What is a good teacher?

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You will be asked to discuss the current state of public schools, in relevance to this issue, as well as provide multiple perspectives on this issue and what you foresee is the route that our state should take to address this issue. We are looking for you to present a multifaceted perspective on the topic supported by the sources presented in class, course readings, class discussions, as well as your own research. You need to cite all sources appropriately in APA style. 4-6 pages not including references.

This essay is basically answering three questions: What is a good teacher? What are the qualities of an effective teacher? Does an effective teacher look the same across different school contexts? Total of FIVE sources are needed, 2 from my class sources and 3 any outside sources. I've uploaded 2 sources from my class(Teaching to change the world by Jeanne Oaks, and Culturally Responsive Teaching byGeneva Gay).For Oaks I just chose few chapters from the book. I've also uploaded the format and rubric.

Thank you so much for saving my life!

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Paper Format: Introduction a. Briefly introduce your topic b. Hook your audience in with a scenario/narrative. c. Within this section you will include your claim. For example, you can write: Teacher unions in this country have faced successes and challenges yet there exists a need to examine their role in the future of public education. Analysis a. Begin your paragraphs with main ideas that you plan to explore. You can say: The focus on standardized testing has negatively impacted curriculum in schools in various ways. b. Discuss and present various perspectives on a topic (the idea you support and a counterargument) c. Use evidence from a variety of sources (at least 5) d. Break up this section by adding appropriate headings e. Use some direct quotations and cite appropriately (adhering to APA guidelines) Conclusion a. Repeat your claim b. Summarize the main points of your paper c. Provide your own opinion based on experiences and/or research d. Provide next steps: How do you see this issue playing out in the future? What is its future in public schools? Final Paper Rubric (if the final paper is turned in on time and completely written in your own words*) Criteria Final Paper Mechanics and Formatting (1 point each)     Final Paper Content (3 points each)  The Introduction hooks your audience, introduces your topic and includes a claim  The Analysis part of your paper discusses and presents various perspectives on a topic (the idea you support and a counterargument)  The Conclusion summarizes your main points, repeats the claim, and discusses suggestions for how this issue/topic should be addressed in the future  Experiences from your internship are woven into at least one of the sections of your paper  All parts of the paper demonstrate thoughtful and well-supported ideas, with appropriate referencing, and integration of the sources Paper is between 4-6 pages (double-spaced, not including references) Paper is organized and includes headings Paper cites accurately (APA) Paper includes an accurate reference list (APA, 3 outside sources, and at least 5 sources total)  Paper demonstrates proper English language grammar and mechanics Score /5 /15 Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 2001 AACTE OUTSTANDING WRITING AWARD RECIPIENT Editor’s Note: This article draws from Geneva Gay’s recent book, Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice, which received the 2001 Outstanding Writing Award from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. PREPARING FOR CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING Geneva Gay University of Washington, Seattle In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this. The ideas presented here are brief sketches of more thorough explanations included in my recent book, Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice (2000). The specific components of this approach to teaching are based on research findings, theoretical claims, practical experiences, and personal stories of educators researching and working with underachieving African, Asian, Latino, and Native American students. These data were produced by individuals from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds including anthropology, sociology, psychology, sociolinguistics, communications, multicultural education, K-college classroom teaching, and teacher education. Five essential elements of culturally responsive teaching are examined: developing a knowledge base about cultural diversity, including ethnic and cultural diversity content in the curriculum, demonstrating caring and building learning communities, communicating with ethnically diverse students, and responding to ethnic diversity in the delivery of instruction. Culturally responsive teaching is defined as using the cultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more effectively. It is based on the assumption that when academic knowledge and skills are situated within the lived experiences and frames of reference of students, they are more personally meaningful, have higher interest appeal, and are learned more easily and thoroughly (Gay, 2000). As a result, the academic achievement of ethnically diverse students will improve when they are taught through their own cultural and experiential filters (Au & Kawakami, 1994; Foster, 1995; Gay, 2000; Hollins, 1996; Kleinfeld, 1975; Ladson-Billings, 1994, 1995). DEVELOPING A CULTURAL DIVERSITY KNOWLEDGE BASE Educators generally agree that effective teaching requires mastery of content knowledge and pedagogical skills. As Howard (1999) so aptly stated, “We can’t teach what we don’t know.” This statement applies to knowledge both of student populations and subject matter. Yet, too many teachers are inadequately prepared to teach ethnically diverse students. Some professional programs still equivocate about including multicultural education despite the growing numbers of and disproportionately poor performance of students of color. Other programs are trying to decide what is the most appropriate place and “face” for it. A few are embracing multicultural education enthusiastically. The equivocation is Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 106-116 © 2002 by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education 106 inconsistent with preparing for culturally responsive teaching, which argues that explicit knowledge about cultural diversity is imperative to meeting the educational needs of ethnically diverse students. Part of this knowledge includes understanding the cultural characteristics and contributions of different ethnic groups (Hollins, King, & Hayman, 1994; King, Hollins, & Hayman, 1997; Pai, 1990; Smith, 1998). Culture encompasses many things, some of which are more important for teachers to know than others because they have direct implications for teaching and learning. Among these are ethnic groups’ cultural values, traditions, communication, learning styles, contributions, and relational patterns. For example, teachers need to know (a) which ethnic groups give priority to communal living and cooperative problem solving and how these preferences affect educational motivation, aspiration, and task performance; (b) how different ethnic groups’ protocols of appropriate ways for children to interact with adults are exhibited in instructional settings; and (c) the implications of gender role socialization in different ethnic groups for implementing equity initiatives in classroom instruction. This information constitutes the first essential component of the knowledge base of culturally responsive teaching. Some of the cultural characteristics and contributions of ethnic groups that teachers need to know are explained in greater detail by Gold, Grant, and Rivlin (1977); Shade (1989); Takaki (1993); Banks and Banks (1995); and Spring (1995). The knowledge that teachers need to have about cultural diversity goes beyond mere awareness of, respect for, and general recognition of the fact that ethnic groups have different values or express similar values in various ways. Thus, the second requirement for developing a knowledge base for culturally responsive teaching is acquiring detailed factual information about the cultural particularities of specific ethnic groups (e.g., African, Asian, Latino, and Native American). This is needed to make schooling more interesting and stimulating for, representative of, and responsive to ethnically diverse students. Too many teachers and teacher educators think that their subjects (particularly math and sciJournal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 ence) and cultural diversity are incompatible, or that combining them is too much of a conceptual and substantive stretch for their subjects to maintain disciplinary integrity. This is simply not true. There is a place for cultural diversity in every subject taught in schools. Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching deals as much with using multicultural instructional strategies as with adding multicultural content to the curriculum. Misconceptions like these stem, in part, from the fact that many teachers do not know enough about the contributions that different ethnic groups have made to their subject areas and are unfamiliar with multicultural education. They may be familiar with the achievements of select, high-profile individuals from some ethnic groups in some areas, such as African American musicians in popular culture or politicians in city, state, and national government. Teachers may know little or nothing about the contributions of Native Americans and Asian Americans in the same arenas. Nor do they know enough about the less publicly visible but very significant contributions of ethnic groups in science, technology, medicine, math, theology, ecology, peace, law, and economics. Many teachers also are hard-pressed to have an informed conversation about leading multicultural education scholars and their major premises, principles, and proposals. What they think they know about the field is often based on superficial or distorted information conveyed through popular culture, mass media, and critics. Or their knowledge reflects cursory academic introductions that provide insufficient depth of analysis of multicultural education. These inadequacies can be corrected by teachers’ acquiring more knowledge about the contributions of different ethnic groups to a wide variety of disciplines and a deeper understanding of multicultural education theory, research, and scholarship. This is a third important pillar of the knowledge foundation of culturally responsive teaching. Acquiring this knowledge is not as difficult as it might at first appear. Ethnic individuals and groups have been making worthy contributions to the full range of life and culture in the United States and humankind from the very beginning. And there is no shortage of 107 quality information available about multicultural education. It just has to be located, learned, and woven into the preparation programs of teachers and classroom instruction. This can be accomplished, in part, by all prospective teachers taking courses on the contributions of ethnic groups to the content areas that they will teach and on multicultural education. DESIGNING CULTURALLY RELEVANT CURRICULA In addition to acquiring a knowledge base about ethnic and cultural diversity, teachers need to learn how to convert it into culturally responsive curriculum designs and instructional strategies. Three kinds of curricula are routinely present in the classroom, each of which offers different opportunities for teaching cultural diversity. The first is formal plans for instruction approved by the policy and governing bodies of educational systems. They are usually anchored in and complemented by adopted textbooks and other curriculum guidelines such as the “standards” issued by national commissions, state departments of education, professional associations, and local school districts. Even though these curriculum documents have improved over time in their treatment of ethnic and cultural diversity, they are still not as good as they need to be (Wade, 1993). Culturally responsive teachers know how to determine the multicultural strengths and weaknesses of curriculum designs and instructional materials and make the changes necessary to improve their overall quality. These analyses should focus on the quantity, accuracy, complexity, placement, purpose, variety, significance, and authenticity of the narrative texts, visual illustrations, learning activities, role models, and authorial sources used in the instructional materials. There are several recurrent trends in how formal school curricula deal with ethnic diversity that culturally responsive teachers need to correct. Among them are avoiding controversial issues such as racism, historical atrocities, powerlessness, and hegemony; focusing on the accomplishments of the same few high-profile individuals repeatedly and ignoring the actions of groups; giving proportionally more attention to African Americans than other groups of color; 108 decontextualizing women, their issues, and their actions from their race and ethnicity; ignoring poverty; and emphasizing factual information while minimizing other kinds of knowledge (such as values, attitudes, feelings, experiences, and ethics). Culturally responsive teaching reverses these trends by dealing directly with controversy; studying a wide range of ethnic individuals and groups; contextualizing issues within race, class, ethnicity, and gender; and including multiple kinds of knowledge and perspectives. It also recognizes that these broad-based analyses are necessary to do instructional justice to the complexity, vitality, and potentiality of ethnic and cultural diversity. One specific way to begin this curriculum transformation process is to teach preservice (and inservice) teachers how to do deep cultural analyses of textbooks and other instructional materials, revise them for better representations of culturally diversity, and provide many opportunities to practice these skills under guided supervision. Teachers need to thoroughly understand existing obstacles to culturally responsive teaching before they can successfully remove them. Other instructional plans used frequently in schools are called the symbolic curriculum (Gay, 1995). They include images, symbols, icons, mottoes, awards, celebrations, and other artifacts that are used to teach students knowledge, skills, morals, and values. The most common forms of symbolic curricula are bulletin board decorations; images of heroes and heroines; trade books; and publicly displayed statements of social etiquette, rules and regulations, ethical principles, and tokens of achievement. Therefore, classroom and school walls are valuable “advertising” space, and students learn important lessons from what is displayed there. Over time, they come to expect certain images, value what is present, and devalue that which is absent. Culturally responsive teachers are critically conscious of the power of the symbolic curriculum as an instrument of teaching and use it to help convey important information, values, and actions about ethnic and cultural diversity. They ensure that the images displayed in classrooms represent a wide variety of age, gender, time, place, social class, and positional diversity within and Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 across ethnic groups and that they are accurate extensions of what is taught through the formal curriculum. For example, lessons of leadership, power, and authority taught through images should include males and females and expressive indicators of these accomplishments from many different ethnic groups. A third type of curriculum that is fundamental to culturally responsive teaching is what Cortés (1991, 1995, 2000) has called the societal curriculum. This is the knowledge, ideas, and impressions about ethnic groups that are portrayed in the mass media. Television programs, newspapers, magazines, and movies are much more than mere factual information or idle entertainment. They engage in ideological management (Spring, 1992) and construct knowledge (Cortés, 1995) because their content reflects and conveys particular cultural, social, ethnic, and political values, knowledge, and advocacies. For many students, mass media is the only source of knowledge about ethnic diversity; for others, what is seen on television is more influential and memorable than what is learned from books in classrooms. Unfortunately, much of this “knowledge” is inaccurate and frequently prejudicial. In a study of ethnic stereotyping in news reporting, Campbell (1995) found that these programs perpetuate “myths about life outside of white ‘mainstream’ America . . . [that] contribute to an understanding of minority cultures as less significant, as marginal” (p. 132). Members of both minority and majority groups are negatively affected by these images and representations. Ethnic distortions in mass media are not limited to news programs; they are pervasive in other types of programming as well. The messages they transmit are too influential for teachers to ignore. Therefore, culturally responsive teaching includes thorough and critical analyses of how ethnic groups and experiences are presented in mass media and popular culture. Teachers need to understand how media images of African, Asian, Latino, Native, and European Americans are manipulated; the effects they have on different ethnic groups; what formal school curricula and instruction can do to counteract their influences; and how to teach students to be discerning consumers of and resisters to ethnic Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April 2002 information disseminated through the societal curriculum. DEMONSTRATING CULTURAL CARING AND BUILDING A LEARNING COMMUNITY A third critical component of preparation for culturally responsive teaching is creating classroom climates that are conducive to learning for ethnically diverse students. Pedagogical actions are as important as (if not more important than) multicultural curriculum designs in implementing culturally responsive teaching. They are not simply technical processes of applying any “best practices” to underachieving students of color, however. Much more is required. Teachers need to know how to use cultural scaffolding in teaching these students—that is, using their own cultures and experiences to expand their intellectual horizons and academic achievement. This begins by demonstrating culturally sensitive caring and building culturally responsive learning communities. Teachers have to care so much about ethnically diverse students and their achievement that they accept nothing less than high-level success from them and work diligently to accomplish it (Foster, 1997; Kleinfeld, 1974, 1975). This is a very different conception of caring than the often-cited notion of “gentle nurturing and altruistic concern,” which can lead to benign neglect under the guise of letting students of color make their own way and move at their own pace. Culturally responsive caring also places “teachers in an ethical, emotional, and academic partnership with ethnically diverse students, a partnership that is anchored in respect, honor, integrity, resource sharing, and a deep belief in the possibility of transcendence” (Gay, 2000, p. 52). Caring is a moral imperative, a social responsibility, and a pedagogical necessity. It requires that teachers use “knowledge and strategic thinking to decide how to act in the best interests of others . . . [and] binds individuals to their society, to their communities, and to each other” (Webb, Wilson, Corbett, & Mordecai, 1993, pp. 3334). In culturally responsive teaching, the “knowledge” of interest is information about ethnically diverse groups; the “strategic thinking” is how this cultural knowledge is used to redesign teach109 ing and learning; and the “bounds” are the reciprocity involved in students working with each other and with teachers as partners to improve their achievement. Thus, teachers need to understand that culturally responsive caring is action oriented in that it demonstrates high expectations and uses imaginative strategies to ensure academic success for ethnically diverse students. Teachers genuinely believe in the intellectual potential of these students and accept, unequivocally, their responsibility to facilitate its realization without ignoring, demeaning, or neglecting their ethnic and cu ...
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