Development and Globalization

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Question Description

Development and Globalization

This week we will explore the concept of development, and how this is impacted by globalization. Through the process of development, the extent of worldwide poverty has been significantly reduced. However, large populations of people are still trapped in the cycle of poverty, while the wealthiest countries continue to live in luxury. We will examine some theories behind why some nations are consistently richer than others, as well as what the barriers to successful development may be in some nations. Further, we will take a look at some of the agencies and organizations that assist with global development, and the strategies that have been put forth as promising ones.

Reading

This week you will read the following issue brief: PDF

Here is a summary of this week’s reading:

Major theories on which factors have historically impacted development:

  • Geography
  • Culture
  • Property rights
  • Lack of freedom

Problems of development today:

  • Structural constraints, including “poverty traps”

World Bank recommendations for nations struggling with development:

  • Countries should focus on: education and health; increased productivity of small farms; improved infrastructure; industrial policy to promote manufacturing; promotion of democracy and human rights; environmental protection

Development Assistance; Institutions of development include:

  • Development banks (e.g. World bank)
  • United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
  • Government AID agencies
  • NGOs

Development Strategies:

  • Poverty reduction
  • Trade – not aid
  • Good governance
  • Sustainable development
  • Gender equality
  • New investment strategies, such as microfinancing/microcredit

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Development and Globalization Table of Contents Introduction: What is Development? ....................................................................................................................................... 2 The Divide Between Developed and Developing Countries .................................................................................................. 3 Why Are Some Nations Richer than Others? ..................................................................................................................... 3 Geography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Culture ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Property Rights ................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Lack of Freedom ................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Problems of Development Today ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Assistance for Development ................................................................................................................................................... 6 Institutions of Development..................................................................................................................................................... 8 Case Studies of Development Projects ................................................................................................................................ 11 The Sustainable Mariculture Development Project in Tanzania ...................................................................................... 11 Development Strategies........................................................................................................................................................ 13 Poverty Reduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 13 Trade-Not-Aid ................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Good Governance ............................................................................................................................................................ 14 Sustainable Development................................................................................................................................................. 15 Gender Equality ................................................................................................................................................................ 17 New Investment Strategies............................................................................................................................................... 17 Conclusion: The Millennium Development Goals ................................................................................................................. 19 Stories of Jeremiah Ugwu, Ifeanyi Okpaga, Cynthia Ukwegwu, and Simon “Monday” Aliome............................................ 21 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 1 Development Introduction: What is Development? According to the World Bank, as many as half of the world's six billion inhabitants live on the equivalent of less than $2 a day, and about one-fourth of the world live on the equivalent of less than $1.25 a day.1 Meanwhile, people in the 20-richest countries on average earn 39 times more than people in the poorest 20.2 At the same time, the extent of poverty has declined significantly. For example, the World Bank estimates that from 1981-2005 the percentage of people living on less than $1 per day was halved. The amount decreased from 52 percent to 26 percent in this period.3 These contrasts highlight both the problem and the progress of what is known in the international community as "development." Large numbers of the world's inhabitants are mired in poverty, especially in Africa, while inhabitants of the world's richest countries live in both relative and absolute luxury. But people in poor countries are getting wealthier over time—a process linked to globalization because poorer countries can raise their standards of living by integrating with rich countries. The term "development" in international parlance therefore encompasses the need and the means by which to provide better lives for people in poor countries. It includes not only economic growth, although that is crucial, but also human development—providing for health, nutrition, education, and a clean environment. The following Issue Brief is designed to help you:  understand why some countries are developed and other are not;  describe the problems development is designed to solve;  familiarize yourself with the institutions that are active in development;  explain the main strategies for fostering development; and,  report on the facts and figures of the Millennium Development Goals, the international community's new effort to promote development. 1 “Briefing Notes on Key Findings from: ‘The Developing World is Poorer’” 1. Milanovic 2. 3 “Briefing Notes… “The Developing World is Poorer”. 2 Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 2 The Divide Between Developed and Developing Countries One of the reasons for attention to development is the stark divide between rich and poor countries. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) each year rates countries' development according to its Human Development Index (HDI), a mix of factors intended to measure citizens' access to health, education, and a decent standard of living. In the 2010 Human Development Index, the top five countries were Norway, Australia, New Zealand, United States and Ireland. The bottom five countries of the Index were Zimbabwe, Congo, Niger, Burundi and Mozambique1 Why is this, the case? Why Are Some Nations Richer than Others? Recent debates about globalization have led to a renaissance of interest in the reasons for disparities in wealth among the world's societies from a historical perspective. This is not just an academic question, however, since if we understand the reasons for the discrepancy, perhaps we can solve the problem. Following are summaries of some of the major theories pertaining to this question. Geography In Guns, Germs, and Steel, University of California at Los Angeles physiologist Jared Diamond contends that geography had a pivotal role in development, arguing essentially that the West was lucky to develop first. Because the Eurasian landmass is oriented east-west, much of its area lies in the same climatic region. This enabled events like the rapid spread of cereal cultivation across most of the landmass in a historically short 2,500 years. By contrast, the same techniques spread quickly into northern Africa, but then stopped completely because they could neither succeed in—nor cross—that continent's hot tropical zone into Southern Africa. Also, since Eurasian societies could more easily trade ideas, they gained a huge developmental head start over the societies of other regions. According to Diamond, eventually the lead that Eurasian societies had in development gave them further tools to dominate peoples of other regions. In his theory, agricultural success created food surpluses that led to the establishment of soldier classes and advanced weapons. Furthermore, many centuries of working with animals caused Eurasians to catch and become partially immune to diseases like smallpox, flu, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, measles, and cholera, all of which were originally animal sicknesses. With these "guns, germs, and steel," for example, a tiny group of 168 Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro (along with local allies) defeated an army of 80,000 and went on to conquer the entire Inca Empire in what is now South America. Another example includes the river valley civilizations that existed before the Common Era. These civilizations developed near the Nile River, the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamian), Yellow and Yangzte Rivers in modern-day China, and Indus River in South Asia. These civilizations became largely successful because of their proximity to necessities (water), the growth of foods near the water, and more temperate climates. As people gathered around these major water sources, they began 1 United Nations Development Programme“ Human Development Index and its Components.” 2010. Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 3 diversifying their social structures. Later, the nations built near these areas would become major hubs for trade, thus leading to greater wealth. The ebb and flow of natural resources in a geographic area can greatly affect how societies develop. For example, natural resources can benefit a country. But in some cases, the absence of resources can also help a nation. This was the case in Great Britain prior to the Industrial Revolution, during which the absence of wood and timber led to developments in steel and steam. Culture In The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor, Harvard University economic historian David S. Landes maintains that the reasons for different development rates were cultural. Landes admits that tropical regions like sub-Saharan Africa were bound to develop slowly because it was too hot for people to work during the day at certain times of the year, while temperate regions like Europe offered cooler conditions more suitable to productive activities like growing food and raising cattle. Yet, says Landes, cultural factors such as religion have powerfully affected the pace of development. "If we learn anything from the history of economic development," he says, "it is that culture makes all the difference." In the year 1000, he says, no one would have predicted that Europe would dominate the world 500 years later. But starting in the 1500s, the Protestant form of Christianity promoted both literacy and concern for conservation of time, and both of these attributes led to higher productivity in societies such as Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, and, later, the United States. Likewise, in China and Japan, Buddhist beliefs emphasized labor and thrift, which led to faster social and economic development. Property Rights Other commentators focus on particular aspects of culture as the engine of success. Hernando de Soto argues that the secret development lies in the structure of private property rights. In The Mystery of Capital, he says that the world's "poor" actually possess great wealth. The problem, he writes, is that this wealth is usually tied up in "dead capital" due to the legal and social customs in many developing countries. For example, many people in Egypt, as in America, own their homes and the property that it sits on. But there is a difference between the American and Egyptian properties in their ability to help their respective owners raise capital for an economic activity like starting a business. In America, ownership is well documented and there is an efficient legal system that can enforce contracts. A homeowner, therefore, can take out a loan with a bank by putting up his property as collateral. In Egypt, traditional land ownership rules make it impossible for a landowner to prove to the bank that he owns his home. In addition, because the Egyptian legal system is not strong in forcing debtors to repay loans, the bank may not wish to lend money as readily as its American counterpart. De Soto believes that by reforming land tenure and land ownership registration systems, developing countries can enable their citizens to convert the dead capital that they hold in various land and other property into huge sums of money that can be used for expanding development efforts. De Soto's research estimates the value of real estate now trapped in dead capital to be $74 billion in Peru and $133 billion in the Philippines. In Egypt, $240 billion is tied up as dead capital, 30 times the value of all shares on the Cairo Stock Exchange and 55 times the value of all foreign investments in the country. De Soto argues that if these funds were available for economic activities, the speed of development could be greatly increased. Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 4 Lack of Freedom Bernard Lewis, focusing on the Middle East, argues in his book What Went Wrong? that a lack of freedom—intellectual, political, economic, religious, cultural—is responsible for the decline of the Muslim world from a major center of global power to an area frequently dominated by outsiders and plagued by social and economic troubles. Furthermore, he says, Muslim governments are focused too much on finding scapegoats—especially Jews, Americans, and imperialists—for its failure to develop, asking "Who did this to us?" rather than, "What did we do wrong?" The UNDP's first Arab Human Development Report, issued in 2002, endorsed this view, saying that the Arab world had the lowest indicators of seven world regions on a "freedom" index based on political participation of the population, civil liberties, and unrestricted media. In addition, the report noted that women in the Arab world were not empowered, with fewer political, social, and economic opportunities than Arab men, and fewer than women in other regions. The 2005 Arab Human Development Report displayed findings of women’s rising roles in the Arab world. While they do not enjoy full equality to men in terms of political, civil, and cultural rights, their status is improving. The Report emphasizes equality between the sexes to be a main staple of human development. However, the dearth of freedom is not limited to the Arab world, and making that generalization is problematic. Constraints on all freedoms exist in Africa; Eastern Europe; Central, South, and East Asia; Latin America; and even areas of the West Problems of Development Today Today the problems facing developing countries revolve around what are generally called “structural constraints” to development. First among these is geography—not just in the historical sense described above—but also in the more contemporary sense that a modern economy cannot function without a division and diversification of labor. Thus, small countries with small populations have trouble developing, and gaining access to markets, and landlocked countries have trouble integrating with global markets and developing their economies. Other common constraints on development are high economic poverty, hunger, high mortality rates, unsafe water supplies, poor education systems, corrupt governments, war, and poor sanitation. These factors all combine to create what the World Bank calls "poverty traps"—cycles that must be broken for countries to develop. Countries can avoid poverty traps, however, with sound policies. The World Bank says, for example, "While geography can pose challenges, it does not define a country's destiny."1 Countries with few geographic advantages can become highly developed with good government policies, while countries with valuable geographic resources can squander them. The World Bank therefore recommends that countries focus on six areas of policy:   1 Investment in education and health Increasing productivity of small farms United Nations Development Programme Millennium Development Goals 72. Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 5     Improving infrastructure (for example, roads) Developing an industrial policy to promote manufacturing Promoting democracy and human rights Ensuring environmental protection The following sections of this Issue Brief describe how the international community tries to help poor countries implement these policies. Assistance for Development Over the last 50 years, rich countries have accepted a responsibility to help poor countries. Development assistance grew directly from the violence of the first half of the 20th century. As explained in the Issue Brief on the International Financial Institutions, the World Bank was created at the Bretton Woods Conference to assist the countries shattered by the Second World War. The European Recovery Program, commonly known as the Marshall Plan after one of its key architects, then U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, was the world's first development program. Through the Marshall Plan, the United States provided billions of dollars to wartime allies like Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands to help them back on their feet. But it also stood military and political tradition on its head: Instead of taking money and resources from its defeated enemies as reparations for damage in allied countries, under the Marshall Plan the United States also poured billions of dollars into the economies of Germany, Italy, Austria, and others as a way to prevent war in the future. The Marshall Plan thus established for the first time two key principles of development assistance: 1. That it is morally correct to help people struggling to improve their lives; and 2. That giving development funds would benefit the United States itself by contributing to its foreign policy goals and creating foreign markets for American exports. By emphasizing these two principles government officials were able to convince the public of the desirability of giving development assistance and to ensure that Congress would approve budgets for this important work. Ultimately, the Marshall Plan proved to be a moderate success. It was hailed by leaders of the nations that benefited from it, particularly Germany, France, and Britain, as the key to a speedy economic and social recovery from the war and the foundation of a new era of peace and prosperity in Europe. However, with Great Britain receiving the greatest amount of aid, perhaps the balance and distribution of the aid was skewed. To critics, the Marshall Plan is seen as a major obstacle to development. Instead, the Plan symbolizes American imperialism and willingness to throw money at a problem. These critics often cite saving and business strategies as more important long-term economic factors than foreign cash. Development and Globalization http://www.globalization101.org 6 Another feature of the post-Second World War world dramatically affected development. At the end of the war, the people in Africa and Asia began to agitate—politically and militarily—for their independence from European colonial powers. Those powers—such as Britain, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands—were impoverished from years of war and in little position to resist. As a result, much of the non-Western world, including India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and many African nations began decolonizing. As decolonization gathered momentum in the 1950s and 1960s, it became clear that many newly independent nations did not have the skills and resources needed to thrive in their new era of freedom. Money, together with expertise and infrastructure, was needed to make the most of new opportunities and develop economies for the improvement of the lives of local ...
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ProfessorEmily
School: Cornell University

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Running head: DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION

Development and Globalization
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DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION

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Part 1

Currently, the problems facing developing nations revolve around what is commonly
referred to as structural constraints. Among these challenges is geography. The economies of
these countries cannot function without diversification of labor. Thus, nations with a small
population experience challenges in growth and access to marketplaces (Globalization 101,
2018). Also, almost all landlocked countries are poor and underdeveloped since they depend on
their transit neighbor states to access markets overseas. The other challenge is culture; cultural
factors like religion have intensively affected the rate of development. In China and Japan,
Buddhism belief stressed labor and thrift, which enhanced faster economic and social
development. Likewise, in Europe, Britain, Germany, and the US, Christianity stirred literacy
and management of time, and this contributed to higher productivity (Globalization 101, 2018).
Other collective constrictions on growth are high economic poverty, increased mortality rate,
hunger, poor education schemes, corruption, warfare, and poor hygiene. Countries can avoid
these problems by implementing sound policies.
However, the current development problems can be solved through several strategies.
These include; development banks, governmental and global organizations, and non-profit
organizations. Global Financial Institutions aims are to promote development by offering lowinterest loans, grants, and interest-free credit. In 2010, the World Bank gave loans and grants to
middle and low-income nations. There are also development banks likewise devoted to providing
low-interest financing for development tasks. An example of these regional banks is interAmerican Development Bank (IADB). Through government aid agencies strategy, wealthy
countries offer development assistance to the national governm...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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