Neural control of running and movement

timer Asked: Dec 10th, 2018
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I just did a paper with someone else and it was awfully bad and it has a polgarism.So, I need someone to help me to edit it or if it possible to redo it again and make it perfect as the requirements asked. The paper basically is talking about a control system that influence in human movement .My topic that I choice is neural control of running and movement. Can someone write how is this system influence in human movement. the paper should include and explore in details the feature of the system like what is the input , output , modulating component and the feedback. and also the annotated diagram has to be shown . I will attach an example of paper that the prof asked us to do it similarly.also, I did presentation last week and that might help you.

BE 421/521 Final Paper / Presentation Final Paper Rough draft: Due Thursday, November 29th, 2018 in class so that you can exchange the rough draft with a classmate and give each other constructive feedback. Final draft: Due Thursday, Dec 13th, 2018 during exam session The final paper is a written report of a particular control system involved in human movement. The paper should introduce your system of choice, describe the impact of this system on human movement, and explore in detail the features of the system (inputs, outputs, modulating components, feedback, etc.). You may wish to consider what occurs when this system is broken/diseased, and new avenues of research involving this system. Use structured subheadings to improve the clarity and organization of your paper. Be sure to include your annotated diagram and refer to it in the text! Your paper should: • • • • • • • Be 9 pages (undergraduate) or 12 pages (graduate) excluding references Use 12-point font Be double-spaced Have 1” margins Include your annotated diagram (and other diagrams as necessary) Have clear writing without typos … please enlist a friend or family member to proofread your work! Include at least 10 primary source articles. The references should be cited in the text like this (Johnson et al., 2014) with the full references in a section after your text like this: References (the first ref below is for journal articles, the second is for a book) Johnson UA, Movement NC, Control F (2014) How to include references in your paper topic. Journal of our class 1(2): 203-204. Zancolli E (1979) Structural and dynamic bases of hand surgery. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Final Presentations • This is an oral presentation of your final paper. • Presentations will be on December 6th and 13th. We will decide on the order of presenters after the Thanksgiving break. • Presentations will be 10 – 12 minutes in length, followed by a few minutes for questions from me and the rest of the class. You are expected to ask questions to other presenters at some point and will be given participation points based on this. • Plan on preparing 8 – 12 slides for your presentation. 1 – 2 minutes per slide is a good rule of thumb for presentations.
Babinski Reflex 1.0 Introduction The Babinski reflex is a common assessment tool used by neurologists for determining the integrity of spinal reflexes and the corticospinal tract. It is stimulated by stroking the sole of the foot with a blunt instrument (Mortimer, Maricle, Neuhaus, & Konstam, 2011) (Fig. 1). Specifically, the reflex is elicited by running the object along the lateral plantar border of the foot near the heel, crossing the metatarsal pads (i.e. ball of the foot) and ending near the hallux (i.e. big toe) (Khwaja; Van Gijn, 1995) (Fig. 1). If this stroking motion causes hallux dorsiflexion, also known as hallux extension, the response is considered normal in infants. Paradoxically, the hallux extensors (in anatomical terms) are considered flexor muscles in a physiological sense. Thus, hallux dorsiflexion and extension describe the same movement, the movement of the hallux closer to the shin, while hallux plantar flexion and flexion describe the opposite movement (Van Gijn, 1995). Hallux dorsiflexion during the Babinski reflex test is considered abnormal if it persists after the age of two (Kumar, 2003; Pauc; Walker, Hall, & Hurst, 1990). Figure 1. A typical commercially available Babinski hammer (left) ( The metal side of the object should be pressed against the skin. The blunt ends of reflex hammers and thumbnails are also commonly used. Path that the object should follow (right). The naming convention for resulting hallux dorsiflexion or plantar flexion is called a positive and negative Babinski sign, respectively. This terminology is named after the French neurologist, Joseph Babinski, who first discovered this phenomenon at the end of the 19th century (Bruno, Horacio, Yolanda, & Guillermo). The purpose of this paper is to provide an indepth review of the control mechanisms involved in the Babinski reflex and how the maturing brain can modulate reflexes. It will also describe how a positive Babinski sign in non-infants can be used to help diagnose a lesion in the central nervous system. The Babinski reflex in infants is first described in detail, followed by the reflex in adults. 2.0 Infants 2.1 Phalangeal Dorsiflexion Foot stimulation from the blunt object is detected by cutaneous receptors in the S1 dermatome, an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve. The afferent signal then travels up the tibial and sciatic nerves to the L5/S1 nerve root to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (Fig. 2). It then travels via interneurons, neurons that serve as the connection point between sensory and motor pathways, in the spinal cord to the anterior horn to elicit a motor response (Futagi & Suzuki, 2010). Given that this reflex does not involve higher level control above the spinal cord in infants, it is a spinal reflex (Futagi, Suzuki, Toribe, & Kato). A motor response in this spinal reflex occurs via an efferent command from the L5/S1 nerve roots to first the sciatic nerve and then the tibial and deep peroneal nerves. The deep peroneal nerve then innervates the extensor hallucis longus muscle (Fig. 3). This muscle arises from the middle portion of the fibula on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane and inserts on the dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the hallux. Since the muscle runs along the top of the foot and inserts on the top of the hallux, when activated it causes dorsiflexion of the hallux (Fig. 4). The extensor digitorum longus is also commonly activated during the Babinski reflex. Since this muscle originates on the anterior lateral condyle of the tibia and inserts on the dorsal surface of the middle and distal phalanges of the lateral four digits, it dorsiflexes and abducts or 2 fans outs the other phalanges of the foot (Deng, Jia, Zhang, Guo, & Yang). Since the hallux has the largest degree of movement of all the phalanges due to the anatomical structure of the metatarso-phalangeal joints, movement of the hallux is usually the greatest and therefore the easiest to monitor during the reflex (Dafkin et al.). Figure 2. Neural control behavior during a positive Babinski sign. Figure 3. The positive Babinski reflex involves the activation of the extensor hallucis longus which dorsiflexes the hallux and frequently also activates the extensor digitorum longus which dorsiflexes the other phalanges. 3 Figure 4. A 5-month old involuntary eliciting a positive Babinski sign (red circle) by accidently applying pressure along the sole of his left foot with the hallux of his right foot. Figure annotated from (Neelon, 1999). 2.2 Involvement of Leg Flexors as Part of Flexion Withdrawal Reflex The muscles involved in a positive Babinski sign are responsible for shortening the leg, consistent with a more general flexion withdrawal reflex that protects the body from painful stimuli by shortening the limb and removing the limb from the stimuli (Dafkin et al.; Deng et al.; Sandrini, Serrao, Rossi, & Romaniello). For example, during a positive Babinski sign, the contraction of the extensors of the phalanges occurs in combination with activation of the tibialis anterior, the hamstrings (i.e. semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris) and the tensor fasciae latae muscle (Van Gijn, 1995) (Fig. 5). The tibialis anterior originates on the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal of the foot and acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot (turn the bottom of the foot inward). The hamstrings originate on the tuberosity of the ischium and linea aspera (ridge of roughened surface on the posterior surface of the femur), and insert on the tibia and fibula. They act to flex the knee and extend the hip. The tensor fasciae latae originates on the iliac crest and inserts on the iliotibial tract and acts to flex the thigh, along with also medially rotating and abducting the thigh. In summary, these muscles primarily act to flex and thus shorten the leg (Hultborn). 4 However, since the big toe is lighter than the foot, shank, and thigh, the activation of these muscles during the Babinski reflex rarely causes noticeable movement of these body segments. As will be explained in detail below, as the central nervous system matures, the dorsiflexion of the phalanges are no longer part of the flexion withdrawal reflex, while the foot, thigh and leg flexors all remain part of the flexion withdrawal reflex. Figure 5. The tibialis anterior, hamstring and tensor fasciae latae are also activated during a positive Babinski sign as part of the flexion withdrawal reflex, although usually not at a sufficient magnitude to cause visible movement of the foot, shank or thigh. 3.0 Adults 3.1 Negative Babinski Sign 3.1.1 Phalangeal Decoupling from Flexion Withdrawal Reflex The corticospinal tract is a group of about 1 million nerves that originate in layer V of the cerebral cortex, primarily from the primary motor cortex (30%) (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the premotor cortex (30%), and the somatosensory cortex (S1), parietal lobe and cingulate gyrus (40%) (Walker et al., 1990). The nerves travel from the cortex down to the spinal cord and cross over at the ventral surface of the medulla in the brainstem (Fig. 6). Individual nerves terminate at the vertebral level of the muscle that they innervate. However, most of the nerves do not directly synapse with nerves of the peripheral nervous system such as 5 the sciatic nerve, but instead synapse with interneurons. At birth, the corticospinal tract is unmyelinated, but progressively myelinates during the first two years of life (Deng et al.). Figure 6. Neural control during a negative Babinski sign. The corticospinal tract is fully myelinated by around age two, enabling them to inhibit hallux dorsiflexion via the interneurons. After age two, the Babinski reflex normally results in a negative sign, suggesting the myelination of the corticospinal tract is the driving factor in the change in the direction of hallux movement occurring around that age (Deng et al.). Myelination of the corticospinal tract enables the tract to inhibit the interneurons that cause the hallux to dorsiflex. Thus, corticospinal involvement in the control of movement represents a higher level of involvement in the central nervous system (CNS), meaning above the spine or supraspinal. This supraspinal involvement decouples the phalanges from the more general flexion withdrawal reflex, causing the Babinski reflex to become a cutaneous reflex (Nakajima, Sakamoto, Tazoe, Endoh, & Komiyama). 6 3.1.2 Cutaneous Reflex Cutaneous reflexes are activated by skin receptors and play a valuable role in locomotion. They are important in responses to obstacles or stumbling and for making adjustments to unexpected stimuli (Nakajima et al.). A common result of a cutaneous reflex is the activation of extension muscles that act to propel the limb and body away from the stimuli (Van Gijn, 1995). A negative Babinski sign is caused by activation of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. This muscle originates on the fibula and inserts on the plantar surface of the foot at the base of the distal phalanx of the hallux (Fig. 7). Since it runs along the bottom of the foot, its activation causes the hallux to plantar flex. This motion is similar to toe-off during walking or running and acts to propel the body forward. Commonly, the flexor digitorum longus muscle is also activated. This muscle originates on the posterior surface of the tibia and inserts on the plantar surface of the foot, on the base of the distal region of the 2nd through 5th phalanges and therefore acts to plantar flex those phalanges (Fig. 7). Again, the activation of these phalangeal flexor muscles during the Babinski reflex requires a healthy and mature central nervous system that enables the corticospinal tract to inhibit the flexion withdrawal of the hallux (Chew, Oon, Lee, Lim, & Tan; Khwaja). Interestingly, for a sleeping healthy adult, the reflex will revert back to being positive, providing proof that inhibition of the response involves brain activation in an awake state, even if it is subconscious (Singerman & Lee). 7 Figure 7. A negative Babinski reflex involves the activation of the flexor hallucis longus (left) which plantar flexes the hallux and frequently also activates the flexor digitorum longus (right) which plantar flexes the other phalanges. 3.2 Positive Babinski Sign in Adults 3.2.1 Testing of Phalangeal and Leg Flexors A positive Babinski sign in non-infants is a sign of damage to the corticospinal tract such that it can no longer inhibit interneurons at the sacral level of the spine and the central nervous system reverts to its neonatal, or primitive, setting (Neelon, 1999). The control mechanisms that result in hallux dorsiflexion in adults are the same that cause hallux dorsiflexion to occur in infants (Fig. 2). However, many factors need to be considered prior to concluding that the reflex results in a positive sign in adults. For example, the change in hallux angle is not objectively quantified and is only observed by the clinician. Moreover, the threshold that should be considered abnormal is not well defined (Mortimer et al.). For example, some clinicians might consider hallux dorsiflexion of less than 15° worrisome, while others might consider it to be inconclusive or inconsequential. Therefore, movement of the hallux should not be the only variable considered during the test (Van Gijn, 1995). As stated above, during a positive Babinski sign, other limb flexors, such as the tibialis anterior, the hamstrings and the tensor fasciae latae muscle are activated during a positive Babinski sign since it is part of a more general flexion withdrawal reflex. The examiner can either palpate over these muscles during the test to feel if 8 they tighten or try to observe the thigh, shank and foot for movement to confirm a positive Babinski sign (Van Gijn, 1995). The examiner should also palpate the extensor hallucis longus muscle during the test to confirm that it tightens. This can help rule out hallux dorsiflexion occurring from passive movement. Additionally, the reflex should be conducted on both feet, and the tests should not be considered abnormal unless the change in hallux angle in dorsiflexion is clearly asymmetrical, compared to the ipsilateral side (Mortimer et al.). 3.2.2 Other Stimulation Tests and Reliability of Babinski Reflex Other stimulation tests that produce Babinski-like responses are usually also conducted to confirm a positive Babinski sign. These include stroking the lateral malleolus (Chaddock sign), applying pressure down the medial side of the tibia (Oppenheim sign), squeezing the calf (Gordon sign) or Achilles tendon (Schaeffer sign), or flexing and then quickly releasing the fourth phalanx (Gonda sign) (Mortimer et al.). However, the Babinski sign is considered the most reliable of these tests since it has the highest reported inter-rater consistency, with a kappa value (i.e. the degree of agreement actually achieved above chance divided by the degree of agreement that is attainable above chance) of 0.5491 (Singerman & Lee). By comparison, the Chaddock, Oppenheim, and Gordon reflexes have kappa values of 0.4065, 0.3739, and 0.3515, respectively (Singerman & Lee). Besides the previously described qualitative instead of quantitative assessment of the change in hallux angle, one the other biggest factors of inter-rater and intra-rater inconsistencies in these tests is that they are conducted manually by the examiner, introducing a high degree of variability in the duration of stroke and maximum and average force applied during the tests (Dafkin et al.; Ross, Velez-Borras, & Rosman). This likely influences the interpretation of these tests since the Spearman’s rank correlation between duration of stroke, maximum and average force and change in hallux angle all have significance values (p) of equal 9 to or less than 0.01 (Dafkin et al.). Moreover, there is a wide range of sensitivity (i.e. actual positives which are correctly identified, also known as the true positive rate) and specificity (i.e. the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified, also known as the true negative rate) values reported for the Babinski reflex. The published sensitivity and specificity values range from 20 – 80% and 80 – 96%, respectively (Cook, Hegedus, Pietrobon, & Goode; Miller & Johnston). As a whole, the lower sensitivity values and higher specificity values appear to make it more likely that someone with a corticospinal tract lesion will have a negative Babinski sign, compared to a healthy individual having a positive Babinski sign. Given the above uncertainties with the Babinski reflex, it should not be the only test conducted during a neurological exam and other tests should be conducted to validate its findings (Cook et al.). 3.2.3 Cortical vs. Sub-cortical Lesions While a positive Babinski sign cannot be used to determine the exact location of the lesion to the corticospinal tract, there has been research on whether isolated hallux dorsiflexion compared to hallux dorsiflexion in combination with dorsiflexion and fanning out of the 2nd through 5th phalanges can be used to determine whether the lesion is cortical or subcortical (Deng et al.). Specifically, 107 subjects with lesions of the corticospinal tract confirmed with medical imaging were put into two groups: 1) Sub-cortical lesions, with lesion in the corona radiata to spinal cord (n = 93); and 2) Cortical lesions (n = 14) (Fig. 8). Of the 93 patients in the sub-cortical group, 4% had isolated hallux dorsiflexion and 96% had recruitment of the other phalanges. By contrast, in the cortical group, 71% had isolated hallux dorsiflexion and 29% had dorsiflexion and/or fanning out of other phalanges. The authors concluded that since the corticospinal fibers are more centralized within the brainstem and vertebral canal, a small lesion in the spinal cord can bring about more generalized symptoms due to a greater number of 10 neurons affected, whereas a lesion in the cortex likely affects less pathway fibers because the fibers are more diffuse in the cortex (Deng et al.). In essence, the fibers are bundled together in the smaller volume of the spinal cord and thus a lesion at that location causes more generalized symptoms since it affects more fibers at that bottle-neck location. Figure 8. Example of lesions, identified by arrows, from cortical (left) and sub-cortical groups (right). The cortical lesion group mostly had isolated hallux dorsiflexion, while the sub-cortical group had combined hallux and 2nd through 5th phalangeal dorsiflexion and fanning out. 3.2.4 Follow-up Clinical Testing and Imaging Although the degree of phalangeal involvement may help determine if the lesion is cortical or sub-cortical, a positive Babinski sign cannot be used to make a differential diagnosis since a positive sign can be caused by a wide range of diseases related to compromised spinal cord and brain function. These include a lesion impinging the spinal cord, a brain tumor along the corticospinal tract, meningitis, multiple sclerosis, stroke, rabies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), hepatic encephalopathy, and cerebral palsy (Mortimer et al.). A combination of followup brain and spine MRIs, cerebral angiography, lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) are usually needed to make a differential diagnosis about the classification and exact location of the lesion to the corticospinal tract 11 (Mortimer et al.). Individuals who have a positive Babinski sign usually have concomitant weakness, incoordination and general difficulty with muscle control, alerting the physician to a potential problem prior to testing the Babinski reflex. However, the testing of the Babinski reflex is a quick, easy and cheap clinical test for neurologist to use to determine if the pathology involves the corticospinal tract prior to ordering expensive and time consuming clinical testing and imaging. 4.0 Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to provide an in-depth review of the control mechanisms involved in the Babinski reflex and how the maturing brain can modulate reflexes. In infants, the Babinski reflex results in hallux dorsiflexion since it is part of the more general flexion withdrawal reflex. This is a spinal reflex with no higher input above the spinal cord. During the first two years of life, the corticospinal tract myelinates and inhibits hallux dorsiflexion during the Babinski reflex and from being part of the flexion withdrawal reflex. The decoupling of hallux dorsiflexion from the flexion withdrawal reflex causes the Babinski reflex to become a cutaneous reflex, which involves higher input from the brain. Thus, in healthy adults, the Babinski reflex results in hallux plantar flexion. A reversal of hallux movement from plantar flexion to dorsiflexion (positive Babinski sign) in adults is a sign of damage to the corticospinal tract. A positive Babinski finding in adults can be caused by a myriad of diseases and conditions that affect the corticospinal tract. Although movement of the 2nd and 5th phalanges during the Babinski reflex can help determine whether damage to the tract is cortical or sub-cortical, further testing is required to determine the exact location and cause of the damage to the tract. Nonetheless, the Babinski reflex remains a valuable and inexpensive test for determining the integrity of spinal reflexes and the corticospinal tract. 12 References Bruno, E., Horacio, S.-M., Yolanda, E., & Guillermo, G. R. (2007). The articles of Babinski on his sign and the paper of 1898. Neurology India, 55(4), 328. Chew, K., Oon, L., Lee, R., Lim, K., & Tan, C. (2010). Withdrawal response in healthy adults. Neurology Asia, 15(2), 159-165. Cook, C. E., Hegedus, E., Pietrobon, R., & Goode, A. (2007). A pragmatic neurological screen for patients with suspected cord compressive myelopathy. Physical therapy, 87(9), 12331242. Dafkin, C., Green, A., Kerr, S., Raymond, A., Veliotes, D., Elvin, A., . . . McKinon, W. (2014). Kinematic and kinetic analysis of the inter-and intra-applicator assessment of the Babinski reflex. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology, 44(5), 471-477. Deng, T., Jia, J.-p., Zhang, T., Guo, D., & Yang, L. (2013). Cortical versus non-cortical lesions affect expression of Babinski sign. Neurological Sciences, 34(6), 855-859. Futagi, Y., & Suzuki, Y. (2010). Neural Mechanism and Clinical Significance of the Plantar Grasp Reflex in Infants. Pediatric neurology, 43(2), 81-86. Futagi, Y., Suzuki, Y., Toribe, Y., & Kato, T. (1999). Neurologic outcomes of infants with tremor within the first year of life. Pediatric neurology, 21(2), 557-561. Hultborn, H. (2006). Spinal reflexes, mechanisms and concepts: from Eccles to Lundberg and beyond. Progress in neurobiology, 78(3), 215-232. Khwaja, G. A. (2005). Plantar reflex. Journal Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine, 6(3), 193197. Kumar, S. P. (2003). The Babinski sign--a critical review. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 51, 53-57. Miller, T. M., & Johnston, S. C. (2005). Should the Babinski sign be part of the routine neurologic examination? Neurology, 65(8), 1165-1168. Mortimer, J. E., Maricle, D. E., Neuhaus, D., & Konstam, E. (2011). Babinski Reflex Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (pp. 197-199): Springer. Nakajima, T., Sakamoto, M., Tazoe, T., Endoh, T., & Komiyama, T. (2006). Location specificity of plantar cutaneous reflexes involving lower limb muscles in humans. Exp Brain Res, 175(3), 514-525. Neelon, F. A. (1999). Babinski Sign. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Pauc, R. (2011). The Babinski sign in sickness and in health. Clinical Chiropractic, 14(3), 122126. Ross, E. D., Velez-Borras, J., & Rosman, N. P. (1976). The Significance of the Babinski Sign in the Newborn—A Reappraisal. Pediatrics, 57(1), 13-15. Sandrini, G., Serrao, M., Rossi, P., & Romaniello, A. (2005). The lower limb flexion reflex in humans. 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Neural Control of Walking and Running Is Walking Easy? How movement preformed? • A complex neural control system • Central nervous system ➢It is able of handling various activities at same time ➢Integrate control command in cortical and spinal ➢makes adjustments to these motor commands based on sensory feedback from a variety of source ➢controls multi joint limbs using a variety of muscles ➢it has control over all voluntary movement such as running, walking Spinal cord system Mutual Crossed Inhibition Walking to Running ➢ the midbrain sends signals to the spinal cord to communicate when your legs should start moving, and how fast ➢ the brain first sends a signal to the spinal cord, then nerve cells in the spinal cord control the precise coordination of the muscles ➢ the difference between walking and running is only the speed and the signals are sent from the brain ➢ Before the spinal cord can run , it needs signals from the brain and we have now identified two areas in the midbrain that initiate locomotion and set the speed of locomotion ➢ the generation of locomotion is in the spinal cord itself, where the process is automated to a degree Researching the Spinal Interneurons Circuit ➢ Great strides have been made in understanding the organization and function of spinal cord ➢ Researchers still have more to learn, including how to replace or heal damaged or diseased nerve cells ➢ They show that exercising damaged spinal circuits improves function ➢ Robotics researchers are borrowing what scientific have found in the spinal interneuron circuits to design robots that crawl, walk, or swim like animal Any questions
NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 1 Neural Control of Running and Movement Name Institution NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 2 Neural Control of Running and Movement The research essay explores how the central nervous system in a human being control movement and running. The brain resembles a central computer system that controls every one of the elements of a human’s body. At this point, the Nervous System resembles a system that sends messages back and forth from the brain to various components of the body. It does this through the spinal cord, which runs starting from the brain through the back and contains threadlike nerves that stretch out to each organ and body part for effective communication (Enoka, 2015). The spinal cord roles include controlling motor or movement coordination, but it has many other functions in the body. Motor control alludes to the way in which nervous systems create certain kinds of muscle movement. In people, the coordinated relaxation and contraction of muscle clusters are intervened both by reflex mechanisms and higher-order executive systems that include broadly appropriated parts of the brain. Controlled movements venture into subjective areas, and in this way issues of motor control cannot be completely isolated from other mental processes (Crary, Carnaby, Haak & Madhavan, 2015). The investigation of motor coordination gives another dissection apparatus to clarify both common and uncharacteristic examples of movement. The Central Nervous System Most systems and organs in our body are capable of regulating one function of the body at a time, but the case is different when it comes to the central nervous system. It is capable of handling various activities simultaneously. For example, it has control over all voluntary movement such as running, walking. On the other hand, it regulates involuntary activities such as breathing and blinking and is the center of our perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. The nervous system is comprised of all the nerve cells in the human body. It is through the Nervous System NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 3 that we speak with the outside world, and various instruments inside our body are controlled (Grassi, Mark & Esler, 2015). The Nervous system learns through our senses, digest the information and triggers a series of reactions when needed (Hughes, Sangle & Bowman, 2014). For example, making your muscles move when burned by a hot object or pierced by a sharp object, signals that originate from the cerebrum. The sensory system in our body additionally controls metabolic procedures. There are a vast number of nerve cells referred to as neurons, in the nervous system. The Brain alone has around 100 billion neurons in it which coordinates hundreds of activities. Every neuron is made of a cell body and different extensions. The shorter extensions are known as dendrites, and they carry a similar role to that of the antennae (Nave & Werner, 2014). For instance, they acquire signals from different neurons and transmit them to the cell body. The signs are then passed on utilizing a long Extension or what is known as the axon which measures to about one meter long. The nervous system has two sections—one called the Peripheral Nervous System and the central nervous system. Their name is determined by the area of the body they are located. The (CNS) incorporates the nerves in the spinal cord and the brain. The brain is securely contained inside the skull while the vertebral canal protects the spine from injuries. The majority of other nerves in the body are a piece of the peripheral sensory system (PNS) (Hughes, Sangle & Bowman, 2014). Notwithstanding where they are in the body, the difference can be made among both involuntary voluntary nervous system. The voluntary nervous system controls every one of the things that we know about and can consciously impact, for example, moving from one place to another using our legs, arms, and the rest of body parts of the body such as the head (Wurth, Courtine & Micera, 2018). NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 4 The involuntary or vegetative Nervous System role is to manage the processes in the body that human beings cannot consciously impact. It is always active, directing things, for example, heartbeat, breathing, and metabolic procedures. It does this by acquiring a message from the brain and transmitting them to the other part of the body. Rather than receiving only it also send signals the other components such as from the body to the brain. For example, it furnishes the brain with data about how full your bladder is or how rapidly your heart is beating (Wurth, Courtine & Micera, 2018). On the other hand, the involuntary nervous system can respond rapidly to specific changes such as modifying some functions of the body to adapt to the changing environment. For example, if your body gets excessively hot, your sensory system builds the blood flow to your skin and produce sweat more to cool the body. Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems have Involuntary and Voluntary systems that control the movement. However, they are firmly connected though they are kept in isolated regions of the body (Wurth, Courtine & Micera, 2018). As human think, walk, see, breath, laugh, cry and do everything for the day, you are utilizing your central nervous system to actualize these activities. It is the system that gets and forms all data from all parts of the body and acts accordingly. It comprises of the vital parts of the body such as the brain, neurons, and the spinal cord and it is seemingly the most critical system of the Body. It is alluded to as "Focal" because it joins data from the entire body and coordinates action based on demand. For example, when one needs to walk slowly or run fast, it is the system that responds to this kind of requests. NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 5 Parts and Functions of the Central Nervous System Neurons are the fundamental units that make up the nervous system. All cells of the system are made of neurons whose role is to communicate to various parts of the body to and from the brain (Woolsey, Hanaway & Gado, 2017). Neurons can transmit electrical impulses all through the body as signs that warrant a response. There are three kinds of neurons known as sensory, motor, and interneurons. Motor neurons transmit data between the muscles, organs, and the glands in various parts of the body. When the systems of interneurons in the spinal cord assess and ascertain sensory data it then settles on an activity, they arouse efferent neurons. This kind of neurons also known as motor neurons role is to convey signals from the gray matter of the CNS are delivered through the nerves found in the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. The effector might be smooth, cardiac which discharges a particular hormone or moves a piece of the body to react to the stimulus (Nave & Werner, 2014). How the spinal cord works and its various parts. Sensory neurons transmit data to both the spinal cord and the brain inside and external organs and stimuli encountered by the parts of the body. The sensory capacity of the nervous NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 6 system includes gathering data from sensory receptors that screen the body's interior and outside conditions. These signals are then conveyed to the CNS for further preparing by afferent neurons and nerves. The brain is the control of the body. The mind is commonly considered to have three principal parts: The brain stem, the forebrain, and the hindbrain. The role of the forebrain is to get and form sensory data. Example of these includes thinking, understanding and delivering language and movement functions. The forebrain comprises of various parts such as the thalamus, cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and cerebrum. Interneurons go about as couriers that relate motions among motor and sensory neurons. The procedure of integration is the handling of the different sensory signals that are passed into the CNS at some random time. These signs are assessed, evaluated and acted upon for decision making. Besides, those not utilized are either discarded or stored for memory as deemed relevant or fit by the system. This happens in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. Numerous interneurons cooperate to shape complex networks that give this preparing power. Movement Control Hampel, Franconville, Simpson & Seeds (2015) explains the various kinds of body movement are realized by the symphonic contraction and relaxation of body muscles. In this case, the issues of contraction take place when the nerve impulses are transmitted through neuromuscular intersections to the membrane covering each muscle fiber. Most muscles are not perpetually contracting but instead, are kept in a state prepared to contract in case it is needed — the scarcest movement or even the intention to move results in the extensive activity of the muscles of the limbs and trunk. NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 7 Motor activities in human might be intrinsic to the body itself and completed by muscles of the trunk and body cavity (Hampel, Franconville, Simpson & Seeds, 2015). Examples are those associated with swallowing food items, breathing, urinating, laughing, sneezing and other myriads activities. Such movements are to a great extent done by smooth muscles of the viscera such as bladder and alimentary canal; these parts are innervated by parasympathetic nerves, efferent, and sympathetic nerves. Different kind of motor activities relate the body to the prevailing environment, and the functions are either, either for body movement or for signaling to other people. These are completed by the skeletal muscles of the trunk and limbs. The skeletal muscles are attached to the bones and deliver the required movement at the joints. Efferent movement nerves innervate them and in some cases by parasympathetic nerves and efferent sympathetic (Enoka, 2015; Bourane et al., 2015). Each movement of the body must be inappropriate act speed, force, and the position. These parts of the movement are consistently answered to the central nervous system through various receptors sensitive to the equilibrium of the region to be moved or put in motion, posture and position, and inner states of the body. These receptors are called proprioceptors, and those keep on moving continuous evaluation of the situation of the tendon organs limbs are and muscle spindles Bourane et al., 2015). Bourane et al., (2015) further add that movement can be sorted out at a few dimensions of the nervous system. At the lower level dimension includes the movement of the viscera, some of which does not incorporate the nervous system, being controlled by neurons of the autonomic sensory system inside the Viscera themselves. Trunk and Limbs movement takes place at the next dimension of the spinal cord. In case the spinal cord is severed with the goal that no nerve NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 8 impulses land from the Brain, a certain movement of the trunk and limbs underneath the dimension of the damage can in any case occur. At a higher level, the respiratory movements are controlled by the lower brainstem. The upper brainstem engaged in the regulation of muscles of the eye, the bladder, and fundamental level of movement such as walking and running. The following dimension is the hypothalamus, and its roles include directing specific functions in totalities of movement. For example includes activities such as curling up, urinating, vomiting and defecating, and nodding off among others. At the most elevated amount is a gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres, subcortical basal ganglia, and the cortex. This is the dimension of conscious control of movements (Kelso, 2014). Tactile Receptors Only a minority of the nerve fibers providing a muscle are customary motor fibers that make it contract. The rest are either afferent sensory fibers that inform the central nervous system what the muscle is doing or concentrated motor fibers controlling the behavior of the sensory nerve endings. In cases the constant input of proprioceptive data from the tendons, muscles, and joints is cut off, movements can, in any case, happen, however, they cannot be adjusted to suit changing conditions; nor can new motor skills be produced. As expressed over, the sensory receptors mainly take concern of the body movement t includes the muscle spindles and tendon organs. The Muscle Spindle is immensely more complex than the tendon organ, so that, even though it has been considerably more intensively examined, it is less known or understood (Schwarz, 2016). Ligament Organs The tendon organ comprises mainly of an afferent nerve fiber that ends in various muscles of the tendon where the tendons join onto muscle fibers. By lying in tandem with NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 9 muscle, the tendon organ is very much set to flag any muscular tension. Indeed, the afferent fiber of the ligament organ is sufficiently delicate to produce a valuable flag on the contraction of a single muscle fiber. Along these lines, ligament organs give a continuous stream of data on the dimension of muscular withdrawal (Schwarz, 2016). Muscle Axles According to Heiney, Kim, Augustine & Medina (2014), the natural Knee-Jerk reflex, tried routinely by physicians, is a spinal reflex in which a short, express tap on the knee energizes muscle spindle afferent neurons, which at that point stimulate the motor neurons of the extended muscle through a solitary synapse in the spinal cord. In this direct reflexes, which is not transmitted through interneurons of the Central Nervous System, the deferral time is around 0.02 second and mostly happens in the conduction of impulses to and from the spinal string. Knee-jerk reflex and motor-neuron connection The Cerebral Cortex and cerebellum additionally use data given by muscle spindles in manners that keep on focusing on nitty-gritty evaluation. One perfect example includes kinesthesia or the subjective sensory awareness of the situation of limbs in space. It may be assumed that sensory receptors in joints, not the muscles, give Kinesthetic signs since individuals are incredibly concerned of joint angle and not in any manner of the length of the different NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 10 muscles included. The fact is that kinesthesia largely depends to a great extent upon the integration inside the cerebral cortex of signs from the muscle spindles (Heiney, Kim, Augustine & Medina, 2014). The main question is tell me how we decide to transfer between walking and running. Scientists have taken a step closer towards understanding what happens in the brain when we begin to run or walk. According to Schwarz (2016), the two parts of the midbrain transmits signals to the spinal cord, and this is passed over to the legs informing it when it should begin moving and also how slow or fast this needs to happen. In this regard to the literature explored above the difference between walking and running is only the speed and the signals are sent from the brain. So when we begin to move, the brain gives the signal through the spinal cord which is then passed to the nerve cells to control the precise movement of the muscles. Besides, both are running and walking are not controlled from the same point but different parts of the brainstem control specific aspects of moving. Conclusion Motor Neurons are among the most critical neurons in the central nervous system and have long axons that make a trip along peripheral nerves to innervate skeletal muscles. They are the last primary pathway through which the brain controls real movement made by human beings. Motor neurons get excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contributions from sensory afferents and pathways. The inherent properties of these neurons decide how these information sources are transformed into a grouping of action potentials that inspire muscle compression, contraction with an objective of initiating movement. Motor neurons are enlisted in manners that make effective utilization of the muscle fibers they innervate. Every single movement activity – NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS regardless of whether stereotyped is extraordinarily determined by a grouping of muscle contraction. 11 NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS 12 References Bourane, S., Grossmann, K. S., Britz, O., Dalet, A., Del Barrio, M. G., Stam, F. J., ... & Goulding, M. (2015). Identification of a spinal circuit for light touch and fine motor control. Cell, 160(3), 503-515. Crary, M. A., Carnaby, G. D., Haak, N. J., & Madhavan, A. (2015). Neural control of swallowing and treatment of motor impairments in dysphagia. In Routledge Handbook of Communication Disorders (pp. 102-113). Routledge. Enoka, R. M. (2015). Neural Control of Movement. Neuromechanics of Human Movement, 285305. Grassi, G., Mark, A., & Esler, M. (2015). The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension. Circulation research, 116(6), 976-990. Hampel, S., Franconville, R., Simpson, J. H., & Seeds, A. M. (2015). A neural command circuit for grooming movement control. Elife, 4, e08758. Heiney, S. A., Kim, J., Augustine, G. J., & Medina, J. F. (2014). Precise control of movement kinematics by optogenetic inhibition of Purkinje cell activity. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(6), 2321-2330. Hughes, G., Sangle, S., & Bowman, S. (2014). The Nervous System. In Sjögren’s Syndrome in Clinical Practice (pp. 35-37). Springer, Cham. Kelso, J. S. (2014). Human motor behavior: An introduction. Psychology Press. Nave, K. A., & Werner, H. B. (2014). Myelination of the nervous system: mechanisms and functions. Annual review of cell and developmental biology, 30, 503-533. Schwarz, C. (2016). The slip hypothesis: tactile perception and its neuronal bases. Trends in neurosciences, 39(7), 449-462. NEURON CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS Woolsey, T. A., Hanaway, J., & Gado, M. H. (2017). The brain atlas: a visual guide to the human central nervous system. John Wiley & Sons. 13

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School: Rice University



Neuronal Control of Movement


Neural Control of Running and Movement

Movement is a characteristic of all living organisms. In humans, it occurs through a set of
coordinated mechanical interaction of bones, muscles, ligaments and joints under the control of
the nervous system. Crary et al (2015) asserts that, controlled movements venture into subjective
areas, and in this way issues of motor control cannot be completely isolated from other mental
processes. Movements are not only limited to physical change from one position to another. It
also includes intrinsic movements carried out by smooth muscles innervated by sympathetic
and parasympathetic nerves. Examples of these internal movements are: breathing, urinating,
swallowing and defecating among many others. Physical movement in relation to the
environment can happen in response to a signal or just for moving. This study of human
movement is referred to as Kinesiology.
Central Nervous System in locomotion
The Brain.
The physiology of nervous coordination in humans begins in the brain where impulses
are translated and a motor response effected eventually. Particularly, the Cerebrum that is
divided into two hemispheres by a longitudinal fissure is divided into four lobes. Among the
lobes, the parietal lobe has a function in controlling movement, orientation, recognition and
perception of stimuli. Corpus callosum in the cerebrum allows communication between both
hemispheres. The figure below demonstrates the particular parts of the brain and the innervations
that leads to control of movements.



Primary cortex located in the frontal lobe is one of the most important areas of the brain
that is involved in motor function. It has a role in generating neural impulses that crosses on to
the opposite side of the body with active skeletal muscles. Almost all parts in the body are
represented in here; amount of brain matter covering specific body parts shows the extent of
control by primary cortex.
If certain parts are compared for example, the limbs- hands and legs compared to the rest of
organs, it will show more primary cortex representation on the parts of the limbs.
Secondary cortex for example, posterior parietal complex takes a role in converting
visual impulses into motor commands. This shows a coordination of sight with movement
hence humans won’t get injured by stumbling on objects. In front of the primary cortex is
another part of secondary cortex called premotor cortex that serves to guide movement and
control of proximal and body muscles. Above the premotor area is the Supplementary motor area
that coordinates two-...

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