Bio question paper solving

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IB Biology Past Papers need to Solutions.

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–2– N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The image of a Paramecium refers to question 1 and question 2. X Y [Source: Adapted from www.biology-resources.com. Copyright 2004–2017 D G Mackean & Ian Mackean. All rights reserved.] 1. Which function is accomplished by structures X and Y in the Paramecium? X 2. Y A. digestion homeostasis B. feeding metabolism C. food storage movement D. DNA replication respiration The salt concentration inside the Paramecium is 1.8 %. The salt concentration in the surrounding medium suddenly drops to 0.2 %. What will be the likely response? A. The cell will lose salt to the medium. B. The contractile vacuole will expel more water. C. The cell will swell and eventually burst. D. The membrane will become more permeable to salt. –3– N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The diagram of a membrane refers to question 3 and question 4. D. A. B. C. [Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] 3. In the diagram, which structure is an intrinsic or integral protein? 4. In the diagram, which part of the membrane structure does the molecule below form? H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O C H O C H O H C H O P OH O H H C C N H H H H Turn over –4– 5. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Which of the molecules contain peptide bonds or are sugar molecules? I. HO II. O H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H H H CH2OH O H H H HO OH H III. H OH OH H O H O H2N C C N C C H C OH H H H O N C C H CH2 OH CH2 H S CH3 IV. CH2OH CH2OH O O H HO H H OH H H OH Contain peptide bonds H O H H OH H H OH Are sugar molecules A. I, III II B. III II, IV C. I, III, IV II D. I III, IV OH H –5– 6. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Three flasks were prepared for an analysis of the activity of amylase. At time zero, each of the substances indicated in the diagrams was added. 0.5 ml 1 % amylase solution added 0.5 ml distilled water added 0.5 ml 1 % boiled amylase solution added 4 % starch solution 4 % starch solution 4 % starch solution Flask I Flask II Flask III Which flask(s) could provide support for the hypothesis that heat denatures enzymes? 7. A. Flasks I and II after 15 minutes B. Flasks II and III after 15 minutes C. Flasks I and III after 15 minutes D. Flask III at time zero and again after 15 minutes For which discovery about DNA do Watson and Crick receive credit? A. DNA is the molecule that genes are made of. B. The amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine in an organism. C. Phosphate–pentose bonding along the nucleotide backbone is covalent. D. The shape of DNA is a double helix. Turn over –6– Which sequence of bases and amino acids could be produced by transcription and translation of the DNA molecule shown? 3' A TGA A A TGC T T T CGCGGG 5' 5' T AC T T T ACGA A AGCGCCC 3' 2nd base in codon U C U C A Phe Phe Leu Ser Ser Ser Tyr Tyr STOP Leu Ser STOP Trp G Leu Pro His Arg U Leu Pro His Arg C Leu Pro Gln Arg A Leu Pro Gln Arg G Ile Thr Asn Ser U Ile Thr Asn Ser C Ile Thr Lys Arg A Met Thr Lys Arg G Val Ala Asp Gly U Val Val Val Ala Ala Ala Asp Glu Glu Gly Gly Gly C A G A G G Cys U Cys C STOP A 3rd base in codon 1st base in codon 8. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Sequence of bases Sequence of amino acids A. UAC-UUU-ACG-AAA-GCG-CCC Leu-Lys-Cys-Phe-Arg-Gly B. GGG-CGC-UUU-CGU-AAA-CAU Gly-Arg-Phe-Arg-Lys-His C. AUC-AAA-UGC-UUU-CGC-GGG Met-Lys-Cys-Phe-Arg-Gly D. UAC-UUU-ACG-AAA-GCG-CCC Tyr-Phe-Thr-Lys-Ala-Pro –7– 9. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX A cricket was placed in a respirometer at constant temperature for ten minutes. The soap bubble moved along the pipette. Rubber stopper 1 ml pipette Soap bubble Cricket Wire mesh Soda lime [Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] What was measured by the movement of the soap bubble? A. Production of carbon dioxide B. Volume of excretory products C. Oxygen consumption D. Release of heat Turn over –8– 10. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The image shows a karyogram. [Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karyotype_of_sheep_(Ovis_aries).png, by M. Singh, X. Ma, E. Amoah and G. Kannan] What information can be determined from this karyogram? A. The sex is female. B. The haploid number is 54. C. Disjunction occurred during meiosis. D. The species is not human. –9– 11. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Which diagram(s) represent(s) processes used in asexual reproduction? T I. II. Tt Tt t Tt III. T t Tt Tt 12. A. I only B. I and II only C. II only D. I, II and III A dominant autosomal allele for lactase persistence allows humans to digest milk as adults. People who lack this allele are lactose intolerant in adulthood. Key: lactase persistent male lactose intolerant male lactase persistent female lactose intolerant female If J and K have a child L, what is the probability that L will be lactase persistent? A. 25 % B. 50 % C. 75 % D. 100 % Turn over – 10 – 13. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX HindIII is an endonuclease that recognizes the sequence A A G C T T, cutting between the two adenines. 5' T T A A G C T T A A G A A G A A G C T T 3' 3' A A T T C G A A T T C T T C T T C G A A 5' Into how many DNA fragments would the strand shown be cut by HindIII? 14. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 In an area of forest measuring 100 m by 100 m, samples were taken to estimate the number of silver maple (Acer saccharinum) trees in the forest. The number of trees counted in each of five areas of 400 m2 was recorded. 3 5 4 5 8 Approximately how many silver maple trees are in the 10 000m2 area of forest? A. 5 B. 25 C. 125 D. 625 – 11 – 15. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The diagram shows the carbon cycle. J Fuel K L CO 2 in atmosphere and dissolved in water Green plants [Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] Which two processes correspond to the labelled arrows? A. K is combustion and L is catabolism. B. J is anabolism and K is respiration. C. J is combustion and K is respiration. D. J is anabolism and L is catabolism. Turn over – 12 – 16. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX An experiment was set up so that each test tube contained water at a pH of 6.3 and a pH indicator. Test tubes 1 and 2 also contained a common pond autotroph. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water and forms carbonic acid. After three days the four test tubes were found to have these results. Test tube 1 Test tube 2 Test tube 3 Test tube 4 kept in light pH = 7.0 kept in dark pH = 5.5 kept in light pH = 6.4 kept in dark pH = 6.2 What conclusion can be drawn from test tube 1 and test tube 2? Test tube 1 Test tube 2 A. photosynthesis has used CO2 respiration has produced CO2 B. photosynthesis has made the water more acidic respiration has made the water less acidic C. photosynthesis occurred but not respiration respiration occurred but not photosynthesis D. no conclusion can be drawn, since pH in the controls has changed – 13 – 17. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The table shows the number of differences between humans and other selected organisms for the protein cytochrome c oxidase. This protein, consisting of 104 amino acids, is located in the mitochondria and functions as an enzyme during cell respiration. Organism pairs Number of amino acid differences Human – chimpanzee 0 Human – fruit fly 29 Human – horse 12 Human – pigeon 12 Human – rattlesnake 14 Human – rhesus monkey 1 Human – screwworm fly 27 Human – snapping turtle 15 Human – tuna fish 21 If the data were used to draw a cladogram, which chordates would be furthest apart from humans? 18. A. Chimpanzee because it has zero differences B. Fruit fly because it has the most differences C. Tuna fish because it is the chordate with the most differences D. Horse because it is in the same class What causes variation within a population? A. Fertilization and change in the environment B. Fertilization and mutation C. Mutation and evolution D. Evolution and adaptive radiation Turn over – 14 – 19. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Which of the organisms A–D, identified by the key, represents a reptile? 1. fins, gills, 2-chamber heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fish no fins, more than 2 chambers in heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . go to 2 2. mucus on skin, gills and lungs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. no gills, breathes with lungs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . go to 3 3. dry scales, lays eggs on land or live birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. constant body temperature, 4 limbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . go to 4 4. lays eggs with hard shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. hair or fur, live birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. 20. Dialysis membrane was set up to model digestion and absorption in the small intestine. String Starch, water, amylase mixture Dialysis tubing Water What is a limitation of this model? A. There can be no active transport. B. Maltose will pass through the membrane. C. Lipase should be present with protein. D. The membrane is not permeable to starch. – 15 – 21. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The diagram shows red blood cells and undifferentiated tissue cells. [Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] Diffusion of oxygen from blood cells to tissue cells is represented by arrow 3 in the diagram. What molecules are shown diffusing by arrow 1 and arrow 2? Arrow 1 22. 23. Arrow 2 A. carbon dioxide urea B. water glucose C. glucose carbon dioxide D. fatty acids amino acids What can protect the body from blood loss? A. Antibodies B. Fibrin C. Histamines D. Hemophilia Which type of cell is specialized to facilitate gas exchange? A. Type I pneumocytes B. Type II pneumocytes C. Internal intercostal muscle fibres D. External intercostal muscle fibres Turn over – 16 – 24. 25. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX What happens when an action potential reaches motor end plates? A. Calcium ions are absorbed by the muscle fibres. B. The sarcomeres relax. C. Neurotransmitter is released. D. Action potential is passed to the neuron. The graph shows changes in an individual’s blood glucose concentration over time. 3 2 Blood glucose concentration / arbitrary units 1 0 Time What hormones were secreted at J and K? J K A. epinephrine insulin B. insulin glucagon C. glucagon insulin D. thyroxin epinephrine – 17 – 26. 27. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Some regions of DNA do not code for the production of proteins. What are these regions of DNA used as? A. They have no known function and are recycled to provide nucleotides B. Gene regulation and coding for production of enzymes used in translation C. Telomeres and coding for production of tRNA D. Introns and coding for production of structural proteins Which letter (A–D) indicates where a new nucleotide would attach? A. Phosphate Deoxyribose Adenine B. D. C. 28. Which cell component synthesizes actin and myosin? A. Free ribosomes B. Rough endoplasmic reticulum C. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum D. Nuclear membrane Turn over – 18 – 29. 30. 31. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Which reaction does not cause a net release of energy? A. ADP combines with inorganic phosphate to form ATP B. ATP releases inorganic phosphate to form ADP C. Loss of hydrogen from reduced NAD D. Oxidation of reduced FAD Which process occurs during the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis? A. ATP, CO2 and H2O are produced. B. CO2 is used to produce carbohydrates. C. ATP and O2 are produced. D. RuBP is phosphorylated. The image shows a portion of a cell containing a mitochondrion. Cristae P Q R S [Source: ‘TEM of a mitochondrion’ by Prof. R. Bellairs. Credit: Prof. R. Bellairs. CC BY 4.0.] Where do glycolysis and electron transport occur? Glycolysis Electron transport A. P R B. R Q C. R R D. S Q – 19 – 32. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Agar is a growth medium without nutrients; starch agar is agar with starch added to it. Seed coats were removed from seeds and the seeds were used to set up the following conditions. Which plant embryo was unable to grow? A. Starch agar plate B. Embryo with cotyledon C. Embryo without cotyledon D. Agar plate Embryo with cotyledon 33. Starch agar plate Agar plate Embryo without cotyledon Which letter identifies phloem? A. B. C. D. [Source: E R DEGGINGER/Getty Images] 34. Cobalt chloride paper is blue when dry but turns pink with water. Blue cobalt chloride paper was fastened to the upper and lower surfaces of a plant leaf. After 20 minutes, many small pink dots were observed on the paper on the lower surface, and a few pink dots were seen on the upper surface. What conclusions can be drawn? I. There are more stomata on the lower surface than on the upper surface. II. Stomata on the upper surface are blocked by the waxy cuticle. III. More transpiration occurs through the lower surface than through the upper surface. A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III Turn over – 20 – 35. 36. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX How do the concepts of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium differ? A. The timing of evolution B. The mechanism causing evolution C. The sequence of evolutionary events D. The reality of evolution In a plant, dark leaves are dominant to pale leaves and yellow seeds are dominant to white seeds. A heterozygous dark-leaved plant with yellow seeds was crossed with a pale-leaved plant with white seeds. A large number of offspring were produced. They were either dark-leaved with yellow seeds or pale-leaved with white seeds in equal number. What is the most likely cause of this pattern? 37. A. Crossing over has occurred. B. The two genes are linked. C. The traits are polygenic. D. The genes are codominant. What forms the basis of immunity after vaccination? Production of histamines Clonal selection Production of memory cells A. yes no no B. yes no yes C. no yes no D. no yes yes – 21 – 38. 39. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX Which processes require calcium? I. Muscle contraction II. Movement of an action potential along an axon III. Production of the skeleton of hard corals A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III What structure is indicated by the arrows? [Source: Courtesy Roger Craig, University of Massachusetts] A. One muscle fibre B. One sarcomere C. One myofibril D. One Z line Turn over – 22 – 40. N17/4/BIOLO/HPM/ENG/TZ0/XX The diagram shows the female reproductive system. K L [Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] Which structures do K and L identify? K L A. endometrium uterine wall B. placenta endometrium C. amnion placenta D. fetus uterine wall

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