Analysis of La Casa de Bernarda Alba by Federico Garcia Lorca

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This paper needs to analyze Bernarda's use of negation and repression of her daughters as reflections of her concern with honor and reputation in the town. I have an introduction paragraph done. The article attached is the source for the evidence to support my claims in the first paragraph.

Patterns of Negation in "La Casa de Bernarda Alba" Author(s): Wilma Newberry Source: Hispania, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1976), pp. 802-809 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: Accessed: 10-12-2018 21:49 UTC REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Hispania This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to PATTERNS OF NEGATION IN "LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA" WILMA NEWBERRY State University of New York at Buffalo N La casa de Bernarda Alba, subtitled liness symbolizes sterility,3 so what seems Drama de mujeres en los pueblos de to be the virtue of keeping her house in Espaiia, there emerge patterns of systemorder has in actuality a negative connotation. atic, repetitive negation which reinforce Lorca's overt portrayal of overwhelmingly In Bernarda's initial appearance her neg- ative attitudes are summarized. Her first vacant female lives. The play is very well integrated-the setting, the vocabulary,word is the command: "iSilencio!" ("Silence" is also Bernarda's last word in the the details of every episode and the realistic or symbolic meaning of every action play and the word or its equivalent apcontribute to the unity of the negativepears frequently throughout.)4 She comimpact. The totality of this negative implains that the room is not clean enough, pact can best be perceived through an and then ejects the maid. The conversaexamination of the techniques Lorca usestion between Bernarda and the large group of female mourners is structured around to create a world exclusively governed by negation in its many forms: rejection, empher rejection of youth and vitality, repretiness, sterility, absence of sensation, lone-sented by a young girl. At the beginning liness, seclusion, futility and denial. of the conversation the girl speaks to de- The setting of white, thick-walled roomsfend life: "Comer es necesario para vivir" entered by no man during the play and(p. 1445); but Bernarda silences her with, "A tu edad no se habla delante de las perpopulated by women dressed in black, ex- actly characterizes the negative atmospheresonas mayores" (p. 1446). Halfway of this "documental fotogrifico."' Further, through the scene the young girl makes the drama is framed by two deaths which,another attempt, this time mentioning the because of their antithetical nature, to-life force of the play, "Pepe el Romano gether suggest total annihilation-Act I be- estaba con los hombres del duelo" (p. 1447), and Bernarda contradicts her, algins with the funeral of an old man, and though Pepe was there. Finally, as the the play ends with the suicide of a young woman. women file out, the girl speaks Magdalena's namedomiand probably would have utBernarda expresses the obsessive tered anegative, phrase of comfort, but Bernarda's nation of her household through "Chiss" to stop The Magdalena's tears also innon-productive or destructive orders. nature of her concerns becomes clear in timidates this representative of youthful vitality. the servants' conversation during the ex- position of the play. Poncia complains that The most dramatic episode in which now that Bernarda is not eating she wants Bernarda rejects youth and life involves everyone to die of hunger. Bernarda keepsAdela, who provides the only splash of her insane but harmless mother locked in color in the white and black setting. In her room, and she does not permit peopleBernarda's first encounter with Adela, she to enter her home. She also makes a fetish asks her for a fan, and Adela gives one to of cleanliness: "Limpia bien todo. Si Ber-her, but the fan is decorated with red and narda no ve relucientes las cosas me arrangreen flowers and Bernarda throws it to the floor. In doing so she symbolically rejects car, becomes los pocos pelos que later clear that in me this quedan."2 play clean- It her youngest daughter's passion and sen802 This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to PATTERNS OF NEGATION IN "LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA" 803 suality as represented by the colors red andno tendris disgustos" (p. 1513). Angustias green.5 Significantly, Martirio, who willsays that she believes Pepe is hiding things be most responsible for Adela's death, andfrom her and Bernarda continues: "No who has already been deprived of a nor-procures descubrirlas, no le preguntes, y, mal outlet for her passion and sensuality,desde luego, que no te vea llorar jamis" then gives Bernarda her black fan. (p. 1514). Bernarda's propensity to order almost ex- At the end of Act II, when Poncia tells clusively non-productive or negative activ- Bernarda that the townspeople are going ity or to prohibit positive actions is con-to kill the young woman who murdered stant throughout the play. After she pro- her illegitimate child, Bernarda issues her nounces her impressively hyperbolic state- most destructive order of all "Si, que venment that during the eight years of mourn-gan todos con varas de olivo y mangos de ing not even the wind6 will be permittedazadones, que vengan todos para matarla to enter the house, in a master stroke of. o . iMatadla! iMatadla!" (pp. 1505-06). irony she tells her daughters what theyHere Bernarda outdoes herself-she even may do during this time-they may makemanages to give the order to kill an intenthe sheets for their trousseau! This pa- sified life-denying meaning because her thetic symbol of meaningless activity iswrath is not directed toward the crime of central to the play-in Act II the girls workmurder of the newborn babe, but is aimed on the sheets which will never serve the against the transgression which gave it life: "Y que pague la que pisotea la depurpose for which they are intended. Bernarda's attitude toward weeping iscencia . .. iCarb6n ardiendo en el sitio de characteristic of her nature. She orders su pecado!" (pp. 1505-06). Magdalena not to cry, or if she must she Bernarda's refusal to allow pleasure is should do so under her bed, even though constant. When Adela shows delight in these tears represent the girl's grief afterthe beauty of a summer evening, Bernarda the loss of her father. Also, after Adela's cuts short her enjoyment by announcing death one of Bernarda's first reactions is to bedtime-she repeats the order to retire forbid weeping. Although Bernarda prothree times, and in a perfect example of a hibits cathartic tears, which would bring non-productive command awakens Magda- lena in order to send her to bed. Bernarda relief and thus be "positive," she complains does not permit Adela to get up from the because Martirio does not cry ("Ni 1aigrimas te quedan en esos ojos," p. 1494)dinner table to drink water, but tells the servant to bring a pitcher to the table. after Pepe's photograph is found between the sheets of her bed. These tears, beSince Adela's thirst symbolizes desire, this order implies that only under Bernarda's cause they would increase the girl's hu- miliation and misery, would in effect be aauthority will she ever be able to find fulfillment. One of Bernarda's most devastatnegative type of weeping, and thus Ber- narda's complaint is here completely ining orders involving her daughters' sexu- ality occurred previous to the action of the keeping with her perverse nature. play when she prohibited Enrique HuThe "mother-daughter talk" with Angustias about her fiance consists of a depress-manas from initiating a courtship with Martirio. On the realistic level, by preing series of negative recommendations. venting one of her most passionate daughAngustias tells her mother that Pepe seems ters from marrying, and on the symbolic distracted and that when she inquires level by rejecting humanity, Bernarda preabout what is bothering him, he answers pared her home for tragedy. evasively. Bernarda advises: "No le debes preguntar. Y cuando te cases, menos. Ha- At the beginning of Act III there is a bla si 61 habla y miralo cuando te mire. Asi strange episode, given Bernarda's insistence This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to 804 WILMA NEWBERRY Hispania .59 (Dec. 1-76) refusal to her permit her rel upon excluding everyone from home Pepe, an appropriate and consistently negative attitude toward prep lie which causes Adela's de everyone and everything. A visitor is presusually contributes ent, and Bernarda is glad to have herto the there; in fact, she detains her when she facts by stating unpleasant starts to leave after a long visit. The happy events, criticizing an She offers succinctly expresses t guest's name, Prudencia, the key, of their situation-"Y ni n especially since her "prudence" causes her quiera nos (p progressive non-involvement inpertenecen" life and the suppression of her Adela, own humanity. In the reckless rebe response to her family troubles she negative does position in this wo not intervene, but instead the abolishment seeks of her refuge vital colors in Act in the church. In fact, her visit Bernarda I, she never ceasesto to stand for life, energy, is a stop on the way toand the evening rosary, liberation, and her frequent recourse and Prudencia remarksis that soon she willAdela's to fight negation with negation. have to remain at home because she is gonegative expressions are life-defending and ing blind and the children would jostle life-demanding. She rejects the indifferher in the streets. Thus, will be almost ence she and resignation which are expected totally isolated from ofworldly sensations, her; for example, when Magdalena tells her she will to theof sitand her refusal to partake ofbecome theaccustomed dessert cheese and honey which offers uation, Bernarda she angrily and tearfully responds: to her also underlines her to "No merefusal acostumbrar&. Yo accept no puedo estar sensual pleasure. Therefore, Prudencia a encerrada. No quiero que se meis pongan perfect model for the existence las hermetic carnes como a vosotras; no quiero perwhich Bernarda imposes her household der mion blancura en estas habitaciones; -far from being an outsider, Prudencia mafiana me pondr6 mi vestido verde y me really belongs in Bernarda's home asquiero a echard a pasear por la calle. iYo type of idol.' salir!" (p. 1466). Even her apparently nihilistic remark, "Quisiera ser invisible" Each of the five daughters reacts in a (p. 1479),from is not a wish to disappear, different way-ranging passive ac-but rather represents a dream of freedom ceptance to reckless rebellion-to Bernar- in which sheis would not be under constant da's negative world. Amelia the personi- vigilance. In contrast with her mother's fication of negation-a nonentity. Angus- frequent demands for the to vacant silence tias, the only well-to-do sister, plans en- of nothingness, Adela's repeated frantic ter into a loveless marriage in order to plea for silence in the conversation escape the stifling environment. After when accuses her of seeing Pepe is a plea thirty-nine years ofPoncia repression, she apfor in the liberty which only autosecrecy would proaches her wedding a joyless, give her, and ultimately is aPepe plea for her matic way, and when she discusses life. her speech is full of negative expressions. Martirio's passion, which find The mostcannot impressive episode in whichan outlet, has curdled into hate: "Tengo Adela opposes her mother's life-denyingel coraz6n Ileno de una fuerza que, negations with tan her own mala, use of negative to defend life occurs end of sin quererlo yo, a miterms misma meat the ahoga" Act II when Bernarda that Libra(p. 1528). She expresses hershouts malice through negation; for near theis the da'sexample, daughter must be killed. Adela end of Act III, in an only impressive representative ofdemonlife in this scene stration of the use ofbecause negative vocabulary she identifies with the girl: "No, Para matarla, (p. 1505). When she rejects Adela andno. states herno" absolute This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to PATTERNS OF NEGATION IN "LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA" 805 Martirio says they will join the enragedcontributions to the patterns of negation group, Adela pleads with her family "iQueis "En esta casa no hay ni un si ni un no la dejen escapar! iNo salgaiis vosotras!" She-mi vigilancia lo puede todo" (p. 1518). continues to shout "iNo! iNo!" (pp. 1505-Amelia, very much in character, utters 06) while her mother orders the girl'sonly one "?si)" in the entire play, and Magdalena never uses the word at all. death. In Act III there is a sharp contrast be- Martirio joins her mother in affirming that Librada's daughter should be killed, but the second time she uses the word constiothers' inability or refusal to perceive sen- tween Adela's sensual awareness and the tutes one of the few true affirmations in sations: Angustias has gone to bed and Magdalena is sleeping in her chair when the play, the admission of her love for Pepe: "iSi! Dejame decirlo con la cabeza Adela asks her mother why a certain rhyme is recited when a falling star isfuera de los embozos. iSi! DIjame que el seen.8 Bernarda has no answer: "Los anpecho se me rompa como una granada de amargura. iLe quiero!" (p. 1527). And, of tiguos sabian muchas cosas que hemos olcourse, this positive emotion is for the unvidado" (p. 1516), Amelia remarks that attainable, and generates the fierce jealshe closes her eyes in order not to see ousy which causes her sister's death. them, and Adela's "no" is really an affirmaAdela's two affirmations are used in an tion: "Yo, no [cierro los ojos]. A mi me gusta ver correr Ileno de lumbre lo que attempt to protect her private life. Angustias employs the word in progressive recesta quieto y quieto afios enteros" (p. 1516). Martirio states that these things ognition of her loss of Pepe, from the "(Si)" in Act II when Amelia states that have nothing to do with them, Bernarda declares that it is better not to think about he must have left at about 1:30, to the them, and after Adela further extols the "Si" said twice to confirm that Pepe's phobeauty of the night, Bernarda orders everytograph is missing from her room, and finally, just before the disaster, "Si. Esta one to what she hopes will be the oblivion of sleep. Adela's heroic struggle against living death fails, and her suicide may be considered to be the triumph of negation in La casa de Bernarda Alba. She hangs herself on the basis of Martirio's lie that Pepe is dead, and after her death her vital act is repeatedly denied by her mother: "iMi hija ha muerto virgen!" (p. 1532). Even the rare affirmations in La casa de Bernarda Alba are usually distorted by the negative mood. The tone is set the first time the word "si" is used, for while the bells ring after Antonio Maria Benavides' death, the maid shouts in bitter mockery: "Si, si. iVengan clamores! iVenga caja con filos dorados y toalla para llevarla! . . . Fastidiate, Antonio Maria Benavides" (p. 1445). Bernarda uses the word "si" rarely, and always in a context of criticism, complaint, contradiction, limitation, or of ordering death. One of her most interesting noche no viene Pepe" (p. 1516). Even Poncia employs the word with a negative connotation when she tells of her violent attack against her husband, "Si, y por poco le dejo tuerto" (p. 1477), and later she utters a qualified "iEso si! Pero . . " (p. 1500), but she also uses the term in a positive way to suggest the only hope to save the family from disaster-that Pepe should marry Adela. Appropriately, Maria Josefa employs the word in its most vital sense-"Si, crias y crias y crias" (p. 1524)in reference to her imaginary children. Irony also contributes to the patterns of negation in La casa de Bernarda Alba, because even episodes which apparently represent life really show death motifs in dis- guise. For example, there is a moment in the play in which masculine vitality almost succeeds in penetrating the thick walls when the reapers pass and the girls run to look at them through the window This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to 806 WILMA NEWBERRY Hispania 59 (Dec. 1976) of Adela's room. But this moment forward toward love,is "Healso tenido fuerza parasymbolism. adelantarme" (p. 1526), may also be charged with negative The interpreted to suggest thatthe she is the first reapers, unlike their counterparts, to die. The nameswho Martirio, Magdalena woodcutters in Bodas de sangre, oband Angustias, whichdeath, connote suffering viously associate themselves with based on faith, completely sacrifice and love, intensify are represented as virile men, identified with the life force. But the the negative, empty sense of the drama reapers' song, which in the context of the because these characters have no spiritual scene is understood to allude to love, may dimension. The girls do not find consolation in religion-the appearance of Prualso be interpreted as describing death: Ya salen los segadores en busca de las espigas; se ilevan los corazones de las muchachas que miran. Abrir puertas y ventanas las que vivis en el pueblo, el segador pide rosas para adornar su sombrero. (pp. 1486-87) dencia, the beata, to whom religious resignation gives peace, underlines this by con- trast. Also, there is an additional context of irony in their names, which recalls Gald6s's ironic use of classical names in Doiia Perfecta,o0 with which La casa de Bernarda Alba has been compared for other reasons." All three girls show the Adela is the sister who is most eager to seesigns of suffering suggested by their names the reapers, and since her death is caused without the experiences or the positive by her eagerness to experience life, this traits which give this suffering meaning. episode is a perfect symbolic representationAngustias agonizes, but she has no son to of her fate. cause her sorrow,'2 Magdalena weeps, but Other forces with which Adela identishe has no reason for penance, and Marfies as exemplifying life also ironically de- tirio endures great suffering, but is in- note the contrary. The lightning boltcapable of sacrifice. In fact, the latter is a which Adela tacitly likens to her own sud- selfish, hypocritical person dominated by den burst of energy has an extremely brief hatred-exactly the opposite of the characexistence. It is also an agent of destruction, ter of a religious martyr. She has faith in and both Poncia, when she predicts light-nothing and acts mechanically: "Yo hago ning will strike, and Bernarda, when she las cosas sin fe, pero como un reloj" (p. wishes for the strength of lightning to 1458). A saint's name is also used ironicalquell the rebellion in her home, stress thely to emphasize Pepe's defective character: destructive aspect of lightning.9 Adela isafter the disappearance of his photograph, elated by the beauty of the stars, but Mar- Amelia remarks, "Ni que Pepe fuera un tirio remarks in a presaging statement: San Bartolom6 de plata" (p. 1490). Saint "Esta se puso a mirarlas de modo que se Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles, iba a tronchar el cuello" (p. 1515). Simi- is identified with Nathaniel, about whom larly, the horse seems to Adela to "llenarJesus said, "He aqui un verdadero israelita, todo lo oscuro" (p. 1515), and the horseen quien no hay engafio ni doblez."'3 is identified with Pepe, but has also been Allusions to the birth and death of associated with destruction wrought by Christ are also placed in ironic contrast passion which cannot find an outlet when with the events in the lives of these spiritBernarda says early in Act III that if he ually deficient individuals to intensify the is not let out he will knock down the walls. mood of futility in La casa de Bernarda Even the ironic meanings of the girls' Alba. Maria Josefa's name suggests a comnames intensify the negative impact of the bination of the female and male principles play. Adela's name, which apparently de- in the birth of Christ, and the lamb which scribes her nature of being the one to goshe says is her baby signifies the agnus dei This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to PATTERNS OF NEGATION IN "LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA" 807 be deprived of the outing in which she -the mention of Bethlehem in her song was to have eaten the red and green fruit, confirms Lorca's intention. Maria Josefa appears with the lamb while Adela isbut in the most complete darkening of her bright color is caused by her sisters. Marthe barnyard with Pepe, thus the grandmother presents a lyrical-allegorical intertirio tells her that she should dye her dress pretation of Adela's situation. At the black end and Magdalena suggests that she of the play Bernarda shouts that give her it to Angustias (who has been called daughter died a virgin, and she will "lo at- mis oscuro de esta casa" (p. 1464), tempt to sustain this contention withfor si-her wedding with Pepe el Romano. Adela was unaware until this moment that lence and ceremony. The crown of thorns Pepe intended to marry her sister, so there which Adela says she will put on suggests the crucifixion, and of course a female is a sharp contrast between Adela's green Pontius Pilate, "Poncia," witnesses Adela's symbol of sensuality and her desolation death. upon hearing the news.14 Another important dramatic illustration of this collective Throughout the play it is demonstrated oppression involves the representative of that Bernarda's negative attitudes have spiritual freedom, Maria Josefa. At the end completely permeated the house and have of Act I, while Bernarda shouts, "Encecontaminated its inhabitants, even as Berrradla," all the women help lock her up. narda and her daughters complain about Although all the action occurs within how gossip in the town embitters life, and the walls of Bernarda's home, hopelessness they, in turn, are very active gossips. is intensified throughout the drama by reThose who are persecuted by Bernarda minders that the situation is intended to and complain about her tyranny often model their actions on her example, characterize and all women's lives in Spanish To suggest that no woman esthis situation increases the density oftowns.15 the capes, a representative of every female staweb of negation. For instance, an imitation of Bernarda's rejection, especially tusof and age either appears on the stage or is mentioned: single young ladies, old maids, youth and life, occurs before her first ap- wives, widows, engaged women, mothers, pearance when the maid (who soon after an abandoned wife, a common-law wife, a is the first to be rejected by Bernarda) grandmother, girls who have lovers, and a rudely orders away a beggarwoman and her young daughter. The maid refuses participant to in an incestuous relationship, give left-over food to the poor woman, all and of whom are overwhelmed by the same then cleans up her traces in an attempt atmosphere to of negation. The few narrated examples of vital fulfillment emphasize the erase all signs of life. Similarly, Adela, who will be the one to suffer most from male's pleasure and are carefully dis- the repression of her natural impulses and tanced: the sexual orgy involving Paca la from being under constant vigilance, is the Roseta, and the visit of the accordionfirst to cause another to be reprimandedplaying prostitute in a spangled dress who for an attempt to perceive life: she reports will serve fourteen reapers and their greento her mother that Angustias was listening eyed leader have a mythical quality like to the men's conversation after the funeral. the pictures of nymphs or legendary kings Very soon after this, Adela is the object of which hang on the wall in Act. I. Bea symbolic illustration of the collective na- sides, the people involved in these epiture of this repression. She appears before sodes are not from the town "[Paca la her sisters in a new green dress which she Roseta] no es de aqui. Es de muy lejos. Y had intended to wear on her birthday to los que fueron con ella son tambien hijos go to the noria to eat watermelon. Ofde forasteros. Los hombres de aqui no son course now after her father's death she will capaces de eso" (p. 1456). This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to 808 WILMA NEWBERRY Hispania 59 (Dec. 1976) T WOULD REQUIRE A LINE-BY-LINE portant aspects of COMthe play and observes that Bernarda's being is "sobrecargado de negativismo" (p. 393). to show the full impact of negation in the 2Federico Garcia Lorca, Obras completas (Maplay-on the most superficial level the fre- drid: Aguilar, 1969), p. 1441. All subsequent quent use of the word "no" is symptomatic. quotations will be taken from this edition and MENTARY Of La casa de Bernarda Alba Phrases which suggest the absence of sen-cited by page numbers in the text. 3Sumner M. Greenfield, op. cit., treats this sation are ever-present, and Bernarda casts a shadow over the sisters' rare moments of aspect of the play. 4Eric Bentley remarks that in staging La casa laughter. Even Maria Josefa, in her state de Bernarda Alba "The problem is to combine of dementia employs the rhetoric of nega- clarity with lightness. 'Silence' is the first word tion: "Nada de lo que tengo quiero que Bernarda speaks and the last. She speaks it sea para vosotras. Ni mis anillos ni mi many times. She and others use synonyms like hush and sh! and quiet! The pattern of repeltitraje de 'moare.' Porque ninguna de voso- tion has to be effective without being oppres- tras se va a casar" (p. 1470). The atmos- sive" (In Search of Theater [New York: Vin- phere of negation also causes Poncia totage, 1959], p. 212). follow Bernarda's example in frequently 5Green symbolism in Spanish literature is uttering negative statements which are asdiscussed by Vernon A. Chamberlin, "Symbolic Green: A Time-Honored Characterizing Device varied in tone and purpose as is her poin Spanish Literature," Hispa:nia, LI (1968), sition in the family. Since she is the one 29-37. person in the play who tries to convince 6The wind as fertility symbol is also probably Bernarda to act reasonably, perhaps her meant here. Lorca used the wind in this way in most important contribution to the patterns "Preciosa y el aire," for example. See Jeremy C. Forster, "Aspects of Lorca's Saint Christopher," of negation is her acknowledgment of Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, XLIII (1966), 109defeat: "Cuando una no puede con el mar, 17; and Rupert C. Allen, The Symbolic World lo mais ficil es volver las espaldas para noof Federico Garcia Lorca (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1972), pp. 30-33. verlo" (p. 1520). 7Prudencia's visit also provides the only time Lorca's concluding negative stroke in in the play that Bernarda indicates approbation the play is to invert the meaning of an of anything or anyone. Prudencia relates that important positive symbol, the ocean, since her husband quarrelled with his brothers which, especially to Maria Josefa, repre- over the inheritance, "no ha salido por la puerta de la calle" (p. 1507). Instead, he uses a ladder sents freedom, fulfillment and fertility.and climbs over the walls and the barnyard. The sea is far from the riverless well-town Bernarda remarks, "Es un verdadero hombre" in which a "claustrophobic sensation of (p. 1507). Apparently, Prudencia's husband has constriction"16 prevails, but it does offerattained Bernarda's ideal life condition: he has found a way 'to go out while metaphorically an illusion of possible escape. In Bernar- remaining indoors. Bernarda's own method of da's last speech, however, while she orders intransigently secluding herself without sacrificthe oblivion of silence, she also turns the ing knowledge of the town's events is to send positive ocean symbol into a negative one,Poncia to spy, but this is a far less satisfactory "Nos hundiremos todas en un mar de luto" method than the one invented by Prudencia's husband. Bernarda also approves of Prudencia's (p. 1532),17 thus signaling the final domi-husband's refusal to pardon his daughter. The nation of negation in La casa de Bernardajuxtaposition of Prudencia's visit and the horse Alba. in heat is important, but the meaning of the horse has been discussed too often to need fur- NOTES ther treatment here. 8An essential article to add to the understandILorca's use of white in this play is discussed of this passage is Judith M. Bull, "'Santa by Sumner M. Greenfield, "Poetry anding StageBarbara' and La casa de Bernarda Alba," Bulletin craft in 'La casa de Bernarda Alba,' " Hispania, of BarHispanic Studies, xLIVII (1970), 117-23. xxxviii (1955), 456-61. See also J. Rubia 9See Judith Bull on this point also. cia, "El realismo 'migico' de 'La casa de Bernarda Alba' " Revista hispdnica moderna, xxxi 10See Stephen Gilman, "Las referencias clsi- This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to PATTERNS OF NEGATION IN "LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA" 809 (1965), 385-98. Rubia Barcia discusses many imcas de Doiia Perfecta," Nueva revista de filologia hispdnica, mI1 (1949), 353-62. "1For example, Alfredo de la Guardia, Garcia Lorca: Persona y creacidn (Buenos Aires: Editorial Schapire, 1961), pp. 380-81. '2Angustias is a name "que se deriva de la advocaci6n granadina de la Virgen Maria, Nuestra Seiiora de las Angustias (Gutierre Tib6n, Diccionario de nombres propios [Mexico: UTEHA, 1956], p. 37). 3Ibid., p. 378. trario, la moral racionalizada y decadente hecha de preceptos negativos, limitaciones y constricciones, que precipilta el cristianismo al evaporarse" (Teatro espahiol contempordneo [Madrid: Guadarrama, 1968], p. 241). '6Rupert Allen, op. cit., p. 48. This phrase appears in Allen's chapter on Lorca's "Nifia ahogada en el pozo," a discussion which sheds light on Lorca's negative attitude toward wells and his symbolic use of them. 17The "mar de luto" becomes even more intensively negative when it is recalled that the 141n addition to colors which symbolize Adela's phrase "mar de ilanto" would be appropriate sensuality, she is also associated with fertility here. But Bernarda has prohibited tears, so Maria Josefa's sea full of foam-tossed waves symbols: hens, eggs, and a rabbit. 15G. Torrente Ballester comments: "La moral which symbolize the continuing generations bedel pueblo en que Bernarda vive es todo lo con- comes a dry, black place in which there is no trario de una moral primitiva; es, por el con- hope for future life. SPANISH GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIPS FOR FALL 1977 The Spanish Government's Comisi6n Nacional para el Bicentenario de la Inde pendencia de los Estados Unidos has announced that it will award seven scholar- ships valid for the months of September, October, November and December 1977. Each recipient will receive 30,000 pesetas a month during the period o the scholarship, and a travel grant of 20,00 pesetas. Please send applications for the scholarships (typed, 5 copies) to Dr. Richard B. Klein, Secretary-Treasurer of AATSP, Holy Cross College, Worcester, MA 01610. The deadline is April 1, 1977. Only AATSP members may apply. Applications, in any area of specialization, should include a clearly defined proposal as well as a statement indicating how this opportunity to study and pursue research in Spain will benefit the applicant in his professional career. CHANGE OF ADDRESS? Please notify the Secretary-Treasurer promptly. Believe it or not, the office processes about 3,000 changes of address per year. If you can notify u the post office does, the Association saves almost $1.00 in postage a you'll receive Hispania on time too. Although it may sound too good to everybody wins! This content downloaded from on Mon, 10 Dec 2018 21:49:38 UTC All use subject to
Alyssa Gutierrez SPAN 305 Dec. 5, 2018 La Casa de Bernarda Alba En la obra de La Casa de Bernarda Alba, Lorca enfoca en el tema del honor en la sociedad Española que produce represión de los sentimientos del ser humano, especialmente entre Bernarda y sus hijas. La presión que siente de la sociedad como mujer esta reflejada por la negación y necesidad para controlar negativamente todas partes de las vida de las mujeres en su casa. Las relaciones entre Bernarda y las otras personajes muestran la obligación para mantener representaciones de si mismas para el mundo externo y interno.

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