According to Minnich, the root conceptual error is when the government system assumes to be
dominant hence, they take control of the people. Through their dominance, they can influence the
people to do whatever they want. It is the legitimate system which thinks of itself as dominant.
Minnich also believes that the root conceptual error is when a singular term is generalized to mean
other terms. One term presents several other terms. For example, when the term man and not men
are used to indicate both female and male gender.
To Minnich, he thinks that it is valid to claim that there is a distinction among people. It is because
everyone is unique in his way of reasoning and at the same time everyone has a unique nature
depending on sex, age and culture. The kind of distinction making which valid is the difference in
their nature of addressing their opinions as well as their survival in their environment.
To Minnich, it is valid to acknowledge flexible mutable distinctions in that there are times when
we could reconsider what we had known after learning other concepts from others.
It is valid to think of real division which is taken to be given by God since it is not by choice that
we think of the actual division but it is inborn and occurs on its own without knowing. It is also
valid to think of real division which are taken to be given by nature in that the environment in
which we are driving us to respond and make opinion on certain manners.it is also valid to think
of real division which is taken to be given by authority in that it is the legitimate system which
makes us form different opinions and judge according to their influence.
The errors that Minnich consider as essential to dominant tradition are hierarchical, division by
kind, the norm and ideal for all.
The error of hierarchy means that the people in authority have the mandate to give orders to the
other people. Division by kind is when there is generalization of words in which a specific few
emerge as the term. The norm means the ethics and the morals of the society. Ideal for all is when
there is equality for everyone.