galaxies and stars

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 14th, 2018
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Question description

PART A

Type in the definitions for the following terms:

  • Special relativity –
  • General relativity –
  • Length contraction –
  • Time dilation –
  • Gravitational force –
  • Spacetime –
  • Milky way –
  • Milky way galaxy –
  • Population I star –
  • Population II star –
  • Supernova –
  • Nova –
  • Elliptical galaxy –
  • Spiral galaxy –
  • Turnoff point –
  • Cosmic horizon –
  • Visible universe –
  • Olber’s paradox

Questions:

20.Which of Einstein’s theories came first?Special or General?

21.What makes special relativity ‘special’?

22. How does Einstein describe gravitational force?

23.Which stars age faster?High mass or low mass?

24.Who were the TWO key astronomers responsible for determining the age of the universe?

25.What do astronomers hypothesize is at the center of most galaxies?

26.What is expanding when astronomers say the universe is expanding?

27.If nearly every galaxy is moving away from us, does that mean that we are at the center of the universe?(either yes or no is correct as long as you defend your answer)

28.Until recently (the 20th century) astronomers envisioned a static universe with only the milky way and a few companions.

True or False?

29.What paradox describes this statement: If the universe is static, extends forever, and has existed forever, then no matter where you look, you should see a star, and the sky should be as bright as day.But it is not.

  • a. Copernican paradox
  • b.Olber’s paradox
  • c.Fermi’s paradox

30.Even if the universe does extend forever in every direction, why would we only see a finite universe?

  • a.Because of Olber’s paradox
  • b.the age of the universe would limit the amount of time light has had to reach us
  • c.If it was infinite, we wouldn’t see anything at all because everything would be so far apart

31. Since we can only see so far in the universe, there is no way to even make an educated guess that there are galaxies beyond what we can see.

True or False?

32.Who were the key players in discovering that the universe was dynamic, not static?

a.Einstein and eddington

b.Einstein and slipher

c.slipher and hubble

d.eddington and hubble

33.Who discovered that most of the galaxies were moving away from us?

a.einstein

b. hubblec.slipher

34.Who calculated the distances and rates of expansion of the universe?

a.Einstein

b.hubble

c.slipher

35.Galaxies farther from us move away from us ________________ than(as) galaxies closer to us.

a.faster

b.slower

c. at the same rate

Complete the worksheet:

1. In the early universe, are all the galaxies the same distance from each other?


2.Describe how the universe changed from Early to some time later.

Do the galaxies appear to get bigger?


  • Based on your previous answer, do you think the stars within a galaxies move away from one another due to the expansion of the universe? Explain.


  • Compare the amount that the distance between the D and C galaxies changed in comparison to the amount that the distance between D and E changed.Which appears to have moved farther from D?(Note that all galaxies move in the same amount of time, so the ones who have moved the most would have been going faster)


  • If you were in the D galaxy, how would the A, B, C, and E galaxies appear to move relative to your location? Do they all move by the same amount?


  • You are still on galaxy D.Rank A, B, C, and E in terms of their relative speeds away from you, from fastest to slowest.


7.Now you are on E. Rank the A, B, C, D, galaxies in terms of their relative speeds away from you from greatest to smallest.


  • What is the relationship between an object’s distance away from you in the universe and the speed they are moving away from you.

Would this relationship seem to be the same regardless of what galaxy you are

on?

  • Consider the following discussion between two students regarding the possible location of the center of the universe…

A.Since all galaxies we observe are moving away from us, we must be at the center of the universe.

B.If you look at the drawing it is pretty clear that all the galaxies move away from each other, so each galaxy is at the center of the universe.

Do you agree or disagree with either or both of the students?Explain.


PART B

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8dPuuaLjXt...

#38

  1. We are in the _________________________ of the neighborhood that is the Milky Way galaxy.
  2. Most spiral galaxies have ________________________ of stars across their centers.
  3. The odds are BAD GOOD that the stars in colliding galaxies won’t collide.
  4. The Milky Way is currently eating some smaller galaxies. TRUE FALSE

#39

  1. We live in the Milky Way, a galaxy with large ________________________________ arms.
  2. To create the amount of energy that was discovered to be coming out of active galaxies you need an object with A LOT of gravity: a ______________________________________.
  3. The Milky Way has a supermassive black hole at its center. TRUE FALSE
  4. The cluster of galaxies around us is referred to as the __________________________________________.

#42

  1. Vesto Slipher, in 1917, was the first to totally observe the _____________________________ of the spectra of spiral nebulae.
  2. Observations show that the farther away a galaxy is, the FASTER / SLOWER it is moving.
  3. The farther away something is, the farther in the past we see it. This is called the _______________________.

#43

  1. The infinitely dense point that all matter in the universe was squeezed into 13.82 billion years ago is referred to as ____________________________________________________.
  2. ____________% of the universe is made up of things we can’t see.
  3. The speed of light is the fastest anything in the universe can go if it is travelling through space. __________________________ can break that speed limit. Things that are moving with space can also travel faster than the speed of light.
  4. The observable universe is expanding, but we see MORE LESS of it every day.

Tutor Answer

Tutorann50
School: New York University

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