Answer 4 questions, one page for each

timer Asked: Dec 9th, 2018
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Question description

Essay #1: According to Kettner, there are three major models of the budgetary process. Name and explain how these three models “work” by comparing and contrasting their major qualities. What are the rationale and focus for each? Suppose you were in a new agency position where you had to choose one of the three models for your Agency’s budgetary system.Which one would be the “safest” to choose and why? (From class discussion, text).

Essay #2: Both “APEX-PH” and “MAPP” yield an analysis of community health status and health needs. In brief, what does each approach include?How does each support either the medical model of needs assessment and planning, or the population health model? As discussed in class, what factor seems to determine which approach is chosen by each county? Pick one APEX-PH model and one MAPP model IPLAN (of the ten we profiled this semester) to illustrate this “determining” factor (you may choose DeKalb County’s IPLAN as one of

your two plans). Which approach to needs assessment is more comprehensive? Give three reasons why the more comprehensive method of analysis (MAPP) is more inclusive one, using your two chosen plans.

Essays #3 and #4 are on the next page…

Final Exam

Essay #3:Strategic Planning has been a focus for class activity and learning this semester. Using the

outline of the Strategic Planning process provided in M. Shumaker’s class E-Lecture presentation

Attached a document for this

(Week 10), your Allison text, and class discussion, provide one example for each of the following elements:

(1) financial versus non-financial benefits of using Strategic Planning; (2) vision and mission statements;

(3) external threats and opportunities.Why are each of these elements important to strategic planning success?If any one of the three elements was missing from the process, what would likely happen to the process itself? (Discuss the importance of each element by itself).

Essay #4:Allison and Kaye, in their Strategic Planning text, outline four key concepts which define the practice of successful strategic planning attempts. The authors also discuss four additional “keys to effective strategic planning”, practical advice for the community planner, in their pursuit of sound planning strategies. How do these two lists of strategies and processes work together to help produce desired community results? Give at least four examples, one for each of the “key concepts” listed in the text.

Why Strategic Planning? Strategic Planning a.k.a. the Strategic Management process is based on the belief that organizations should continuously monitor internal and external events and trends so that timely changes can be made as needed. The rate and magnitude of changes that affect organizations are increasing dramatically. The need to adapt to change leads to questions such as, “What kind of business should we become?” “Are we in the right area?” “Should we reshape our business?” “What new competitors are entering our industry?” What are the different components of Strategic Management? The Strategic Management process has three different components: (1) Formulation, (2) Implementation, and (3) Evaluation. Strategy formulation includes developing a vision and a mission, identifying an organization’s external opportunities and threats, determining internal strengths and weaknesses, establishing longterm objectives, generating alternative strategies, and choosing particular strategies to pursue. Strategy implementation requires a firm to establish annual objectives, devise policies, motivate employees, and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed; strategy implementation includes developing a strategy-support culture, creating an effective organizational structure, redirecting marketing efforts, preparing budgets, developing and utilizing information systems, and linking employee compensation to organizational performance. Strategy evaluation is the final stage in strategic management. Managers in health and human services always need to know when particular strategies are not working well; strategy evaluation is the primary means for obtaining this information. Given that Strategic Management is a “good thing,” what specific benefits can be derived from the practice? There are certain financial and non-financial benefits that can come about as a result of regular, systematic application of strategic management principles. Financial benefits: Research indicates that organizations using strategic management concepts are more profitable and successful than those that do not. High-performing firms tend to do systematic planning to prepare for future fluctuations in the internal and external environments. Firms with planning systems more closely resembling strategic-management theory generally exhibit superior long-term financial performance relative to their industry. e-Lecture 13.1 Strategic Planning Revisited continued… Non-financial benefits: Besides helping firms avoid financial demise (death), strategic management offers other tangible benefits, such as enhanced awareness of external threats, an improved understanding of competitors’ strengths, increased employee productivity, reduced resistance to change, and a clearer understanding of performance-reward relationships. In addition to empowering managers and employees, strategic management often brings order and discipline to an otherwise floundering firm. Consider these other benefits of strategic management: 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. It allows for identification, prioritization, and exploitation of opportunities. It provides an objective view of management problems. It represents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. It minimizes the effects of adverse conditions and changes. It allows major decisions to better support established objectives. It allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. It allows fewer resources and less time to be devoted to correcting erroneous or ad hoc decisions. 8. It creates a framework for internal communications among personnel. 9. It helps integrate the behavior of individuals into a total effort. 10. It provides a basis for clarifying individual responsibilities. 11. It encourages forward thinking. 12. It provides a cooperative, integrated, and enthusiastic approach to tackling problems and opportunities. 13. It encourages a favorable attitude toward change. 14. It gives a degree of discipline and formality (and professionalism!) to the management of an organization. What are some Key Terms in Strategic Management? 1. Vision and Mission Statements: Vision statements answer the question, “What do we want to become”? Mission statements are “enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business from other similar firms. A mission statement identifies the scope of a firm’s operations in product and market terms.” It addresses the basic question that faces all strategists: “What is our business?” It should include the values and priorities of the organization. 2. External Opportunities and Threats: External opportunities and threats refer to economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, legal, governmental, technological, and competitive trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future. Opportunities and threats are largely beyond the control of a single organization, thus the term “external.” 3. Internal Strengths and Weaknesses: Internal strengths and internal weaknesses are an organization’s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly. Identifying and evaluating organizational strengths and weaknesses in the functional areas of a business is an essential strategic-management function. e-Lecture 13.1 Strategic Planning Revisited continued… 4. Short-Term Objectives and Long-Term Objectives: Objectives can be defined as measurable, specific kinds of results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission. Short-Term usually refers to one year; Long-Term more than one year. Short-term objectives are sometimes referred to as “annual objectives”. Like LongTerm objectives, they must be measurable, quantitative, challenging, realistic, consistent and prioritized. 5. Strategies: Strategies are the means by which objectives (ultimately, goals) will be achieved. Business strategies may include geographic expansion, diversification, acquisition, product development, market penetration, retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation and joint venture. 6. Policies: Policies are the means by which annual objectives will be achieved. Policies include guidelines, rules and procedures established to support efforts to achieve stated objectives. Policies are most often stated in terms of management, marketing, finance/ accounting, production/operations, research and development, and computer information systems activities. If Strategic Management is so important to the success or failure of health or human services organizations, why is it that some firms don’t conduct strategic planning, or management? Some reasons for poor or no strategic planning include the fact that there may be poor internal reward structures or incentives in an organization for this kind of planning. The staff also may be stuck in crisis mode; too busy conducting “management by crisis.” The Board of Directors or top management might also regard Strategic Management as a “waste of time” or “too expensive” to implement. Some firms become content with prior years’ successes, not wanting to “rock the boat” or spoil what they feel they’ve found is their formula for success. There are other reasons, too, why organizations and the management of those organizations refuse to act. Fear of failure, sometimes coupled with fear of the unknown, is a big motivator. Many of these corporate fears, you will find, are directly linked to personal management insufficiencies or inadequacies that individuals they are projecting onto the organizational canvas. e-Lecture 13.1 Strategic Planning Revisited, continued… Then, too, you have a situation where management may feel overconfident, as if there is nothing more than they could possibly learn about running an organization. A situation could also occur where an organization has a prior experience with strategic planning which was performed poorly, with correspondingly poor results. The problem may have caused by poor implementation or lack of adequate evaluation processes. Or there could have been too much cash outlay for the return in bottom-dollars. Some upper level management staff could become suspicious and fearful that a fellow planner or strategist was trying to be an “empire-builder.” These persons could feel their job security was threatened. Or perhaps there is just an “honest difference of opinion” among staff as to be best way to conduct long-range planning. Whatever the reason, however, the organization that chooses NOT to be proactive, NOT to embrace Strategic Management Principles, is placing itself at risk for organizational failure in this changing world of health care and human services. -30-

Tutor Answer

School: UT Austin



Models of Budgetary Process



Models of Budgetary Process
A budget-a spending plan which can also be defined as an estimate of costs both income
and expenses based on future plans and objectives and a Budgetary process involve;budget
preparation, deliberation, and execution based on the company's objectives for the given
financial year
According to Birkland (2015), the following models are commonly used in the budgetary
process, first is the Incremental model. In this model, budgetary processes and budget decisions
relies solely on the previous budget in that a budget of current financial year becomes the base
for allocating future budgets and only small changes tend to be made on the budget. This model
is easy to develop and implement in addition to ensuring continuity in funding it’s also easy to
notice the impact of change and is suitable for companies where funding requirements are fixed
or with little deviations. Limitations of this model include managers, spend more as budgets may
be easily available and may lead to unnecessary spending, disconnects from reality as budget
benchmarks are based on previous years and may differ now. It also encourages higher spending
to obtain favorable variances.
The second model is the static budgeting, which is a classic form of budgeting in which
a company creates a model of its expected financial position and results for the next year and
then attempts to force actual results during that period to align with the budget model. Zero-base
budgeting is the third and most commonly used budgeting method, and usually starts with the
assumptions that all departments’ budgets are zero and must be reconstructed from scratch. This
method is very strict in that no expenditures are automatically Okayed and managers must be
able to justify every single expense to avoid any and all expenditures that are not profitable to the



Lastly, an incremental model w...

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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