From among the following philosophers and philosophies of human nature? (Not a Research Papers)

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timer Asked: Dec 11th, 2018
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Question Description

choose one and critique his work which we studied and discussed in class: Freud, Schiller, Lorenz, Kierkegaard, Heidegger or Sartre.

the papers should be at least 7 pages.

Do NoT use sources, it is only about what you think.

The only sources you are allowed to use is the slides ( powerpoint) I will attach it. and the syllabus.

Use the slides and read and write the 7 pages based on your opinion and what you think ( philosophy).

Use simple sentences and structures.

No outside sources are allowed.

please read the syllabus very well and see exam 2 in the syllabus ( Requirement ).

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NEW YORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Social Sciences ICPH-301-M03, Philosophy of Human Nature Instructor: Fall 2018, M, 8:20-11pm, 16W61, Rm 721 e-mail: mizady@nyit.edu The objectives in this course are to familiarize you with what determines a human conduct and personality. Samples of work by various deterministic philosophers of human behavior will be studies and discussed in detail in class. These include B. Skinner (and social determinism), R. Dawkins (genetic determinism), S. Freud (psychological determinism), the existentialists like Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Heidegger and Sartre (personal determinism), and finally the ethologists like K. Lorenz and Sheller (natural determinism). Works by Ducass and Camus are likewise discussed to ponder on why people believe or want to believe in an afterlife, and whether life per se has any particular meaning to begin with? Students will learn about these modern philosophers’ thoughts and familiarize themselves with the patterns of their reasoning. The basic building blocks of the field of human behavior, mind processes and the philosophical approach to them--to include the terminology, concepts, subdivisions, schools of thought, and evolution will all be brought up, discussed and learned. Office hours: TuTh, 2:30-3:30pm, in Room 405B. The best method to contact me outside my office hours, is via the e-mail address printed at the top of this page. Messages may also be left for me with the Departmental Administrator at room 402 or telephone number (212) 261-1576. Textbooks: E. Kelly and L. Navia, The Fundamental Questions: A Selection of Readings in Philosophy (1997) any edition, Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (1972) any edition. Various other sources will be introduced to you on Google Drive or the school BlackBoard to serve as supplementary readings and documentary reviews. Analysis and discussion, however, form the foundation of this course, not memorization of the texts. Class participation, requirements and grading policy: You will be graded primarily for your class participation and through two exams and a regular, active participation in class discussions. Exams are take home, and should be between 5-7 pages of 1.5 line spacing. They should be based on your textbooks, class notes and discussions. No outside sources should be used in any manner. Grading scale is as follow: Discussion participation 30% Midterm exam 30% Final exam 20% Attendance 10% Reading & Film reviews 10% Regular and punctual class attendance is a strict requirement. In addition to loss of course grade for attendance, you cannot participate in the class discussion if you miss class, arrive late or depart while the session is still on. 30% of your course grade is based on discussion participation. Further, much information brought up in class and discussed is supplementary to the information found in the required textbook. You will not be able to complete your exams without regularly attending class and making note of what is discussed. You should inform me by e-mail of the reason for any absence or latenesses. Students are allowed only two unexcused absences in this course (two weeks), resulting in the loss of 10% of the course grade (see abov) Coming late to class or leaving early is counted as a quarter absence. Do not spend your class time on your cell phone and the internet. You will be asked to leave the class for the entire session and marked absent if you break this rule. Voice recorders are permitted in class if they help you with your learning process. 1 Readings & Discussions Except for the first session, in every subsequent week you must read the assigned pages in Kelly & Navia before coming to class. The analytic entries on the same philosophers in Russell’s work can be an excellent supplement. The collection by Kelly & Navia contains primarily the actual (long) samples of the philosophers’ work. Russell, on the other hand, provides analyses of the same and reflects on them. Week 1-2: Basic Questions. a. Introduction: What is “philosophy”? Terms and concepts; logic of questioning the questions; The nature of mind and the universe of binary oppositions;; reality vs. perception; truth vs. lie; good vs. evil; morals vs. ethics. Reading: Kelly & Navia: pp. vii-viii; and, Russell: Introduction b. Philosophy of thought formation in a binary oppositional universe. Thoughts and behavior. Week 3-6: Sources of Human behavior: Scientific Approach a. Skinner and Social Determinism b. Dawkins and Genetic Determinism; “Martyr syndrome” Week 7-8: Sources of Human behavior: Scientific Approach (continued) a. Freud and Psychoanalytical Approach b. Lorenz and Ethological Approach Week 9-11. Sources of Human behavior: Existential Approach b. Nietzsche and Social Darwinism b. Kierkegaard and the “Protestant Work Ethic”; Prejudice and chauvinism Week 12-14: Sources of Human behavior: Existential Approach (continued); The Stoics and Stoicism. a. Sartre and the twilight of a concept; Current views on Existentialism and Human Behavior b. Stoics (Epictetus, Seneca, Cicero) and the Stoic approach to Human Behavior; Martyr syndrome revisited Week 15: All outstanding papers and exams are due. Final Exam. 2 Plagiarism is the appropriation of all or part of someone else’s works (such as but not limited to writing, coding, programs, images, etc.) and offering it as one’s own. Cheating is using false pretenses, tricks, devices, artifices or deception to obtain credit on an examination or in a college course. If a faculty member determines that a student has committed academic dishonesty by plagiarism, cheating or in any other manner, the faculty has the academic right to 1) fail the student for the paper, assignment, project and/or exam, and/or 2) fail the student for the course and/or 3) bring the student up on disciplinary charges, pursuant to Article VI, Academic Conduct Proceedings, of the Student Code of Conduct. The complete Academic Integrity Policy may be found on various NYIT web pages. A plagiarized exam will result in your expulsion from the course and referral to the school dean for further action. It is very easy to know what is yours and what is plagiarized. Do NOT attempt it. Instead, I could help you clarifying your thoughts and translate them into written works. All take home exams are due a week after they are assigned. Exams All exams are take-home. They are due a week after they are assigned, except for the last (the Final exam) that is due on its own school-designated day. NO exceptions. The length should be between 5-7 pages. Exams must be typed and stapled. DO NOT e-mail me your work! In some cases, I may allow a rewrite of your exams. In that case, you need to address EVERY question and remark that I write on each of your exams in order to resubmit. All changes on the rewrites must be highlighted (choose bold letters for the changes, or a highlighter). Rewrites must be stapled to the previous version(s) of the same exam. Topic of the Exams: Please write on top of each of your exams its exact title as it appears below, making sure you answer all the points. Exam 1. Compare and Contrast Social determinism and Genetic determinism in the works of Skinner and Dawkins we studied and extensively discussed in class. Please note that this is an exam not a research paper. You are only allowed to use your class notes, memory and your textbook; nothing from any outside sources. Points to remember: 1. Review the work 2. Discuss the positive and negative points in the work 3. Explain why you agree or disagree with his hypotheses and pronouncements Exam 2. From among the following philosophers and philosophies of human nature, choose one and critique his work which we studied and discussed in class: Freud, Schiller, Lorenz, Kierkegaard, Heidegger or Sartre. Remember again that this is an exam not a research paper. You are only allowed to use your class notes, memory and your textbook; Nothing from any outside sources. Points to remember: 4. Review the work 5. Discuss the positive and negative points in the work 6. Explain why you agree or disagree with his hypotheses and pronouncements You MUST attend class on the final exam time and bring your exam with you. Do NOT make travel plans that makes you miss this session. You will be marked as having missed your final exam and your exam papers will be rejected if you violate this rule. There will be NO exception to this. 3 Resources: Many works of the better-known philosophers, as well as the following topics are available on the Internet. Try the web sites listed below: http://www.cybercom.net/~rbjones/rbjpub/philos/index.htm Analytic Methods Bibliography Classic Texts Economics Epistemology Glossary History Introduction Logic Mathematics Metaphysics Politics Super Brain Utopia Values Writings by many philosophers are found in their entirety in the web site below http://www.cybercom.net/~rbjones/rbjpub/philos/classics/index.htm Valuable examples include: Aristotle: Aristotle's Logic - The Organon Descartes: Discourse on Method Leibniz: The Monadology Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding Berkeley: Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Hume: Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason The following web site provides for a “philosophy resources,” where philosophers and philosophical topics are given in alphabetical order http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/philos/classics/index.htm On Montesquieu and The Spirit of Law http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/philos/index.htm Philosophy of Human Nature Dr. Michael Izady Social Determinism Burrhus.F. Skinner 1904-1990 Genetic Determinism The human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000–25,000 distinct protein-coding genes C. Richard Dawkins 1941- Present Structures of two base pairs The structure of the DNA double helix Damaged/mutated DNA DNA replication: The double helix is un'zipped' and unwound, then each separated strand (turquoise) acts as a template for replicating a new partner strand (green). Nucleotides (bases) are matched to synthesize the new partner strands into two new double helices. “Twins”! Or not.. Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) In the 1970s, a group of deaf Nicaraguan schoolchildren invented a new language. The kids were the first to enroll in Nicaragua’s new wave of special education schools. NSL is not a direct translation of Spanish – it is a language in its own right, complete with its own grammar and vocabulary. Its child inventors created it naturally by combining and adding to gestures that they had used at home. Gradually, the language became more regular, more complex and faster. Ever since, NSL has been a goldmine for scientists, providing an unparalleled opportunity to study the emergence of a new language. Others who has postulated on the natural human proclivity to invent and use language--complete with grammar, inflections, cases and flavors--have now been vindicated. Despite the principle of 'survival of the fittest' the ultimate criterion which determines whether [a gene] G will spread is not whether the behavior is to the benefit of the behaver, but whether it is to the benefit of the gene G ...With altruism this will happen only if the affected individual is a relative of the altruist, therefore having an increased chance of carrying the gene. W. D. Hamilton, The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior, 1963 William D. Hamilton 1936-2000 Psychological Determinism The Psyche Of neuroses and psychoses Anxiety disorder / angst (neuroses) 1. Constantly and needlessly assuring their loved ones that he/she can’t live without the other person 2. Isolating the other one from friends and family And complexes (psychoses) Oedipus complex Electra complex Inferiority/superiority complex Psychoses affecting a relationship Inferiority complex 1. Physical, emotional or psychological abuse of those they befriend or love vs. being a scared mouse when dealing with people of authority and dominance 2. Quick anger, mood swings or rage 3. Has to “win” every debate, by turning it into an argument 4. Threatening the other person/partner, or those who the other person loves: people, pets or possessions 5. Coercive, jealous or manipulative behavior 6. Acting extremely possessive or jealous 7. Pressuring for sex or intimacy to dominate 8. Wishing demise of a benefactor Sigmund Freud “After we left all of the animals in Africa that were still alive, we were on a plane headed home” “Pictures of the animals I harvested” (and the woman that “I” …… ) “I shot a Leopard. Super cool, super lucky, The Leopard is one of the big 5, as in one of the 5 animals in Africa that will kill you before you can kill it.” "I killed a whole family of baboons" Blake Fischer, an Idaho Fish and Wild Life Commissioner and his wife shot at least 14 animals in Namibia--all endangered Psychoses affecting a relationship Superiority complex/”control freak” complex 1. Tell others incessantly how to act, what to day or how to dress 2. Constant criticism of everybody and everything 3. Putting the other side down constantly 4. Saying “no” at the start of each sentence in a conversation, even when “no-s or yes-s” are not needed 5. Threatening the other person/partner, or those who the other person loves: people, pets or possession 6. Controlling or blaming behavior Sigmund Freud Defense mechanisms leading to neurotic behavior or complexes: Trauma: common psychological reaction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mourning Denial Bargaining with fate Depression Neurosis Mind out of balance 1. 2. Too much kindness by ego Creepiness Carlos “Halfy” Rodriguez hit a pole, sending him through the windshield and onto the street, where he landed on his head. He lost a huge amount of brain and skull, but lived. was fourteen, at 20 arrested for solicit prostitutes. He denies his ability to control the action. Ethological Determinism: Studying human nature, behavior and social organization from a biological perspective, namely, as a part of the animal kingdom Macaques having their own Stone Age culture Ethological Determinism “Why the presumably reasonable beings individually, we the humans behave so unreasonably collectively? The answer is clear: Human collective behavior is directed by instinctive forces such as survival, and not by ethics or reason. In this, humans’ conduct can be answered by a comparative study with other animal species and their instinctive behavior.” Humans are capable of ethnical behavior only individually but not collectively Konrad Korenz 1903-1989 The animal man “If human history and social behavior were observed from afar, one would never get the impression that it was directed by intelligence, much less ethics.” Human ideals vs. actualities “We consider mass murderers as ‘manly national heroes’ and bestow upon them the title of “Great”, we call religions the instruments of love and peace, although they have instigated more bloodshed and hatred than any other single ideological school. ” Konrad Korenz 1903-1989 Man has not had time to psychologically or sociologically adjust to the technological capabilities-- that his conceptual thought capable of abstraction--has awarded him. The reason he has not destroyed himself is the ability to ask questions from oneself. Lozenz: • Human good social behavior to be instinctive as is amongst social animals (contrary to other philosopher who think it to be the result of our rational thinking and reason). • Crowding increases tendency for violence and lowers sexual desire and reproduction. All instinctive and shared with animals • No need for hording or steeling individually but collectively. Even personal hording of resources, trading sex for goods and services…are all fruits of sophisticated mind. They are resourcefulness not vices. Konrad Korenz 1903-1989 The Essence of Spirit: Max Scheler • By “spirit” it is clear that Scheler refers to the human ability of ethical action, and considers spirit to be the seat of that and man the only creature possessing it. • Scheler believes that the difference between men and animals is not in the degree of intelligence or free will, but something that is not biological nor psychological, but rather possession of spirit--- that is, theological! • He totally denies spirit to animals who Scheler believes are basically mechanical beings/minds driven by instincts alone and devoid of all senses of ethics, goodness, respect, beauty, selfawareness, and justice. Max Scheler 1874-1928 Coco and her friend Elephants Mourn For Weeks, Visiting The Graves Of Their Loved Ones Are animals capable of ethical behavior? Concept of man’s superiority • Scheler’s entire argument for human superiority over all other beings is based on possessing ‘spirit.’ • In many respect, one can sense Nietzsche’s “ Übermensch/Untermensch”concept and the resultant eugenics and organized in Scheler’s idea of man’s superiority. Max Scheler 1874-1928 • Many have proposed that only humans are “selfconscious,”and that presumably is the sign of ‘spirit.’ This is mainly due to the ignorance of animal thought and behavior--let alone plants! Life is self-awareness/self-consciousness Frederick Nietzsche 1844-1900 The Existentialists man is the final product of his own decisions • • • • • No one responsible for what you are Social determinism being excuse for sloth Rights are not given, but taken Religion the crutches for the lazy and the feeble-minded Social nets encourage irresponsibility and are useful only to the lazy and the unproductive freeloaders Søren Kierkegaard 1813-1855 Frederick Nietzsche 1844-1900 Buchenwald Auschwitz Sachsenhausen Dachau Making itself intelligible is the suicide for philosophy… Martin Heidegger 1889-1976 Freedom is actually one with the being of the foritself; human reality is free to the exact extent that it has to be its own nothingness. J. P. Sartre: Being and Nothingness Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980 The Existentialists man is the final product of his own decisions “Animals are the second biggest mistake of nature..” Frederick Nietzsche Guilty of seeking an education “Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and think critically” Martin L. King 1929-1968 Is human brilliance possible without education? American Realism and Iconoclasm… Equal brain capacity?---”mine is bigger than yours”… VENONA code breakers 1940-45 The Principal of Human dignity Doctrine of Right (Rechtslehre) and Doctrine of Virtue (Tugendlehre) The fallacy of belief that values and rights can be derived from the transitory whims and aspirations of human beings, which only result in relativism and ethnical emotivism Immanuel Kant Principle of human dignity: Award every person no matter how low, a common dignity. A man must be treated with greatest dignity which shall bring forth the best in every sane person. Republic and basic justice “There are virtues common to all human beings. Human virtue does not depend on a person's gender or age. Virtues are common to all people.” Plato The Cost of Prejudice The inequality of the sexes has deprived society of a vast pool of talent. If women had the free use of their faculties along with the same prizes and encouragements as men, there would be a doubling of the mass of mental faculties available for the higher service of humanity. Every restraint on freedom of conduct of any of their human fellow creatures dries up pro tanto the principal fountain of h ...
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School: New York University

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Outline

Introduction
Body
Conclusion
References


Running Head: CRITIQUE OF HEIDEGGER ON SARTRE AND KIERKEGAARD

Critique of Heidegger on Sartre and Kierkegaard
Name
Institution
Instructor
Date

1

CRITIQUE OF HEIDEGGER ON SARTRE AND KIERKEGAARD

2

Critique of Heidegger
In my analysis, am going to consider about one of the philosophers that we have studied
in class and the key idea concerns the various philosophies of human nature. Therefore, in
completion of the intended aim, am going to make a critique of one of the philosophers that we
are going to analyze. Therefore, from my own perspective human nature seems to be a crucial
element as much as psychology is concerned as psychology generally entails behavior study
together with mental processes. Therefore, am essentially going to review on one of the
philosophers’ works, evaluate the various positive and negative aspects in his works, as well as
explain my statement with the various pronouncements that the philosopher makes. For this case,
am going to do an analysis on the work of Heidegger.
Review of the Works of Heidegger
In accordance with my own understanding, the work of Martin Heidegger can be
reviewed through the manner in which he is seen to show an influence that is unparalleled on the
way current people think. Therefore as it can be noticed, the work he does based on the concept
of “Time and Being” brings developments that are recent in the modern philosophy in Europe.
Thus, what I observe from his work is that as he involves himself with National Socialism in
1930, he remains to be a philosopher that is notorious. Therefore, from his works and what he
does, he is taken serious occasionally and at given points he happens to be ridiculed. Thus, from
my own analysis, Martin is observed to be criticizing Sartre in a public lecture about
“Existentialism is Humanism”. He is seen to denote what he says by saying that his philosophy
can be seen to be much different if compared to that of Sartre. From the humanism letter that
Heidegger is seen to address, he argues the philosophy of Sartre happens not to be part of
Sartre’s existentialist history and tradition. As it can be observed from what he lays his basis on,
he says that when both affirmations as well as annihilation are considered, they seem to be
factors which are not of subjectivity as Sartre addresses. Else, what can be noted is that
Heidegger does an analysis of Sartre’s philosophy in regard ...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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