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Please take a moment to go back to Module 2 and review the instructions for the project and to make certain you have met all of the requirements.

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research and write an analytical paper comparing and contrasting the political views of two philosophers on one of the following areas: PICK ANY AREA a. Human Conflict - the nature and causes thereof. b. The best or best possible cooperative social arrangements, capable of resolving or diminishing society's common problems. c. The moral foundations of political legitimacy (what is the good state). d. Who should govern - one, few, or many? Within your paper discuss how the views of your two chosen philosophers on the one chosen political issue relate to that same political issue today. Share your own well-supported views on the matter in a conclusion. Philosopher Augustine and Aquinas Both Aquinas and St. Augustine are famously for not only their philosophical explorations but also the theological part of the same. While Aquinas wrote in the thirteenth century, St. Augustine did write in the late fourth and early fifth century. It is important to note that although the aim of both philosophers was to try and reconcile Christianity with ancient philosophy, they used different and contrasting ways (Shuger, 1997). One of the contrasting topics between the two is on knowledge. St. Augustine penciled much of his theory on knowledge from Plato. Unlike Aquinas, Augustine was no empiricist. St. Augustine heldthat through a process of illumination, the truth is found from within and not by merely observing nature (Whitehead, 1948). It had been the view of Plato that such knowledge emanated from the past experiences and was made possible when the good illuminates the mind to remember. St. Augustine believed in Plato reasoning that true knowledge came only from within. The only difference from Plato is that the latter held that it emanated from ‘remember’ while Augustine believed that it was from ‘illumination’. Both Plato and Augustine held that the uncertainties couldn’t be taught. However, Augustine also held that it was through Christ that illumination occurred and the ideas came from. Aquinas on the other hand was empiricist (Whitehead, 1948). He drew a lot from Aristotle who was also an empiricist. Aquinas believed that we find truth through senses. Both Augustine and Aquinas agree on the fact that the ultimate object of knowledge is God (Shuger, 1997). Both also agreed that one can be acquainted with God through reason while it is impossible to fully comprehend God because man is just but God’s creation. References Shuger, D. K. (1997). Habits of thought in the English Renaissance: religion, politics, and the dominant culture (Vol. 13). University of Toronto Press. Whitehead, A. N. (1948). Adventures of ideas (Vol. 103).CUP Archive. Outline Aquinas versus Augustine A. Introduction a. Both Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine are famously for not only their philosophical explorations but also the theological part of the same. While Aquinas wrote in the thirteenth century, St. Augustine did write in the late fourth and early fifth century. It is important to note that although the aim of both philosophers was to try and reconcile Christianity with ancient philosophy, they used different and contrasting ways (Shuger, 1997). This paper looks at the philosophical differences and similarities of Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine in relation to their understanding of knowledge, authority, soul, and body. B. Body a. One of the major contrasting topics between the Thomas and Aquinas is on knowledge. Saint Augustine penciled much of his theory on knowledge from Plato. Unlike Aquinas, Augustine was no empiricist. St. Augustine held that through a process of illumination, the truth is found from within and not by merely observing nature (Whitehead, 1948). It had been the view of Plato that such knowledge emanated from the past experiences and was made possible when the good illuminates the mind to remember. b. Saint Augustine believed in Plato reasoning that true knowledge came only from within. The only difference from Plato is that the latter held that it emanated from ‘remember’ while Augustine believed that it was from ‘illumination’. c. Saint Augustine had a strong stand on the distinctive difference between the natural and the divine. This led to the major line of thought that Augustine subscribed to that all truth came from God. Thomas Aquinas, on the other hand, believed that philosophy and science worked together towards revealing the truth (Rogayan, 2011). As such, Aquinas had a strong belief in Aristotle’s works as being in-line with the truths of religion. d. Saint Augustine and Thomas Aquinas had different views on the matter of authority. Saint Augustine held the view that authority, more so political authority, was gained coercively. This is meant to restraint humans. Aquinas held the view that political authority had a larger function than retraining man but rather to create conditions that lead humans to good habits, virtues (Weithman, 1992). e. Saint Augustine viewed the human being as a composite of the body and soul. This composite has an asymmetry where the soul is superior. As such, the soul rules over the body (Mendelson, 2009). The human being also experiences life after death as a result of the soul which is an argument that Augustine and Aquinas have in common. However, Aquinas also argued that the body and soul could exist as separate entities in what he termed as substance versus subsistence (Eberl, 2004). f. Both Plato and Augustine held that the uncertainties couldn't be taught. However, Augustine also held that it was through Christ that illumination occurred and the ideas came from. Aquinas, on the other hand, was an empiricist (Whitehead, 1948). He drew a lot from Aristotle who was also an empiricist. Aquinas believed that we find truth through senses. g. Both Augustine and Aquinas agree on the fact that the ultimate object of knowledge is God (Shuger, 1997). Both also agreed that one can be acquainted with God through reason while it is impossible to fully comprehend God because man is just but God’s creation C. Conclusion In conclusion, Augustine and Aquinas held different views on knowledge, reasoning, and political authority. However, both philosophers had similar views on the uncertainties and the intimate origin of knowledge is God. In matters of the soul and body, Augustine and Aquinas had some similar views such as agreement of life after death but held contrasting views on the existence of the soul and body as one being. Annotated Bibliography Eberl, J. (2004). Aquinas on the Nature of Human Beings. Review of Metaphysics. 58. 333. The author looks at the Aquinas philosophical view in comparison to historical and contemporary views. The author further analyzes the view of the human being as a naturally existing embodiment that persists through time and change. This paper is a good source as it takes the standard view of Aquinas on the human body and based on the contemporary view tries to bring some harmony in the various views. This works well as it brings a modern outlook to the historical view of the nature of human beings. This source will help my project by enabling the further analysis of the Aquinas view in a contemporary and historical view. Mendelson, M. (2009). "Saint Augustine", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/augustine/> The author takes an in-depth look at Saint Augustine by putting his works in the context of his life experiences and the surroundings of the time of his existence. This is a good article as it provides an in-depth analysis of the Augustinian philosophical views by looking at the various components of the culture and moral landscape that surround Augustine. This enables a better understanding of the Augustinian views. This source will help in the in-depth analysis of the Augustine views in relation to Aquinas by providing insights as to the context of the philosophies that Augustine formulated. Rogayan Jr, D. (2011). Comparative Analysis Paper of Aquinas' and Augustine's Philosophies. 10.13140/RG.2.2.10856.67841. The author compares Aquinas and Augustine philosophies in light of their individual convictions, stand on faith and reason, knowledge, and the existence of God. This paper provides an analytical description of the philosophers by putting their individual philosophies in the context of their time of existence as well as their sub-cultures and the audience at their individual time of existence. This paper will help me have a closer look at the differences and similarities of the two philosophers in an up-close manner. Shuger, D. K. (1997). Habits of thought in the English Renaissance: religion, politics, and the dominant culture (Vol. 13). University of Toronto Press. The author looks at the different ideas that various people present and tries to reveal what is destructive to the main and acceptable ideas. The author looks at the main acceptable ideas, represented as the orthodox ways, but ends up revealing a lot of non-uniformity in the orthodox ways. This paper helps me to look at and re-examine the various connections of religion and literature and unify them to Augustine and Aquinas philosophical views. Weithman, J. P. (1992). Augustine and Aquinas on Original Sin and the Function of political authority. Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 30, Number 3, pp. 353-376. Retrieved from https://www3.nd.edu/~pweithma/professional_website/My%20Papers/Augustine%20and%20Aquinas %20on%20Political%20Authority.pdf The author takes a look at the different views on original sin and political authority as presented by Aristotle and the subsequent borrowed thoughts by Aquinas. The author then compares them to Augustine's views. This paper works well to bring into light new ideas about the differences between Augustine and Aquinas view on the original sin and political authority by showing the areas that they differ. This paper helps in the fulfillment of my paper by bringing insight into the different views held by the philosophers on political authority which is an area that the paper looks into. Whitehead, A. N. (1948). Adventures of ideas (Vol. 103).CUP Archive. The author looks at the 20th-century philosophies and ideas by various people. The book delves into the human understanding, the control over the environment or nature and control of human beings nature. The book offers in-depth and thought-provoking ideas on civilization, patterns of behavior and emotional beliefs. The book helps to broaden my perspective of Aquinas and Augustine philosophies by provoking thoughts on the illumination of truth as presented by the two philosophers. ...
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Kishnewt2017
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Attached.

Running head: GOVERNANCE

1

Governance
Name
Institution

GOVERNANCE

2

One of the most controversial topics among the ancient Greek philosophers dwelled on
the topic of who should govern. Consequently, this topic was tackled by two of the most
renowned philosophers Aristotle and Plato. In their argument, they tried to propose the best
system of governance which would yield the most benefits for the people
For the part of Plato, and that the country should be governed by one person and, in this
case, a monarchy. He argued that monarchies were made of good and just people who would be
able to duly serve the interests of the masses (Aliu, 2018). In his view, monarchies manifested
themselves in the form of kings. For the monarchs, they inherited the rule from their family
members. For that reason, they had been taught how to rule by their parent or guardians and
hence when they took up the mantles of power they would be able to rule justly. Also, the ruler
would be wise and virtuous enough to ensure that he worked for the interest of the masses. A
good example is that of the Alexander the great who was taught about leadership by his father
Phillip and his teacher Aristotle. On the other hand, Plato was not in support of democracy and in
this case, he viewed it as a system which would lead to tyranny of numbers and the minority will
always be subjected to the will of the many even if it was not their desire. Additionally, he
alluded that the system would be infiltrated by the merchants who would work the system to get
their wishes fulfilled at the expense of the masses. Their goals would only be to increase their
wealth at the expense of the people.
Aristotle believed that an elected aristocracy made of many people should lead a state.
On his part, he was not against a democratic form of government but he alluded that is must be
controlled to ensure that it does not degenerate to mob rule (Aliu, 2018). In this case, his point of
view did not gravitate towards pure democracy but a form of elected aristocracy. In this case, it
would not be based on the wealth of the individual but on their prudence and intelligence. In this

GOVERNANCE

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way, the leaders had direct responsibility to the people. He also alluded that the government
would not rest on the leader alone but on the other arms such us the courts and the assembly. In
the case that the leader introduced the business of the state in the assembly, the duty of the
people was not to just listen but part...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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