impending repercussions.



With the rising rural-urban migration, there is a rising rate of pollution in urban areas.



This paper is conducted to examine how biodegradation and composting can be used as
alternative methods for waste minimization.

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE

3

Introduction


Due to a rapid increase in urban population, sewage sludge (SS) and municipal solid
wastes (MSW) have increased dramatically in the past two decades.



Biodegradation at large brings out certain aspects of decomposition facilitated by various
microorganisms an example is bacteria in the soil.



Biodegradation and composting are vital concepts that can be used in reducing and
providing alternative ways of reusing wastes discharged.



Composting can be defined as the process of combining different organic materials under
conditions which accelerate their rate of decomposing.



Composting is relatively important because it is an environmentally friendly technology
for recycling and treating organic wastes.

Problem statement
Urbanization, as well as growth in population, has largely led in increase of wastes. Proper
management and reusing have become a major problem today.
Recommendations


After conducting wide arrays of research activities and reviews, biodegradation and
composting processes should be encouraged in all the urban and towns.



Biodegradation and composting are also recommended because it is cheap, sustainable,
wealth creating, and environmentally friendly (Hottle et al, 2015).



Composting process should also be encouraged because it reduces the emissions of
methane from landfills and helps in lowering carbon footprint.

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE


4

In addition, it is recommended that the government should put strict laws against
individuals found carelessly disposing of wastes around the town.



Furthermore, various disposal bins should be allocated in different parts of the town so
that people can easily dispose of their various wastes to avoid pollution (Zuriaga-Agustí
et al., 2015).



It is also recommended that biodegradation labs should be built within the town and
various professionals assigned to do various studies on biodegradation and other tests
such as Respirometry tests.



It is advisable that a waste collection and burning activity be carried out once on a weekly
basis to help in improving waste management practices.

Objectives


To use certain products which are biodegradable to produce other natural elements



To reduce environmental pollution through dumping of plastics.



To protect the health of wildlife and human beings from effects of pollution chemicals

Experiment Lists


Some tests such as Respirometry tests were performed. It is important in classifying
aerobic microbes. Example a container was taken and some wastes which are solidly
placed inside with some soil, an addition of microorganisms then aeration of the mixture
was done.



Lead to the production of carbon iv Oxide due to the action of microorganisms thus
degradation had occurred.



Can as well be shown by the level of methane due to anaerobic microbes

Feedback

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE


5

Some of the materials if tested in the lab may possibly not be able to degrade at a first
rate for example in a landfill. This is because of inadequate water, light and some other
microbial activity that facilitate degradation.



Many people pollute the environment through the reckless dumping of solid waste
materials such as plastics.

Deployment Plan


A group of members from the laboratory to be used and assigned tasks to educate the
people against the effects of careless pollution of the environment by dumping certain
nylon bags and other plastics.



Weekly collection of biodegradable wastes and disposing of or by burning which would
otherwise affect the health of wildlife as they confuse plastics for meals.



Various chemicals are found in these plastics such as nonylphenol.

Expected Outcomes


To have a pollution free environment



Different experiments carried out in the lab enables people to be exposed and understand
various aspects of biodegradation and composting.

Conclusion


Living a pollution free environment is important for both flora and fauna.



To ensure that the towns and urban settings are pollution-free, it is prudent to leverage on
biodegradable and composting as a means to waste minimization.



Biodegradable and composting methods are effective because they are sustainable, cheap,
and wealth creating.



It is undeniable that rising rural-urban migration is the main cause of solid waste
pollution.

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE

6

References
Cesaro, A., & Belgiorno, V. (2014). Pretreatment methods to improve anaerobic biodegradability
of organic municipal solid waste fractions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 240, 24-37.
Epstein, E. (2017). The science of composting. Routledge.
Hottle, T. A., Bilec, M. M., Brown, N. R., & Landis, A. E. (2015). Toward zero waste:
composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events. Waste Management, 38,
86-94.
Kekacs, D., Drollette, B. D., Brooker, M., Plata, D. L., & Mouser, P. J. (2015). Aerobic
biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Biodegradation,
26(4), 271-287.
Liang, L., Song, X., Kong, J., Shen, C., Huang, T., & Hu, Z. (2014). Anaerobic biodegradation
of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a facultative anaerobe
Pseudomonas sp. JP1. Biodegradation, 25(6), 825-833.
Lim, S. L., Lee, L. H., & Wu, T. Y. (2016). Sustainability of using composting and
vermicomposting technologies for organic solid waste biotransformation: recent
overview, greenhouse gases emissions and economic analysis. Journal of Cleaner
Production, 111, 262-278.
Onwosi, C. O., Igbokwe, V. C., Odimba, J. N., Eke, I. E., Nwankwoala, M. O., Iroh, I. N., &
Ezeogu, L. I. (2017). Composting technology in waste stabilization: on the methods,
challenges and future prospects. Journal of environmental management, 190, 140-157.
Zuriaga-Agustí, E., Galiana-Aleixandre, M. V., Bes-Piá, A., Mendoza-Roca, J. A., RisueñoPuchades, V., & Segarra, V. (2015). Pollution reduction in an eco-friendly chrome-free

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
OUTLINE

7

tanning and evaluation of the biodegradation by composting of the tanned leather wastes.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 874-881.


Running Head: BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE
MANAGEMENT

Biodegradation and Composting as a means of Waste Minimization
Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

2

Abstract
In contemporary society, waste management is a big headache to many urban and towns.
Increasing urban wastewater and solid waste are worrying trends that need urgent attention to
avert impending repercussions. With the rising rural-urban migration, there is a rising rate of
pollution in urban areas. This paper is conducted to examine how biodegradation and composting
can be used as alternative methods for waste minimization. Studies have shown that composting
when properly leveraged is effective because it has various benefits such as relatively low water
and air pollution, production of biofertilizer, and low operation cost. However, composting when
improperly used can lead to odor emissions, methane production, and heavy metals build-up in
the final product. On the other hand, Biodegradation is environmentally friendly, cost-effective,
low sludge production, and low carbon emission.

BIODEGRADATION AND COMPOSTING AS A MEANS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

3

Introduction
Due to a rapid increase in urban population, sewage sludge (SS) and municipal solid
wastes (MSW) have increased dramatically in the past two decades. The population of the
environment caused by MSW and SS has become a serious issue that hinders urban growth and
development. To control SS and MSW, this paper recommends biodegradation and composting
as alternative solutions. Biodegradation at large brings out certain aspects of decomposition
facilitated by various microorganisms an example is bacteria in the soil. There is, however, a big
difference when we bring in composting since this is majorly human based as its effects are
brought about by human beings for example through the disposal of some nylon and plastics on
the environment at large.
Biodegradation and composting are vital concepts that can be used in reducing and
providing alternative ways of reusing wastes discharged through SS, MSW, and other sources of
wastes. Biodegradation is a nature's way of waste recycling or rather breaking down organic
matter into nutrients which can be utilized by other organisms (Liang et al., 2014). In
composting, natural biodegradation is accelerated and the organic wastes are usually converted
to resources that can be used in another way. Composting can be defined as the process of
combining different organic materials under conditions which accelerate their rate of
decomposing.
Composting is relatively important because it is an environmentally friendly technology
for recycling and treating organic wastes. It basically a biological process whereby there is a
regular introduction of air in order to stimulate aerobic microorganism to reduce organic
materials. Composting not ...

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Review

Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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