Energy and Environment (50 questions) including calculation.

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timer Asked: Dec 12th, 2018
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Question description

Energy supply in this country and the world; conventional fuel reserves: coal, oil, natural gas; alternative sources: nuclear, solar, geothermal, et. Forecasts and strategies to meet needs. Environmental pollution, sources, and economic and environmental impacts. Methods for pollution control. Regulatory standards for environmental protection.

Multiple choice (with some multiple answer)

Calculation result (with units specified)

Generally based on mathematical definitions and energy conversions

For example: Doubling time, PE, KE, Q, Qc, Pelec ,t1/2, Eff

Time 12/12, 3.30pm-5.30pm

ChE-410 Energy and the Environment Exam 1 Review First Exam    Thursday 9/27 To be taken individually! Taken on-line through MyCourses ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Exam will be available to take at 11:00 am Must be completed by 1:00 pm Once started, you have 80 minutes to complete 1 attempt at the exam ChE410 Exam 1 Review  Covers all material to date in class ◦ Lectures 1 through 8  25 Questions ◦ Multiple choice ◦ Calculation ◦ True/False  Be sure to read the question carefully before answering! First Exam ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Concepts  Dimensions and Units ◦ SI system including prefixes ◦ Unit Conversions – have unit conversion table available ◦ Base unit versus base dimensionality for derived units ◦ Significant figures ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Concepts  Introduction to Energy ◦ Generalized definitions of energy and environment ◦ Historical Use of Fuel ◦ Resources and Reserves ◦ Energy content and lifetime ◦ Peak Resource ◦ Exponential growth ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Concepts  Forms of Energy ◦ Sources and Uses  Energy defined as motion ◦ Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, Force  Energy is the capacity to do work ◦ Key concepts, equations and units  First Law of Thermodynamics ◦ Definitions of kinetic and potential energy  Power: the rate of energy use, conversion, and production ◦ Key concepts, equations and units ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Concepts  The First Law of thermodynamics as an energy balance ◦ Concepts and Problem solving  Efficiency ◦ Single and Multistage processes ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Equations  Energy Content ◦ 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑥 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦  Lifetime ◦ 𝐿𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 =  𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑈𝑠𝑒 Exponential Growth: Doubling Time Approximation ◦ 𝑑𝑜𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 ~ 70 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠 % 𝑔𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Quiz 2 Question 10   The annual income of a person in India is $5,000 and is growing at a rate of 7% per year. How many years will it take for it to reach $20,000 per year Answer: 20 years ◦ Use doubling formula twice ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Equations  Speed ◦ 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 =  Velocity 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 ◦ 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 =  𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 units: m/s, ft/s, mph, km/hr 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 Acceleration ◦ 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =  units: m/s, ft/s, mph, km/hr Force 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 units: m/s2, ft/s2 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 ◦ 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 × 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛  Work units: N, lbf ◦ 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 × 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 units: J ChE410 Exam 1 Review Key Equations  1st Law of Thermodynamics ◦ 𝑊 + 𝑄 = 𝛥(𝐾𝐸 + 𝑃𝐸 + 𝑇𝐸 )  Potential Energy (J) ◦ 𝑃𝐸𝐺 = 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 × ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ  Kinetic Energy (J) 1 2 ◦ 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2  Power (W) ◦ 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 =  𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 Efficiency ◦ 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑟 𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑓𝑢𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 × 100% ◦ 𝐸𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝐸1 × 𝐸2 × 𝐸3 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  A ship can maintain an average velocity of 30km/h on an ocean voyage. How far (in km) will the ship have travelled in 4 days?  Answer: ◦ 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 × 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 ◦ 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 30 𝑘𝑚 ℎ × 4 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 × 24 ℎ 𝑑𝑎𝑦 = 2,880 𝑘𝑚 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  A 1000-kg car goes from 0 to 100km/h in 6.2 seconds. What is the net force (in N) acting on the car?  Answer: ◦ 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 × 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 100−0 𝑘𝑚/ℎ𝑟 1000𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × × × = 6.2 𝑠 𝑘𝑚 60𝑚𝑖𝑛 60𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔·𝑚 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 1000𝑘𝑔 × 4.48 2 = 4,480 2 = 4,480𝑁 𝑠 𝑠 ◦ 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = ◦ ◦ 4.48 𝑚 𝑠2 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem   To what height (in m) would a 2-kg object have to be raised so that its gravitational potential energy would equal the kinetic energy it would posses if it were moving at 3 m/s? Answer: 1 2 1 2 ◦ 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2 𝑃𝐸𝐺 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ ◦ 𝐾𝐸 = × 2𝑘𝑔 × ◦ 𝑃𝐸𝐺 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ → ℎ 𝑚 2 𝑘𝑔·𝑚2 3 = 9 2 = 9𝑁𝑚 = 9𝐽 𝑠 𝑠 𝑃𝐸 9𝐽 = 𝐺= 𝑚 = 0.459𝑚 𝑚𝑔 2𝑘𝑔×9.8 2 𝑠 ◦ Or 1 𝑚𝑣 2 2 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ → ℎ = 𝑣2 2𝑔 = 3𝑚Τ 2 𝑠 2×9.80𝑚 ൗ𝑠2 = 0.459𝑚 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  An engine performs 4000 joules of work in 10 seconds. What is its power output in kilowatts and in horsepower?  Answer: ◦ ◦ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 4000𝐽 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = = 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 10𝑠 1ℎ𝑝 400𝑊 × = 0.536ℎ𝑝 746 𝑊 × 1𝑊 𝐽ൗ 𝑠 × 1𝑘𝑤 1000𝑤 = 0.400𝑘𝑊 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  On a level surface, what is the net force needed to bring a 1000-kg car to rest from a speed of 100 km/h in a distance of 30 m?  Answer: ◦ From 1st law: W = ∆KE 1 2 ◦ ∆𝐾𝐸 = 𝐾𝐸𝑖 − 𝐾𝐸𝑓 = 𝐾𝐸𝑖 = 𝑚𝑣 2 ◦ ∆𝐾𝐸 = 0.5 × ◦ 𝑊 = 𝐹𝑑 → 𝐹 𝑘𝑚 1000𝑚 1ℎ 2 1000𝑘𝑔 × 100 ℎ × 𝑘𝑚 × 3600𝑠 386,000𝐽 = 𝑊Τ𝐷 = 30𝑚 = −12,900𝑁 = 386,000J ◦ The negative sign in the answer indicates that the force is acting in an opposing direction to the velocity ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  A car accelerates at a constant rate of 4 m/s2 from rest. Find its velocity after 6 seconds.  Answer: ◦ 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 ◦ 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 ◦ 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖 = 𝑣𝑓 ◦ 𝑣𝑓 = 4 𝑚 𝑠2 × 6𝑠 = 24 𝑚Τ𝑠 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  An 80-kg man climbs a 6m ladder in 12 seconds. What is his average power expenditure?  Answer: ◦ 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 = 𝑊 , 𝑡 𝑊 = 𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 × 𝑑, 𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚 × 𝑎 = 𝑚 × 𝑔 ◦ 𝑊 = 80𝑘𝑔 × 9.8 𝑚Τ𝑠2 × 6𝑚 = 4,704𝑁𝑚 = 4,704𝐽 ◦ 𝑃= 𝑊 𝑡 = 4,704𝐽 12𝑠 = 392 𝑊 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  If a 70-kg sprinter running at 10 m/s could convert all of her kinetic energy into upward motion, how high could she jump?  Answer: ◦ Energy conversion KE to PE, ∆KE = ∆PE 1 2 ◦ 𝑚𝑣 2 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ ◦ℎ= 𝑚𝑣 2 2𝑚𝑔 = 𝑣2 2𝑔 = 10𝑚Τ𝑠 2 2×9.8𝑚ൗ𝑠2 = 5.10 𝑚 ChE410 Exam 1 Review Practice Problem  An SUV gets 14 mpg, and a minivan gets 32 mpg. How much more chemical energy (in Btu and kWh units) will be used by the SUV in a 200-mile trip? Assume 1 gallon of gasoline contains 1.24x105 Btu  Answer: ◦ Minivan: 32mpg → Gas Used = 200 miles / 32 mpg = 6.25 gal  Chemical energy = 6.25 gal x 1.24x105 Btu/gal = 775,000 Btu ◦ SUV: 14mpg → Gas Used = 200 miles / 14 mpg = 14.3 gal  Chemical Energy = 14.3 gal x 1.24x105 Btu/gal = 1,770,000 Btu ◦ Difference: 1,000,000 Btu (rounded to nearest 10,000) ◦ 1,000,000 Btu x 1 KWh / 3,413 Btu = 292 KWh ChE410 Exam 1 Review
ChE-410 Energy and the Environment Lecture 19 Exam 2 Review Second Exam  Thursday 11/8 11am ◦ Covers material to date with focus on: Heat and Work, Fossil Fuels, Heat Engines, Air Pollution, Climate Change and Electricity (Lectures 10 – 18)   To be taken individually! Taken on-line through MyCourses ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Exam will be available to take at 11:00 am Must be completed by 1:00 pm Once started, you have 80 minutes to complete 1 attempt at the exam Can take it any convenient location with reliable internet access Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review  First Law of thermodynamics ◦ Energy conservation ◦ 𝑊+𝑄=Δ(𝐾𝐸+𝑃𝐸+𝑇𝐸) ◦ Heat and work equivalence  Thermal Energy vs. Heat ◦ Temperature  oF, oR, oC, K ◦ Specific Heat 𝑄=𝑚𝑐Δ𝑇  Phase Changes ◦ Latent heat ◦ 𝑄=𝑚Δ𝐻𝑝.𝑐.  Heat Transfer ◦ Driving forces, important parameters ◦ Conduction  Thermal Conductivity 𝑄𝑐 𝑘 × 𝐴 × 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 = 𝑡 𝑙 ◦ Convection ◦ Radiation Key Concepts: Heat and Work Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problem 1. If 80 Btu of heat energy is added to 2 lb of water at 40ºF, what will be the final temperature of the water? Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review   Global Consumption, Production, Reserve patterns Resource ◦ Formation of Oil, Gas, Coal ◦ Geological processes  Oil and Gas Discovery and Recovery Techniques  Non Traditional Sources ◦ Fracking   Coal classification and Use Mining and costs ◦ Traditional versus strip mining  Electricity Production (broadly) from coal ◦ Primary, secondary and enhanced (tertiary)  Petroleum (Crude Oil) Refining ◦ Compounds in Petroleum, Fractional Distillation Key Concepts: Fossil Fuels Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problem 2. A gas-fired turbine generator for producing electricity has an efficiency of 50%. How many cubic feet of natural gas are needed to produce 1000 MWe (Megawatts of electric energy) for one year? Natural gas has a heating value of 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot (Btu/scf). Give your answer in billion (109) cubic feet. Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review  Combustion of Fossil Fuels  ◦ Carbon intensity  Conversion of Heat to Work ◦ Uses ◦ 1st Law for Heat Engine  2nd Law for Heat Engines Heat Engine Efficiency ◦ Always <100% ◦ Maximum possible  Heat Pumps ◦ Refrigeration ◦ COP ◦ Entropy ◦ Statements of 2nd Law ◦ Can’t convert all heat energy to useful work Key Concepts: Heat Engines Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problem 3. What is the maximum efficiency of a steam driven turbine (heat engine) operating at a steam (upper) temperature of 800oC and a cooling water (lower) temperature of 40oC? Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review  Pollutants from Fossil Fuels ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  CO SO2 NOx PM VOCs  ◦ Sources ◦ pH  Clean Air Act ◦ Pollutants  Emissions Controls ◦ Automobiles ◦ Coal-Fired Power and coal ash ◦ Volkswagen Photochemical Smog ◦ NOx, VOCs, light ◦ Organic radicals, O3 ◦ Sources Acid Rain  National Ambient Air Quality Standards Key Concepts: Air Pollution Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problem 4. A 500 MW coal-fired power plant burns 250 tons of coal per hour. If the coal contains 0.1 ppm (by weight) of mercury (Hg) how much Hg (in pounds) is emitted by the power plant in a year? Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review   Greenhouse Gas potential in fuels Greenhouse Effect ◦ Physical interactions and energy conversions  CO2-Temperature data ◦ Ice Cores  Climate Modeling estimates ◦ Interpretation, possible outcomes Visible Effects  Possible Impacts  Global Carbon Cycle  Feedback Mechanisms   Information obtained, how determined Key Concepts: Climate Change Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problem 5. Which of the fuels below the highest global warming potential when burned: A – CH4 B – C 3H 8 C – C4H10 D – C 2H 2 Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review  Definition  ◦ Energy Vector ◦ Produced as consumed  ◦ Ohm’s law ◦ Physical meaning, units, relevance ◦ Power calculations ◦ Losses in wires Energy Transport ◦ Transmission and distribution  Power Transmitted: PT= IV (good)  Power Lost: PL= I2R (bad)  Differences, requirements ◦ Electricity Grid  Construction (pros and cons)  Historical considerations  Modern (Smart) Grid  Net Metering Voltage, Current and Resistance   Power Generation AC and DC  Environmental Impacts ◦ Uses, pros and cons ◦ Transformers ◦ Hi V transmission Key Concepts: Electricity Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Practice Problems 6. A 12V battery is connected across a device whose resistance is 24Ω (ohms). What is the power dissipated by this load? Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Additional Practice Problems 7. How much energy will it take to melt a block of ice of mass 15kg? If that energy was instead used to raise the block vertically, how far would it be raised? 8. A 75 kg block of a material was heated by the addition of 350,000 joules of energy. If the block was initially at 25ºC, what is its final temperature? The specific heat of the material is 1418 J/(kg-ºC). 9. If the temperature of the water leaving the condenser in a steam turbine cycle were raised from 20oC to 30oC, what would be the decrease in the Carnot (maximum) efficiency of the plant. Assume the steam temperature is 500oC. Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Additional Practice Problems 10. What is the cost of running a 1,500W hair dryer for 30 minutes when the cost of electricity is $0.15/KWh? 11. A refrigerator is rated at 6A at 120V. How much power is used by the refrigerator when operating at the rated voltage? 12. A refrigerator has a coefficient of performance equal to 3. What is the power required to freeze a 15kg block of ice in 1 hour? Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review Answers to Practice Problems Answers are posted in MyCourses Module 5 “Exam 2 Practice Problem Solutions.pdf” Lecture #19 Exam 2 Review
ChE-410 Energy and the Environment Lecture 26 Final Exam Review Reminders • Homework #10 will due Sunday (12/9) • Course evaluation • Online, open now, until 12/10 • Please complete at your earliest convenience CHE410 Lecture #25 Final Exam • Final Exam – 12/12 3:30-5:30 • Online (same as previous exams) • Cumulative, with focus (~65%) on information since exam 2 • What you want to have in addition to your computer: • Reliable internet connection • Table of conversion factors • Notes, lecture slides, etc. CHE410 Lecture #26 Final Exam  Covers all material in the course. ~65% will be on material since Exam 2 (lectures 20-25) and the remainder from material prior to Exam 2.  50 Questions, 1 point per question ◦ Multiple choice (with some multiple answer) ◦ Calculation result (with units specified) ◦ Generally based on mathematical definitions and energy conversions  For example: Doubling time, PE, KE, Q, Qc, Pelec, t1/2, Eff CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Nuclear  Structure of matter ◦ Atoms  Subatomic particles ◦ Nucleus: Protons and Neutrons ◦ Electrons ◦ Elements, ions and Isotopes  Radiation and decay ◦ How is it different from normal chemical processes ◦ Half-life: what is it, what does it matter?  Chemical vs Nuclear Reactions ◦ Benefits of nuclear?  Chain Reactions ◦ How are they propagated, what are the requirements?  Nuclear Reactor: general operation? ◦ controlled and uncontrolled chain reactions CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Nuclear  Nuclear Fuel Resources ◦ Fertile vs Fissile Atoms ◦ Viable options for fuel?  Nuclear waste management ◦ What are the options, what can we do? ◦ What are the necessary considerations?  Nuclear Safety ◦ Zero risk is not real ◦ Case Studies:  Three Mile Island  Chernobyl  Fukushima CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem A cylinder contains 1g of Radon-222, which has a half life of 3.8 days. When it was filled it had 32g of Radon-222. How long ago was it filled? A – 7.6 days B – 11.4 days C – 15.2 days D – 19.0 days E – 22.8 days CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  General Background ◦ How is the energy created?  Potential and problems ◦ Locations ◦ Variation considerations   Uses : Thermal versus electrical Types of thermal ◦ Active, passive ◦ Pro and cons ◦ How do they work? CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  Solar Power Plants ◦ Concentrated power plants  How do they collect energy? ◦ Size and scale, Why mirrors? ◦ Types of mirrors?  How is electricity created? CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  Photovoltaic cells (PV) ◦ Direct electricity generation from sunlight  In general, how does it work? ◦ Pros, cons, potential  Current usage, rooftop potential?  Overall Pros and Cons of solar Energy CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Water Energy Energy sources and transformations  Hydrologic cycle  ◦ How driven? Why important?  Hydroelectric ◦ How does it work?  Tidal ◦ Source of energy? ◦ Types and concerns  Wave energy ◦ Source of energy? ◦ Types and concerns  Overall pros and cons CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem What is the energy available from 1 kg of water falling a distance of 50m? A – 48 J B – 490 J C – 1,250 J D – 490 W E – 1,250 W CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Wind Energy   Energy Sources Turbine types ◦ Advantages and requirements  Distribution ◦ Current use and potential  Overall pros and cons CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem If the wind speed driving a turbine doubles (e.g. goes from 5 mph to 10mph) how does the turbine’s power output change? A – It drops to one-half the original value B – It does not change C – It doubles D – It goes up by a factor of four E – It goes up by a factor of eight CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Biomass   What is it? Energy Conversion: Photosynthesis ◦ Required ingredients and outputs ◦ Reaction mechanisms  Types of use (solid, liquid gas) ◦ Solid – direct and co-combustion of fuels ◦ Liquid  Biofuels – ethanol, biodiesel  Replacement of fossil fuel derived gas ◦ Biogas  Or syngas, replacement for natural gas  Municipal waste usage ◦ Direct combustion  Landfill gas creation and uses ◦ UNH Eco line project CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Geothermal    What is the energy source? General pros and cons? Criteria for natural usage ◦ Thermal or electrical ◦ Electrical generation types: requirements  Enhanced Geothermal Systems ◦ What problem does this solve? How is it used? ◦ What problems does it create? ◦ Who can use this and how?  Geothermal Heat Pumps ◦ Use of low temperature heat ◦ Who can use it? How does it work? CHE410 Lecture #26 Question If geothermal power plant can get either 100 kg/s of dry steam at 270oC or 100kg/s of hot water at 270oC which should be used to get the most power from the plant? A – Dry steam at 270oC B – Hot Water at 270oC C – It doesn’t matter which CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Storage  Types of energy storage ◦ Mechanical (PE and KE), Electrochemical, Electrical, Thermal  Parameters that characterize energy storage systems ◦ Installed and storage capacity, discharge time, overall efficiency  General pros and cons? ◦ Parameters, environment impacts  How storage systems work ◦ Form of stored energy ◦ Energy conversions  Batteries ◦ Secondary (rechargeable) ◦ How they produce electricity CHE410 Lecture #26 Question Pumped storage generally will enable a utility to ___________. A. B. C. D. increase their electrical potential energy increase the efficiency of their electrical generating system raise electrons to higher energy states store energy to meet high demand CHE410 Lecture #26 Earlier Material  What to review ◦ Prior exams (exam reviews) and quizzes ◦ Homework  Be sure to know definitions (and units) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Work, velocity, acceleration, force Energy and power Kinetic energy, potential energy 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics Energy system efficiency Voltage, current, resistance, electrical power Environmental impacts of energy sources CHE410 Lecture #26 Finally All topics are fair game Approach the exam efficiently Answer what you know first – all questions are worth 1 point Know the math, but really know the concepts! Don’t waste extra time worrying about the math problems. Practice them, but not at the expense of the rest. CHE410 Lecture #26

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