Lab Report with Microbiology antibiotics

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Question description

  • Discuss only the provided data for these three antibiotics and bacteria.
  • What are the major conclusions you can come up with based on these data?

Antibiotics Session A Antibiotics • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. coli, P aeruginosa and S. aureus broths Cotton swabs Large Petri dishes; one dish/bacterium Antibiotic disc mechanical stamp Biohazard buckets Mix broth well by flicking Dip swab in bacterial broth once Spread bacteria to form a uniform loan Dip another time if you feel swab is dry Keep plate facing up for antibiotic disc stamping Session B Measure diameter of zone of inhibition in mm
You are provided with the data for Disk-diffusion lab for antibiotics only. Please, do NOT talk on disinfectants in your report. Follow the template & rubric to build up your report (end of syllabus). Discuss only the provided data for these three antibiotics and bacteria. What are the major conclusions you can come up with based on these data? Cite at least five reliable references from only scientific journals using PubMed search engine. Deadline is the last class time of our semester! Target cell Gram + & Gram + Mode of action DNA supercoiling Interact with peptidyl transferase site of 50S Intermediate [mm] [13-16] [14-17] Antibiotic Neomycin Erythromycin Symbol ug or unit N30 E15 Experiment 1 E. coli 20 9 Experiment 2 E. coli 22 11 Experiment 3 E. coli 20 10 Experiment 4 E. coli 21 11 Experiment 5 E. coli 22 10 Experiment 6 E. coli 22 11 Experiment 7 E. coli 20 10 Experiment 8 E. coli 22 8 Experiment 9 E. coli 23 0 Experiment 10 E. coli 19 7 Experiment 11 E. coli 2.2 1 Experiment 12 E. coli 2.3 1 Experiment 13 E. coli 21 10 Experiment 14 E. coli 17 9 Experiment 15 E. coli 20.2 10 Experiment 1 P. aeruginosa Experiment 2 P. aeruginosa Experiment 3 P. aeruginosa Experiment 4 P. aeruginosa Experiment 5 P. aeruginosa Experiment 6 P. aeruginosa Experiment 7 P. aeruginosa Experiment 8 P. aeruginosa Experiment 9 P. aeruginosa Experiment 10 P. aeruginosa Experiment 11 P. aeruginosa Experiment 12 P. aeruginosa Experiment 13 P. aeruginosa Experiment 14 P. aeruginosa Experiment 15 P. aeruginosa 9 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 7 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Experiment 1 S. aureus Experiment 2 S. aureus Experiment 3 S. aureus Experiment 4 S. aureus Experiment 5 S. aureus Experiment 6 S. aureus Experiment 7 S. aureus Experiment 8 S. aureus Experiment 9 S. aureus Experiment 10 S. aureus Experiment 11 S. aureus Experiment 12 S. aureus Experiment 13 S. aureus Experiment 14 S. aureus Experiment 15 S. aureus 18 20 20 16 22 22 24 19 20 17 1.8 2 18 19 8.63 23 22 20 23 33 20 28 25 29 26 2.9 2.4 25 23 25 OT talk on disinfectants in your report. Gram + Prevents dephosphorylation of the lipid carrier that transports the cell wall building blocks across membrane [9-11] Bacitracin B10 7 8 0 9 0 0 7 0 0 7 0.7 1 8 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 11 10 10 11 15 14 10 10 13 1 0 11 12 12 s membrane
Lab Report Template & Rubric (Title is a sentence that states the major finding of your experiment) (2 pts) Your name and Instructor’s name (1 pt.) Department of Biology, Harold Washington College (1 pt.) Introduction Use textbook and reliable academic and scientific sources (see below in References) to write: Background on cells, organisms and essays used. (4 pts) Purpose of experiment and hypothesis. (2 pts) Materials & Methods (4 pts) Use past tense to briefly describe the media, cell lines, reagents, tools and experimental steps you did. Do NOT list reagents or steps. Use a paragraph format instead (plain English). Results (6 pts) Describe your results including figures, images and/or tables if any. Use a legend (short description) below every figure/table and number them. Do NOT discuss your results here. Just describe. For example, bacteria Gram stained pink (this is an observation that should be in this section), thus they are Gram negative (this is an inference that should NOT be here in Results, but in Discussion) Discussion (8 pts) As you discuss, please display the four potential analytical skills below. 1. Analysis: analyzing data; using statistics to support an argument 2. Interpretation: making comparisons; classifying data and formulating categories 3. Evaluation: evaluating the credibility of references, bias, contradictions and errors; suggesting alternatives 4. Inference: questioning evidence, developing alternative hypothesis and drawing conclusions To get a sample how to apply these skills in writing, please refer to Discussion in any scientific article! Do results agree with literature? If not, why? Does your technique need modification? How? Do not reiterate your results but for what is necessary for the sake of discussion. State your major finding (this should be reflected in your title!) References (2 pts) Use APA style in citations https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20110928111055_949.pdf Use textbook and outside sources such as PubMed, CDC, NIH, FDA, WHO or scientific journals such as Science, Nature, Cell, Immunity, Annual Reviews, New England Journal of Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of immunology, Infection and Immunity, etc. _Cite references whenever using someone else’s ideas, thoughts, or words, including those made in discussion forums. Use double quotation marks for verbatim short quotes. _Summarize or paraphrase, do not copy, text from resources. Notes _Abbreviation: Bacterial names should be full in title and first mention in article: Staphylococcus aureus. Abbreviate afterwards: S. aureus _Nomenclature: Genus name is capitalized, species name is lower case and both are italicized or underscored: Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus aureus. _Grammar/typos/punctuation: Please refer to the Elements of Style by William Strunk Jr., http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf. Proofread before submission. _Use Microsoft Word, Arial font, size 11, and 1.0 line spacing
• 3 bactersia: E. coli P. aeruginosa S. aureus • Discuss only the provided data for these three antibiotics and bacteria. • What are the major conclusions you can come up with based on these data? • Cite at least five reliable references from only scientific journals using PubMed search engine.

Tutor Answer

proggerardo
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Attached you will find the question (guideline) and answer (report) of the requested task.

The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by action of gram-positive antibiotics
Your name and Instructor’s name
Department of Biology, Harold Washington College

Introduction
One of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for most of the infections is the bacteria. This group are
unicellular microorganisms without nucleus (prokaryotes), their genetic material is contained within a single
circular chain of DNA. The interior of the bacteria (cytoplasm) is enclosed within a cell membrane that also is
surrounded by a rigid cell wall and a capsule layer, made of lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins (Knight &
Schlager, 2002). The presence of peptidoglycans in the cell wall is a taxonomical criterion for bacteria
classification and could be determined by the Gram stain test, dividing the bacteria in two groups: gram-positive
-like Staphylococcus aureus- and gram-negative bacteria -like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli(Madigan, Martinko, Stahl, & Clark, 2012).
The growth and multiplication of bacteria can be blocked by the action of chemicals called antibiotics They are
classified by their structure and action mechanism. Neomycin is classified as an aminoglycoside, it's used
against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and inhibit the subunit 30S of the ribosome in the protein
synthesis. Erythromycin, a macrolide used against gram-positive bacteria, also inhibit another subunit in the
protein synthesis, the 50s subunit in the ribosome. Instead, bacitracin, used against gram-positive bacteria,
blocks the synthesis of the cellular wall (Madigan et al., 2012).
Bauer, Kirby, Sherris & Turck, (1966) improved the paper disk method, for determining susceptibility of bacteria
to antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, by the interpretation of the inhibition zones. The interpretation of the
antibiotics used in this work could be reviewed in the Table 1.

Inhibition zone diameter
Antibiotics
Resistant Intermediate Sensitive
Neomycin
12 or less
13-16
17 or more
Erythromycin 13 or less
14-17
18 or more
Bacitracin
8 or less
9-12
13 or more
Table 1. Zone sizes and their interpretation for antibiotics used in this work (Bauer et al., 1966).
The increasing occurrence of resistant bacteria is happening worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics.
This “crisis” has been attributed to abuse of antibiotics, extensive agricultural use, and slow development of new
antibiotics by the drug industry due...

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