Energy and Environment (50 questions) including calculation

timer Asked: Dec 12th, 2018
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Question description

Energy supply in this country and the world; conventional fuel reserves: coal, oil, natural gas; alternative sources: nuclear, solar, geothermal, et. Forecasts and strategies to meet needs. Environmental pollution, sources, and economic and environmental impacts. Methods for pollution control. Regulatory standards for environmental protection.

Multiple choice (with some multiple answer)

Calculation result (with units specified)

Generally based on mathematical definitions and energy conversions

For example: Doubling time, PE, KE, Q, Qc, Pelec ,t1/2, Eff

Time 12/12, 3.30pm-5.30pm

ChE-410 Energy and the Environment Lecture 26 Final Exam Review Reminders • Homework #10 will due Sunday (12/9) • Course evaluation • Online, open now, until 12/10 • Please complete at your earliest convenience CHE410 Lecture #25 Final Exam • Final Exam – 12/12 3:30-5:30 • Online (same as previous exams) • Cumulative, with focus (~65%) on information since exam 2 • What you want to have in addition to your computer: • Reliable internet connection • Table of conversion factors • Notes, lecture slides, etc. CHE410 Lecture #26 Final Exam  Covers all material in the course. ~65% will be on material since Exam 2 (lectures 20-25) and the remainder from material prior to Exam 2.  50 Questions, 1 point per question ◦ Multiple choice (with some multiple answer) ◦ Calculation result (with units specified) ◦ Generally based on mathematical definitions and energy conversions  For example: Doubling time, PE, KE, Q, Qc, Pelec, t1/2, Eff CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Nuclear  Structure of matter ◦ Atoms  Subatomic particles ◦ Nucleus: Protons and Neutrons ◦ Electrons ◦ Elements, ions and Isotopes  Radiation and decay ◦ How is it different from normal chemical processes ◦ Half-life: what is it, what does it matter?  Chemical vs Nuclear Reactions ◦ Benefits of nuclear?  Chain Reactions ◦ How are they propagated, what are the requirements?  Nuclear Reactor: general operation? ◦ controlled and uncontrolled chain reactions CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Nuclear  Nuclear Fuel Resources ◦ Fertile vs Fissile Atoms ◦ Viable options for fuel?  Nuclear waste management ◦ What are the options, what can we do? ◦ What are the necessary considerations?  Nuclear Safety ◦ Zero risk is not real ◦ Case Studies:  Three Mile Island  Chernobyl  Fukushima CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem A cylinder contains 1g of Radon-222, which has a half life of 3.8 days. When it was filled it had 32g of Radon-222. How long ago was it filled? A – 7.6 days B – 11.4 days C – 15.2 days D – 19.0 days E – 22.8 days CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  General Background ◦ How is the energy created?  Potential and problems ◦ Locations ◦ Variation considerations   Uses : Thermal versus electrical Types of thermal ◦ Active, passive ◦ Pro and cons ◦ How do they work? CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  Solar Power Plants ◦ Concentrated power plants  How do they collect energy? ◦ Size and scale, Why mirrors? ◦ Types of mirrors?  How is electricity created? CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Solar Energy  Photovoltaic cells (PV) ◦ Direct electricity generation from sunlight  In general, how does it work? ◦ Pros, cons, potential  Current usage, rooftop potential?  Overall Pros and Cons of solar Energy CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Water Energy Energy sources and transformations  Hydrologic cycle  ◦ How driven? Why important?  Hydroelectric ◦ How does it work?  Tidal ◦ Source of energy? ◦ Types and concerns  Wave energy ◦ Source of energy? ◦ Types and concerns  Overall pros and cons CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem What is the energy available from 1 kg of water falling a distance of 50m? A – 48 J B – 490 J C – 1,250 J D – 490 W E – 1,250 W CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Wind Energy   Energy Sources Turbine types ◦ Advantages and requirements  Distribution ◦ Current use and potential  Overall pros and cons CHE410 Lecture #26 Practice Problem If the wind speed driving a turbine doubles (e.g. goes from 5 mph to 10mph) how does the turbine’s power output change? A – It drops to one-half the original value B – It does not change C – It doubles D – It goes up by a factor of four E – It goes up by a factor of eight CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Biomass   What is it? Energy Conversion: Photosynthesis ◦ Required ingredients and outputs ◦ Reaction mechanisms  Types of use (solid, liquid gas) ◦ Solid – direct and co-combustion of fuels ◦ Liquid  Biofuels – ethanol, biodiesel  Replacement of fossil fuel derived gas ◦ Biogas  Or syngas, replacement for natural gas  Municipal waste usage ◦ Direct combustion  Landfill gas creation and uses ◦ UNH Eco line project CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Geothermal    What is the energy source? General pros and cons? Criteria for natural usage ◦ Thermal or electrical ◦ Electrical generation types: requirements  Enhanced Geothermal Systems ◦ What problem does this solve? How is it used? ◦ What problems does it create? ◦ Who can use this and how?  Geothermal Heat Pumps ◦ Use of low temperature heat ◦ Who can use it? How does it work? CHE410 Lecture #26 Question If geothermal power plant can get either 100 kg/s of dry steam at 270oC or 100kg/s of hot water at 270oC which should be used to get the most power from the plant? A – Dry steam at 270oC B – Hot Water at 270oC C – It doesn’t matter which CHE410 Lecture #26 Key Concepts: Storage  Types of energy storage ◦ Mechanical (PE and KE), Electrochemical, Electrical, Thermal  Parameters that characterize energy storage systems ◦ Installed and storage capacity, discharge time, overall efficiency  General pros and cons? ◦ Parameters, environment impacts  How storage systems work ◦ Form of stored energy ◦ Energy conversions  Batteries ◦ Secondary (rechargeable) ◦ How they produce electricity CHE410 Lecture #26 Question Pumped storage generally will enable a utility to ___________. A. B. C. D. increase their electrical potential energy increase the efficiency of their electrical generating system raise electrons to higher energy states store energy to meet high demand CHE410 Lecture #26 Earlier Material  What to review ◦ Prior exams (exam reviews) and quizzes ◦ Homework  Be sure to know definitions (and units) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Work, velocity, acceleration, force Energy and power Kinetic energy, potential energy 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics Energy system efficiency Voltage, current, resistance, electrical power Environmental impacts of energy sources CHE410 Lecture #26 Finally All topics are fair game Approach the exam efficiently Answer what you know first – all questions are worth 1 point Know the math, but really know the concepts! Don’t waste extra time worrying about the math problems. Practice them, but not at the expense of the rest. CHE410 Lecture #26
Based on current models, the world's current trajectory of carbon dioxide emission will result in between a 2ºC and 4ºC rise in average global temperature. What is the importance of this prediction? Correct! Potential decrease in the water supply There is no importance as this change will definitely not matter. Increased biodiversity Hurricanes become less likely Question 2 1 / 1 pts Which of the following substances has the lowest carbon dioxide intensity, if completely combusted (burned)? Correct! C3H6 C6H6 C4H10 C5H12 Question 3 1 / 1 pts A 85kg block of a material was heated by the addition of 478 kilojoules of energy. If the block was initially at 27ºC, what is its final temperature? The specific heat of the material is 900 J/(kg-ºC). Correct! Correct Answer 33.2 margin of error +/- 5% Question 4 0 / 1 pts A high voltage power transmission line transmitting 100MW of electrical power is operating at a voltage of 258KV. If the line loses 893KW what is its resistance (give your answer in Ohms)? You Answered Correct Answer 5.9 margin of error +/- 5% Question 5 1 / 1 pts A major advantage of a "smart" grid over today's electrical grid is... that it uses high voltage transformers to transmit power long distances Correct! two-way communication that allows for reduced peak demand that it connects power plants via high voltage transmission lines for redundancy that it provides backup power in the form of additional power plants Question 6 0 / 1 pts Water is being heated to increase its temperature by 50oF. Which situation requires the most heat? Heating from 40oF to 90oF Correct Answer Heating from 20oF to 70oF Heating from 150oF to 200oF You Answered Heating from 100oF to 150oF There is no difference as it is a 50oF rise in each case Question 7 1 / 1 pts The primary method by which the water in a pot is heated is by ______________. Correct! convection conduction radiation condensation Question 8 1 / 1 pts Which of the following types of coal is likely to have the lowest moisture content? lignite kerogen bituminous Correct! anthracite Question 9 1 / 1 pts An electric over operates at 240V with a current of 25 amps. If it takes 3 hours to cook a turkey, and electricity costs $0.12 per KWh, how much does the electricity cost to cook the turkey? Give your answer in dollars and cents (e.g. 9.50). Correct! Correct Answer 2.16 margin of error +/- 5% Question 10 1 / 1 pts In a fractional distillation tower, crude oil is separated into its individual components. Which of the following is the major factor by which the components become separated? Molecular mass Correct! Boiling temperature Chemical structure Viscosity Question 11 1 / 1 pts Enhanced oil recovery extracts oil from a field through ______________. increased the natural pressure gradient in the field. decreased natural pressure gradient in the field. Correct! injection of a fluid that changes properties of the oil in the field. use of advanced drill bits and high efficiency pumps to extract oil. Question 12 1 / 1 pts The major use of coal in the United States is for _______________. steel production Correct! electricity production transportation home heating Question 13 1 / 1 pts As all warm bodies do, the earth emits low level thermal radiation. Upon interaction with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere this thermal energy _________________. Correct! gets absorbed and and some is emitted back to the earth. energy passes through the atmosphere and travels into space. the energy gets absorbed and all is emitted into space. initiates the formation of ozone, a major contributor to smog. Question 14 0 / 1 pts Electricity can be described as _______. You Answered a convenient energy source the best way to transport energy over very large distances Correct Answer a flexible way to use and transport energy the flow of protons a method to deliver energy at 100% efficiency Question 15 1 / 1 pts The electric grid consists of many interconnected parts which create a complex network. Which of the following parts is where electricity is delivered over long distances? End Users Generation Points Distribution Network Correct! Transmission Network Question 16 0 / 1 pts When a pocket of fluid is heated, typically it will expand resulting in a decrease in density. Under this condition, the warm pocket of fluid is likely to ___________ if the surrounding fluid is the same warm temperature. float sink You Answered pressurize Correct Answer none of these Question 17 0 / 1 pts Fossil fuel reserves with amounts believed to be recoverable from known fields using improved recovery techniques are called _____________. You Answered undiscovered reserves Correct Answer indicated reserves proven reserves inferred reserves Question 18 1 / 1 pts The highest voltage in the generation, transmission, distribution and use of electricity is found in ________. the end user's facility the generator the distribution system Correct! the transmission system Question 19 0 / 1 pts The units for energy include ...... (check all that apply) You Answered kilowatts (KW) You Answered horsepower (hp) Correct Answer British Thermal Unit (BTU) Correct Answer megawatt hour (MWh) You Answered Watts (W) Correct Answer Joules (J) Question 20 1 / 1 pts The maximum efficiency of a steam turbine cycle with a steam temperature of 511oC and a cooling water temperature of 28oC is (give your answer in %) ______________. Correct! Correct Answer 61.6 margin of error +/- 1 Question 21 1 / 1 pts Which of the following environmental concerns are not associated with hydraulic fracturing, or fracking? (check all that apply) contamination of groundwater emissions of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air Correct! removal of mountain tops to extract coal Correct! emission of particulate matter into the air use of large amounts of fresh water Question 22 1 / 1 pts One statement of the second law of thermodynamics is that ___________. heat can flow spontaneously from a cold source to a hot source It is possible to convert heat entirely into useful work Correct! heat can flow spontaneously only from a hot source to a cold source It is possible to convert energy from one form to another without loss Question 23 1 / 1 pts Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The major health impact of carbon monoxide is ..... acid deposition in soils increased incidence of asthma in children Correct! potential suffocation due to binding with hemoglobin increased incidence of cancer in children Question 24 1 / 1 pts A 500 MW coal-fired power plant burns 250 tons of coal per hour. If the coal contains 1% sulfur (by weight), how much sulfur dioxide (in tons) is emitted by the power plant in 1 year? There are 2 tons of sulfur dioxide formed for every ton of sulfur in the coal. Correct! Correct Answers 0.0 (with margin: 0.0) 0.0 (with margin: 0.0) 0.0 (with margin: 0.0) 43800.0 (with margin: 1000.0) Question 25 0 / 1 pts Electricity balancing done on the electric grid is needed because _______________. You Answered it evens out consumption of electricity over a day. it evens out electricity production over a day. Correct Answer electricity must be produced as it is consumed.

Tutor Answer

School: UT Austin


Question 1
1 pts
If I wanted to express the power 40,000,000 W in a more
convenient form, I could use the prefix notation in the SI
system. Which of the following would be correct?
40 TW
40 mW
40 MW
40 GW
40 KW

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Question 2
1 pts
Which of the following are units of power? Check all that apply.
kilowatt hour

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Question 3
1 pts
Which of the following are attributes of an active solar heating
Click all that apply
Uses photovoltaic cells to generate electricity for heating
Uses a pump or fan to circulate a fluid through the system
Uses mirrors to concentrate solar energy to heat a circulating fluid
Uses fluid density differences to circulate a fluid through the system

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Question 4
1 pts
Which is the best description of the greenhouse effect?
Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere, some of which then
warms the earth's surface. The remainder is reflected back into the
atmosphere. This reflected solar radiation is absorbed by greenhouse
gases, causing an increased warming of earth's atmosphere and
Solar radiation directly warms the earth's atmosphere, causing
convective currents and increased heating of the earth's surface.

Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere and warms the earth's
surface. Some of this heat is converted into lower energy infrared
radiation. The infrared radiation cannot completely pass back through
the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing a direct, continued
warming of earth's atmosphere and surface.
Solar radiation is absorbed in the earth's atmosphere by greenhouse
gases. The increased concentration of these gases in the atmosphere
causes greater heating of the earth's atmosphere and surface.

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Question 5
1 pts
If the annual growth rate of a population is 7 %, then in
approximately how many years will it take for the population to
increase by a factor of 4?
This means population has to increase 4 times
(1.070)^n= 4
N=20.5 years
So here we have to calculate n
N will be somewhere 20 and 21 years so we can see that it will be sometime in 21st year

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Question 6
1 pts

Which of the following needs are met by all grid-level energy
storage systems? Check all that apply.
Provide emissions free energy for the grid.
Provide rapid response to changes in demand
Provide a continuous supply for energy management on the grid.
Provide backup for nuclear power plants.
Make up for variable energy sources such as solar and wind
Provide support for microgrids.

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Question 7
1 pts
In wind power production, using a vertical axis turbine has some
advantages over using a horizontal axis turbine. Which of the
following is a major advantage of the vertical axis turbine?
They are taller and can reach higher velocity winds.
They are more efficient than horizontal axis turbines.
They collect energy from slower winds.
They have high stresses on the turbine blades.
They can collect energy from wind blowing from any direction.

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Question 8
1 pts
A cart with a mass of 10 kg, initially at rest, is pushed with a force
of 99 N for 7 m. What is its final kinetic energy? Give your answer
in joules.
M=10kg, f=99N, s=7m
Acceleration, a=f/m=9.9
V^2=u^2+2as but u =0
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Thanks, good work

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