The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way galaxy From Radio Observations

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 8th, 2018
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Question description

Be sure to write everything in your own words. The facts and ideas can come from elsewhere (and cited), but you can’t cut-and-paste.

Text and Figures

Abstract (the abstract should summarize the topic and main conclusions. It should be fewer than 200 words.

Introduction: What are The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way galaxy and Radio Observations , plus why does anyone care about this topic?

Section: some Background- More explanation

Section: Resuats -- and experiment and some figures and some pic to show The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way galaxy From Radio Observations.

Section: The Galaxy’s Rotation Curve

Conclusions: Summary, and prospects for future study or end with question?

References: 2 to 3 it is ok but need to be professional like old research paper or NASA. website.



Some rescuers from me to help you understand what kind information I want and which Radio mean!!!


1- Oort, J. H., Kerr, F. J., & Westerhout, G.
Journal: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 118, p.379

2- Image credit http://astro.u-strasbg.fr/~koppen/Haystack/spectro...

3- Video


Abstract : the abstract should summarize the topic and main conclusions. It should be fewer than 200 words. Journals set maximum word requirements like this. Text and Figures: Your text should address an important astronomical problem. In a conventional journal paper, one has an introduction, which summarizes the current state of knowledge and sets up the importance of the study, a description of the work (data or theory) so that it can be understood or even reproduced, and a discussion and interpretion of the results. In a review paper or the chapters of a monograph (like Keel’s), one has an introduction to set up the importance of a topic and then the sections explain the state of the field. In both cases, the concluding section can summarize the key points but often points to open questions and topics for future, additional study. I imagine that your paper will be more like a review paper since it will be mainly explaining other people’s work. I would very much like to see you include a calculation of your own, whether analytic or computational, which includes making plots of data. To be sure, you cannot reasonably reproduce detailed calculations in the time available, but there are usually simple (“toy”) where you can do, or datasets that you can plot or analyze. Figures should illustrate your point. It is okay to use figures from another source but be sure to document the source. You can also make your own. I would strongly prefer to see some calculation of your own and a figure or more would be an excellent way to present the results. Example of an outline about the initial mass function of brown dwaeds Abstract (1/2 page) Introduction: What are brown dwarfs and what is the initial mass function, plus why does anyone care? Section: The initial mass function as seen in solar neighborhood. Section: The initial mass function as seen in the nearby star formation region Taurus Section: Theory of initial mass function. Conclusions: Summary, and prospects for seeing even low mass brown dwarfs/planets. There is no minimum or maximum page requirements, but I think it is clear that this would need to something like 8-10 pages, remembering that the abstract and the figures are included in this, but if you end up longer that is fine. Be sure to write everything in your own words. The facts and ideas can come from elsewhere (and cited), but you can’t cut-and-paste or just rephrase other people’s writing.
Abstract : the abstract should summarize the topic and main conclusions. It should be fewer than 200 words. Journals set maximum word requirements like this. Text and Figures: Your text should address an important astronomical problem. In a conventional journal paper, one has an introduction, which summarizes the current state of knowledge and sets up the importance of the study, a description of the work (data or theory) so that it can be understood or even reproduced, and a discussion and interpretion of the results. In a review paper or the chapters of a monograph (like Keel’s), one has an introduction to set up the importance of a topic and then the sections explain the state of the field. In both cases, the concluding section can summarize the key points but often points to open questions and topics for future, additional study. I imagine that your paper will be more like a review paper since it will be mainly explaining other people’s work. Figures should illustrate your point. It is okay to use figures from another source but be sure to document the source. You can also make your own. I would strongly prefer to see some calculation of your own and a figure or more would be an excellent way to present the results. Example of an outline about the initial mass function of brown dwaeds Abstract (1/2 page) Introduction: What are brown dwarfs and what is the initial mass function, plus why does anyone care? Section: The initial mass function as seen in solar neighborhood. Section: The initial mass function as seen in the nearby star formation region Taurus Section: Theory of initial mass function. Conclusions: Summary, and prospects for seeing even low mass brown dwarfs/planets. There is no minimum or maximum page requirements, but I think it is clear that this would need to something like 8-10 pages, remembering that the abstract and the figures are included in this, but if you end up longer that is fine. Be sure to write everything in your own words. The facts and ideas can come from elsewhere (and cited), but you can’t cut-and-paste or just rephrase other people’s writing.

Tutor Answer

paula9
School: Rice University

Attached.

Running head: MILKY WAY GALAXY

Milky Way Galaxy
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Instructor
Date

1

MILKY WAY GALAXY
The Spiral structure of the Milky Way Galaxy from Radio Observations
Abstract

The study of the study of the Milky Way structure is vital importance for a better understanding
of the universe. This study digs deeper into the structure of Milky Way Galaxy’s with emphasis
to its spiral arms. Multiple data sources were sought including the NASA websites. As found out,
the Milky Way is a disk shaped galaxy composed of four spiral arms, two large and the rest are
smaller. The spiral arms are regions of actively forming new stars dominated by young stars,
dust and gas. Dust and gas are primary materials for the formation of new stars. This dust is also
responsible for the reddish appearance of the stars since it absorbs more blue light than red.
Besides the disk, there are numerous older stars, which appear white in color according to the
picture by COBE. Additionally, the Milky Way contains a dark halo, extensive but void of
luminous stars. The extensive halo was discovered due to the gravitational pull it exerts on
existing visible matter.
Introduction
The Milky Way is a collection of close to a billion stars bound by gravitational forces.
The solar system is part of the Milky Way (Clements, 2015). As such sun is among the hundred
billion stars that make the Milky Way. The desire to know more about the universe has always
driven scientists into deeper research. A greater understanding of Milky Way, a galaxy in which
the earth is positioned is not only satisfies the curious minds of millions of people around the
world but it also amazing considering its interesting features. More importantly, events that
occur around the galaxy may eventually determine the fate of the earth. A better understanding
of major events and process may position scientist at a vantage position to predict and impeding
danger such as collision with terrestrial bodies and save the situation if possible (Oort &
Westerhout, 1958). NASA has always searched the sky for potentially hazardous phenomena or
object. In a recent undertaking NASA reactivated WISE, an Infrared survey, to scan the sky in
2013 after two years of hibernation in a mission to enable it to identify objects that may harm to
the planet earth (NASA, 2015). The structure of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which the earth
and the entire solar system is located, takes a central position in this study.
Background Information
The study of the galaxy dates back to more than 322 BC where most of the available
information was based on speculation. Aristotle noted propositions by Democritus and
Anaxagoras who thought the galaxy was composed of distant stars. In contrast Aristotle thought
that the Milky Way originated from exhalation of large stars being ignited in upper atmosphere
(Kormendy & Bender, 2018). Although their views were largely criticized by other scholars,
their views marked the start of a long journey of study that is yet to complete. Many more
scholars after Aristotle publicized their findings about the galaxy based on observations (Oort &
Westerhout, 1958). In 1048 Abū Rayhān, a Persian astronomer asserted that the Milky Way
comprised countless nebula star-like fragments. Later, Avempace, an Andalusion astronomer
came up with a new idea claiming the galaxy was made up of stars that were reflected in the sky
to make them appear as a continuous mass of luminous object.
A more scientific approach to explore the universe took place in 1610 when Galileo
Galilei observed the sky using a telescope. His approach proved that galaxy was in deed made of

MILKY WAY GALAXY

2

stars. Other ideas such as the galaxy rotate along with all the stars and other bodies and existence
of multiple galaxies would later follow (Kormendy & Bender, 2018).
Efforts to describe the shape of the galaxy took shape in 1785 when William Herschel
attempted counting stars in various regions of the sky and came up with a diagram to describe
the Milky Way’s shape. A more advanced telescope was developed in 1845 enabling Lord Rose
to prove the existence of a spiral shaped nebulae and an elliptical one (Oort & Westerhout,
1958).
In 1920, an astronomical debate about the shape and size of the universe between Harlow
Shapley and Heber D. Cutis was held in the National History Museum located in Washington
DC. Curtis believed that the universe was composed of several galaxies citing that there were
spiral nebulae outside the Milky Way while Shapley held that the universe had only one galaxy
and the other phenomena were just gas clusters (Kormendy & Bender, 2018)).
Although Curtis and Shapley’s debate ended in controversy, it sparked new efforts to pin
down the nature of the universe. A few years later, Edwin Hubble brought the controversy to an
end by proving that there were spiral nebulae external to the Milky Way and composed of stars
rather than gas clusters (Kormendy & Bender, 2018)). He used an innovated Hooker’s telescope
to produce astronomical photographs with enough resolution to distinguish individual stars in the
nebulae.
These approaches by early scientist to the study of the Milky Way w...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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