English Portfolio

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 18th, 2018
account_balance_wallet $20

Question description

I need: a table of contents, introduction, research proposal and conclusion.

I want these done in order.

  • Table of contents
  • Introduction (How did you feel about this English class? How did you feel you did?) (One whole page, double spaced, 12 font, TNR) (it needs to be one page, without any unnecessary indent, line or paragraph spacing)
  • Personal research guide (done, in the attachment)
  • Annotated bibliography/genre analysis (done, in the attachment)
  • Literature Review (done, in the attachment)
  • Research proposal
  • (Your research proposal will be a discussion of how you would design an experiment or research study to actually try and answer the research questions. Be as ballsy and creative as you want. (apx 650 words, double spaced)

    The research questions: Ask question(s) about the history of your research topic - Ask question(s) about its structure and composition - Ask question(s) about how your topic is categorized - Ask question(s) suggested by your sources - Consider the “so-what” of your question — why should we care? )

  • Conclusion (How are you going to take the skills you learned in this class and use them in the future?)(One whole page, double spaced, 12 font, TNR) (it needs to be one page long, without any unnecessary indent, line or paragraph spacing)
  • Look at the attached file for the papers that’s marked done. I have included those paper so the table of content can be completed.

    Please go through the paper carefully in order to complete the research proposal properly.

    Personal Research Guide As a business management major one of discourse communities that I will gain membership to is the business community. However as one who is interested in a psychology minor another professional discourse community that I have a keen interest in joining is the psychology discourse. This is a community of professionals who through observation and assessment, study the emotional, cognitive and social behaviors and processes associated with how people relate to one another and their environment These professionals interpret the information they have gathered in a bid to bring about improvements in the processes and behaviors. The roles that psychologists play include conducting scientific studies with the aim of shedding light on the brain function and behavior, gathering information from individuals through observation, interviews or surveys, diagnosing disorder, organizational issues, researching and identifying emotional and behavioral functions, testing for patterns which will help in the comprehension and prediction of behaviors, helping clients deal with problems by discussing treatment options, undertake research and report findings in articles to provide the information for others and supervising professional in counseling field, clinicians and interns (CollegeGrad LLC, 2018). Psychologists formulate and develop theories on feelings and beliefs that influence individuals through experimentation, observation and assessment. Psychology is a big field with various forms of professionals and career paths. Some of these include; aviation psychologists, bio-psychologists, clinical psychologists, cognitive psychologists, community psychologists, comparative psychologists, consumer psychologists, counseling psychologists, cross-cultural psychologists, developmental psychologists, educational psychologists, engineering psychologists, environmental psychologists, forensic psychologists, health psychologists, industrial-organizational psychologists, military psychologists, personality psychologists, school psychologists, social psychologists and so forth (Cherry, 2018). In order to gain a deeper understanding of the discourse Swales’ (1990) six characteristics of discourse communities will be employed. Annotated bibliography and Genre analysis Common Public Goals in Psychology Discourse According to Swales (1990) for a group to be referred to as a discourse community, they must fix a set of goals which are publicly known and shared among them. These goals are well known and understood by the professionals in that field and all other practicing members. Although the field of psychology is diverse and the professionals work in very different settings, all the professionals in this field have similar goals which make them a community. The major goals in this discourse include description of behavior where members seek to gain an understanding of both normal and abnormally considered behaviors. Here these professionals utilize different methods and mechanisms to gain this understanding. The second common goal is seeking to explain behavior where the psychologists simply seek to determine why people behave the way they do and do the things they do. The third goal is seeking to predict future behavior by utilizing the information and knowledge they have while the last common goal is seeking to change behavior by influencing or controlling with the pursuit of making changes that last (Cherry, (2018 b)). By pursuing the goals of describing, explaining, predicting, and changing behavior, these professionals work towards improving the quality of life for people. Psychologist either at a professional level or students are all working towards equipping people with knowledge on mental health issues, seeking to ensure the wellbeing of all and aiding their clients towards attaining their goals. These professionals work towards advancing knowledge on psychology so that they can benefit the society. They seek to encourage engagement of members in the field to ensure this Mechanisms of Intercommunication in Psychology Discourse According to Swales (1990) a group must have mechanisms which they use for communication purposes between their members to be considered a discourse community. This communication enables them to accomplish their goals of describing, explaining, predicting, and changing behavior. In the psychology discourse intercommunication generally happen through research articles, newsletters, seminars and conferences, career fairs, conversations and so forth. These are made possible by the various societies and associations they belong to such as American Psychiatric Association. These intercommunicative practices are enabled by peer reviewed articles published in journals such as the American Psychological Association which has over 90 independent journals covering the various sub disciplines of psychology. Examples of these peer reviewed articles include; Kenrick, A, C., Sinclair, C. Richeson, J. Verosky, S. C. and Lun J. (2016); Moving While Black: Intergroup Attitudes Influence Judgments of Speed Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Other communicative mechanisms include magazines and newsletters such as the Monitor on Psychology a monthly publication which provides professionals in the field of psychology recent articles on new research findings, innovative ways of operations and other activities that are being undertaken by the APA association (American Psychological Association, 2018). Another major way of communication in the psychology discourse in through various annual conferences where professional come, share and learn from each other. Example s includes the annual APA conference. Participatory Mechanisms in Psychology Discourse For a group to be referred to as a discourse community, it must have mechanisms which allow its members to participate (Swales, 1990). The psychology discourse ensures that their members participate by calling for their proposal for their conferences such as; APA annual conference, Global Symposium for Psychology Professionals, International Conference on Humanities, Psychology and Social Science, Annual International Conference on Spirituality and Psychology The participation of members is also enabled by the various professional peer reviewed journals where they can publish their articles. Examples include; APA Journals, Educational Publishing Foundation journals, Canadian Psychological Association journals, Hogrefe Publishing Group journals, National Institute of Mental Health journals, The Journal of Psychology, American Journal of Psychology, Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, British Journal of Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Psychological Review, International Journal of Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Applied Psychology, The Journal of Social Psychology, Psychological Studies, Journal of Health Psychology and so forth. Other databases available for members’ participation include; PsycINFO, Annual Reviews, Counseling and Therapy in Video: Volume I, Google Scholar, JSTOR, PsycArticles, PubMed, SAGE Research Methods, DSM-V Library, Sociological Abstracts and so forth Communicative Genre in Psychology Discourse A group must have specific genre of communication in order for them to be considered discourse community (Swales, 1990). The psychology discourse has a number of genre they use, these include; Reports of empirical studies such as Schmidt, A. M. and DeShon, R.P (2010). The Moderating Effects of Performance Ambiguity on the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Monographs such as; Shockley, K.M., Shen, W. DeNunzio, M. M. Arvan, M. L and Knudsen, E.A.(2017).Disentangling the Relationship Between Gender and Work–Family Conflict: An Integration of Theoretical Perspectives Using Meta-Analytic Methods Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Feature Articles which are Empirical in nature such as; Hammer, L.B., Johnson, R.Y. Crain, T. L., Bodner, T. Kossek, E.E., Davis, K.D.,. Kelly,E.L Buxton, O.M., Karuntzos, G. . Chosewood, C.and Berkman, L. (2016). Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Study Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Feature Articles which adopt an Integrative Conceptual Reviews and Theoretical such as; Kiazad, K. Holtom, B.C Hom, P.W and Newman, A. (2015). Job Embeddedness: A Multifoci Theoretical Extension Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 9, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Others include books, case histories, and discussions of quantitative methods, case studies, grant proposals, conference papers and so forth. A very important text in the field of psychology is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) which provides the basis for classifying disorders and through which various tests have been developed to help in the diagnosis. Specific Lexis in Psychology Discourse Swales (1990) also indicated that discourse community also must have a particular jargon which is specific to it. For psychologist, their study introduces to a particular set of jargon which they have to use for the rest of their career Level of Membership in in Psychology Discourse Swales (1990) pointed to the importance of distinction between members in terms of level of expertise. In the field of psychology, professional must acquire training first as students before they become professionals. They start at a lower bachelors’ degree level proceed to graduate studies then doctorate level. Extensive study is required for the rise in level of expertise. Major Contemporary topics and changes in Psychology Discourse last 5-10 years The field of psychology has continued to evolve as new areas of interest arise over time. A significant change that has occurred in the Field is the revision of the manual that is used to classify mental health disorder. Since its first publication, it has undergone through various reviews with the most recent being in 2013 giving rise to DMS-V. Areas which have been of interest and used to formulate research topics include; eating disorders, effects of exposure to violence during childhood, veteran related issues, and issues related to immigrants, technology and ethics, issues of sexual minorities, divorce and various personality disorders. Important terms in Psychology ✓ Correlational Research ✓ Dependent Variable ✓ Independent Variable ✓ Control Group ✓ Placebo Effect ✓ Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ✓ Sensory Memory ✓ Environment ✓ Intelligence Quotient (IQ) ✓ Anxiety disorders ✓ Attachment ✓ Aggression Literature Review Burnout is a concept that originated in the 1970s and describes how professionals’ mental capacity disintegrates and compromises the capacity to deal with stressful work environments. According to Heverling, (2011), burnout can be defined as intense dissatisfaction and exhaustion that professionals develop after enduring high stress environments in their workplace. On the other hand, Maslach, Jackson and Leiter, (1996) defined burnout as a syndrome which manifests in three dimensions; these include emotional exhaustion, lack of or the reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment and, depersonalization. In all professionals, there is a high workload and stress that causes symptoms of burnout like mental exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout among Child Protective Services (CPS) professional is higher in comparison to other professionals (Soderfeldt, Soderfeldt and Warg, 1995). This is attributed to societal changes that have greatly impacted the practices of social workers and their work environment. Professionals in CPS are tasked with a plethora of duties and crisis systems that overwork them with exhausting caseloads. CPS professionals work in an environment that calls for constant support to sufficiently cope with the work environment. Most of the studies investigate the prevalence and prevention of burnout among social workers. However, I intend to investigate the predictors and causes of burnout and stress among social workers. The present review will look at how CPS workers become stressed and are burnout, and the implication of stress and burnout among social workers. Predictors and Causes of Burnout With the prevalence of burnout that has been experienced among Child Protective Services, various scholars have endeavored to research and review to point these factors out. A review by Wacek (2017) which sought to determine the factors that increased the risk of burnout among social workers identified two major themes of risks that are occupational environment factors and personal factors. From the camp of occupational environment factors the specific factors included the social worker’s occupational environment which caused poor coping with the stressors encountered in interactions and lack of support to deal with the challenges they face. The argument was that given the nature of work that child protection service professionals are engaged in, it was in their job description to experience stress, however the challenge came in how it was dealt with or the failure to deal with which caused burnout and its related consequences. On the other hand the areas in the professionals’ personal factors pointed out included the professional’s history of trauma, the coping strategies their employed to deal with stressors and trauma and their support mechanism. The study indicated that the individual’s decisions of how they deal with these challenges and past greatly determine their likelihood of developing burnout and having their job performance negatively affected (Wacek, 2017). The occupational environmental factors and personal factors which will be looked at indepth include the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization, client relationships and the role of agency. The paper will then look at the implication of their impact on child protective services professional and give a conclusion suggesting the way forward Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, and Depersonalization In a research study, Davies, (2013) identified burnout and stress in categories of personal accomplishment, depersonalization, and emotional exhaustion. According to Davies, (2013), personal accomplishment is a measure of an individual’s feelings regarding their personal ability and workplace success. Feelings of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were extensively cited a contributing to instances of burnout and stress among CPS workers. Savicki and Cooley (1994) in their study which sought to measure changes in burnout among child protective service found that these three factors contributed to increase in burnout with emotional exhaustion contributing the greatest towards burnout with R2 = 0.465 followed by depersonalization R2 = 0.432 and lastly personal accomplishment with R2 = 0.431. These finding were obtained by shadowing 64 Child protective service professionals new to the profession for 18 months and determining the difference that their environment made to their levels of burnout. These three categories are exacerbated by high caseloads, minimal to no supervision, and lack of experience with cases. Client Relationships The foundation of social work is in client relationships. Even when dealing with clients with unrealistic or inappropriate expectations, social workers experience internal conflict. A lot of emphasis in the profession is placed on training to deal with client relations. Social workers are expected to remain non-judgmental when dealing with clients, hence find difficult to admit client attitudes and personalities hinder effective service response as Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) illustrates. The implication is that they persevere and take personal responsibility in case of failure. Given the nature of the job and the challenges they face Hoeper (2013) asserts that they negatively affect the professionals leading to fatigue and burnout. This is illustrated in the patient by compassion Fatigue Further, there is conflict in the ideals of social work, for instance, social justice, advocacy and the expected role performance. These conflicts exacerbate instances of burnout and stress in the profession. Social workers are advocates of clients and represent their best interest while being responsible for safety of others and client. Conflicts in client relations have been cited by Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), as one of the contributing factors to burnout and stress. Role of Agency Moreover, Davies, (2013) identified the agency as responsible for creating an environment that encourage burnout which according to Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017) affects their job performance negatively and leads to high rates of turnover. In previous studies, organizational structures within which CPS workers operate have significant influences on their ability to deal with stress. Other than managerial style, research has demonstrated that more responsibility and the diversity of the roles of social workers increase the prevalence of stress. Workers in this profession engage in various roles with the client and agency. The implication, according to Davies, (2013), is that they lack clarity of their job description with instances of one job contradicting another. There is an expectation that the social worker advocates and understands the issues faced by a client, while at the same time monitor the functioning of the family and cultivate a relationship with the court system. There are instances of ambivalence towards the social worker from the family about the relationship with the court system, which is often considered the enemy. As Davies, (2013) demonstrates, how parents are hesitant to cooperate with a CPS worker who can ultimately separate them from their children. There is an expectation for the worker to build trust with the family, when often the family is resentful towards the agency. Other than role ambiguity, Davies, (2013) shows the role of minimal resources for clients in increasing the stress levels for social workers. CPS professionals in state agencies interact with numerous systems and rules that influence their interaction with clients. Restrictive working conditions can be attributed to the prevailing political and organizational environment. No matter the basis of stress, the agency influences the worker’s perception of the job. Davies, (2013) illustrates how research shows a relationship between negative attitude of supervisors and principals in increasing the feelings of burnout among social workers. This is in line with Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017 who indicated that challenges emanating from factors in the agency have a greater impact and cause greater levels of burnout compared to client-related factors. Numerous studies have demonstrated how stress in workers is higher in the absence of support and assistance from their superiors or colleagues. Davies, (2013) shows how with continued support, from their superiors, social workers are better equipped to manage stress during their work. With diminishing support from one supervisor, there is emotional exhaustion that crops. The supervisor is considered a source of strength and when the environment lacks the support, a social worker internalizes the issues at work and is overwhelmed. Another aspect of the agency that Davies, (2013) addresses is the high caseloads associated with the system. High caseloads have been identified as a contributing factor to burnout in the profession. Professionals in child protective services have disclosed that stress is contributed by high caseloads that make it difficult to complete work. Social workers are overburdened by their roles and there is an increased risk of emotional exhaustion as well as job dissatisfaction. Further, Davies, (2013) identified the level of experience as a contributing factor to burnout. The age of a social worker and the setting within which they provide their services manipulate the level of burnout. On one hand, however, Davies, (2013) demonstrates how school counselors with over five years in the field recorded higher depersonalization compared to workers with below three years of experience. Newer workers receive more supervision and have currently been trained in their profession. On the other hand, depersonalization, reduced perception of success in the workplace, and psychological strain was connected with younger workers in the profession. As Davies, (2013) demonstrates, younger workers have recently joined the profession and are impacted by higher stress and responsibility levels. Further, younger workers have insufficient coping mechanisms. As Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) demonstrated, organizational factors have a contributory role in the burnout process for social workers. Aspects of job ambiguity, conflict with roles, challenges of the job, and lack of job autonomy have been identified as contributory factors of burnout. Literature in the field shows how social workers experience high levels of role ambiguity and conflict compared to other professions. With changing structures of social agencies, social workers are unable to apply their skills, in the face of conflicting role expectations. As Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) shows, the professional concept of social work has been undermined and the implication is they face dilemmas on how they can best address client issues within the confines of regulation and reform. Moreover, social workers are expected to fulfill their roles with minimal autonomy and resources. Social work has changed markedly with regards to service delivery. To sufficiently respond to these changes, social workers should develop effectiveness with their practice to enhance their professional identity. The contribution of social workers is not often valued or understood and hence proving the need for the profession to develop job clarity. Implications According to Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth (2002), the impact of stress and burnout in the social work profession range from morbidity, job dissatisfaction, and staff turnover. This is in line with Bennett, Plint and Clifford (2005) who undertook a study on the effect of burnout on the job satisfaction and psychological morbidity among child protective services professionals in Canada and unearthed very high levels of burnout among the respondents (34%), 13.5% of the respondents experienced psychological morbidity while 26.2% indicated stressful job environment. given the challenges that the respondents faced in their job 2/3 of the respondents indicated that at one time or the other they had contemplated leaving the profession all together. In conclusion, the study scholars indicated that intervention to reduce the levels of burnout were necessary so that the profession can perform optimally. High levels of emotional stress have been identified among social workers, with a considerable number of them reporting pathological anxiety levels. Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017 indicate that work-related burnout among CPS professionals has a strong relationship to stress within the job, job dissatisfaction, and increases the professionals desire to leave the profession. Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth (2002) cite a study conducted of social workers that showed cases of mild psychiatric morbidity. In a study that investigated the psychological strains that social workers experience in fulfillment of their responsibility, 55% of the respondents experienced feelings of anxiety and the levels of anxiety correlated with their responsibility. In another study that investigated how burnout and stress impact family relations of social workers, the results demonstrated how social workers with high burnout levels were more likely to experience depression, reduced marital satisfaction, irritability, and anxiety. In another study cited by Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the research studied groups of social workers in areas of adult mental health and physical dysfunction, and child health with the objective of examining the causes of stress, the coping mechanisms, and outcomes. The results of the study demonstrated how the measure of mental exhaustion and distress was considerably higher among social workers compared to the levels of other professionals. The study provided evidence of considerably high levels of work related anxiety as well as trait depression among social workers in comparison to the normal population and other professions. In another study, ill health was found among social workers as being higher than the normal population. Some of the symptoms of burnout that social workers have reported include physical and emotional exhaustion, meaning that social workers reported poor mental health compared to other occupational groups. In another study in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the researcher investigated the relationship between job satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and stress in social work. The results show how social workers with role ambiguity reported higher levels of job dissatisfaction and stress compared to their counterparts who were confident about their job responsibility. Job satisfaction in social work is important considering an individual continues staying in a job where they feel satisfied. Job satisfaction’s importance is demonstrated by its correlation with absenteeism and higher turnover rate. Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) in their study show that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was prevalent among social workers and caused a larger section of these professionals to consider changing their jobs. In previous research, burnout has been related to the desire to switch jobs. Studies have found that a higher section of social workers have expressed the intention to leave their profession entirely or their current jobs. In a study of occupational stress cited in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to study occupational stress among social workers. The results from the study demonstrated how social workers experienced burnout more frequently and with higher intensity, with the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization instances being the most prevalent. While measuring burnout, the study demonstrated how lack of accomplishment in the workplace was higher in the profession. The respondents in the study reported a 100% frequency and 98% intensity of burnout as demonstrated in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002). There is evidence to show how the manifestation of burnout in social work is through personal accomplishment. The feelings of lack of accomplishment at work are high in social work because the profession is based on idealism objectives, which is not reflected in practice. This is a demonstration of considerable disappointment that social workers have with their daily professional practice. In another study that investigated the perceptions of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover in social workers, there was high levels of burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to switch careers. Among work related stressors, respondents pointed to the job ambiguity in the profession, job challenges, value conflict, role conflict, and financial reward. Further, when the levels of job satisfaction and burnout were investigated among social workers, Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) demonstrates how the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, the MBI, and Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals showed a lack of crucial job facets in the profession, for instance, opportunities for career development and remuneration, as the causes of job burnout. Social work has previously been linked with stress and burnout, considering its client-based nature and professionals being involved in complex situations. As such, there is a high prevalence of the conflicts that pervade human service work. A number of researchers have concluded that the social work occupation is highly stressful owing to conflicting contexts, functions, and status. The literature has shown how social work professionals are at a higher risk of stress and burnout. The studies identified in the review have revealed that social workers experienced stress and burnout compared to other professions. Although they experience a higher level of burnout when compared to the normative population, especially with regards to feelings of personal accomplishment with their job. Researchers have looked at various aspects of stress and burnout in social work. Most of the factors that have received attention from research deal with organizational factors contributing to burnout and stress like pressure, role ambiguity, role of supervisor, work load, lack support to deal with stressors. Some of the risk factors identified in the review include the lack of challenges at work, role ambiguity, difficulty in providing services, low professional accomplishment. The major revelation and argument in all this is that given the nature of work that child protection service professionals are engaged in, it is in their job description to operate in highly stressful environments, however the challenge comes in how the stress experienced is dealt with and the mechanisms put in place to deal with stressors and avert feeling of burnout and its related consequences. There is therefore need for further research to investigate the wide range of stressors and how-to formulae strategies to deal with the stress. References Bennett, S. Plint, A. Clifford, T.J (2005). Burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and stress: a survey of Canadian hospital based child protection professionals. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:1112–1116. doi: 10.1136/adc.2003.048462 Davies, K. M. (2013). Burnout Among Child Protection Workers: The Role of Supervision. Heverling, M. (2011). Burnout prevalence and prevention in a state child welfare agency. Hoeper, J.. (2013). Mitigating Compassion Fatigue among Child Protection Social Workers. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Retrieved from https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/189 Leake, R., Rienks, S. & Obermann, A. (2017). A Deeper Look at Burnout in the Child Welfare Workforce ; Journal Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance Volume 41, 2017 - Issue 5. Retrieved fro https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23303131.2017.1340385?scroll=top&need Access=true&journalCode=wasw21 Lloyd, C., King, R., & Chenoweth, L. (2002). Social work, stress and burnout: A review. Journal of mental health, 11(3), 255-265. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press Savicki, V. and Cooley, E.J (1994). Burnout in Child Protective Service Workers: A Longitudinal Study Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol. 15, No. 7 pp. 655-666. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2488152?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Soderfeldt, M., Soderfeldt, B. & Warg, L. (1995).Burnout in social work. Social Work, 40, 638– 646 Wacek, B.. (2017). Factors Which Put Social Workers at a Greater Risk for Burnout. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine. Retrieved from : https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/814
    Personal Research Guide As a business management major one of discourse communities that I will gain membership to is the business community. However as one who is interested in a psychology minor another professional discourse community that I have a keen interest in joining is the psychology discourse. This is a community of professionals who through observation and assessment, study the emotional, cognitive and social behaviors and processes associated with how people relate to one another and their environment These professionals interpret the information they have gathered in a bid to bring about improvements in the processes and behaviors. The roles that psychologists play include conducting scientific studies with the aim of shedding light on the brain function and behavior, gathering information from individuals through observation, interviews or surveys, diagnosing disorder, organizational issues, researching and identifying emotional and behavioral functions, testing for patterns which will help in the comprehension and prediction of behaviors, helping clients deal with problems by discussing treatment options, undertake research and report findings in articles to provide the information for others and supervising professional in counseling field, clinicians and interns (CollegeGrad LLC, 2018). Psychologists formulate and develop theories on feelings and beliefs that influence individuals through experimentation, observation and assessment. Psychology is a big field with various forms of professionals and career paths. Some of these include; aviation psychologists, bio-psychologists, clinical psychologists, cognitive psychologists, community psychologists, comparative psychologists, consumer psychologists, counseling psychologists, cross-cultural psychologists, developmental psychologists, educational psychologists, engineering psychologists, environmental psychologists, forensic psychologists, health psychologists, industrial-organizational psychologists, military psychologists, personality psychologists, school psychologists, social psychologists and so forth (Cherry, 2018). In order to gain a deeper understanding of the discourse Swales’ (1990) six characteristics of discourse communities will be employed. Annotated bibliography and Genre analysis Common Public Goals in Psychology Discourse According to Swales (1990) for a group to be referred to as a discourse community, they must fix a set of goals which are publicly known and shared among them. These goals are well known and understood by the professionals in that field and all other practicing members. Although the field of psychology is diverse and the professionals work in very different settings, all the professionals in this field have similar goals which make them a community. The major goals in this discourse include description of behavior where members seek to gain an understanding of both normal and abnormally considered behaviors. Here these professionals utilize different methods and mechanisms to gain this understanding. The second common goal is seeking to explain behavior where the psychologists simply seek to determine why people behave the way they do and do the things they do. The third goal is seeking to predict future behavior by utilizing the information and knowledge they have while the last common goal is seeking to change behavior by influencing or controlling with the pursuit of making changes that last (Cherry, (2018 b)). By pursuing the goals of describing, explaining, predicting, and changing behavior, these professionals work towards improving the quality of life for people. Psychologist either at a professional level or students are all working towards equipping people with knowledge on mental health issues, seeking to ensure the wellbeing of all and aiding their clients towards attaining their goals. These professionals work towards advancing knowledge on psychology so that they can benefit the society. They seek to encourage engagement of members in the field to ensure this Mechanisms of Intercommunication in Psychology Discourse According to Swales (1990) a group must have mechanisms which they use for communication purposes between their members to be considered a discourse community. This communication enables them to accomplish their goals of describing, explaining, predicting, and changing behavior. In the psychology discourse intercommunication generally happen through research articles, newsletters, seminars and conferences, career fairs, conversations and so forth. These are made possible by the various societies and associations they belong to such as American Psychiatric Association. These intercommunicative practices are enabled by peer reviewed articles published in journals such as the American Psychological Association which has over 90 independent journals covering the various sub disciplines of psychology. Examples of these peer reviewed articles include; Kenrick, A, C., Sinclair, C. Richeson, J. Verosky, S. C. and Lun J. (2016); Moving While Black: Intergroup Attitudes Influence Judgments of Speed Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Other communicative mechanisms include magazines and newsletters such as the Monitor on Psychology a monthly publication which provides professionals in the field of psychology recent articles on new research findings, innovative ways of operations and other activities that are being undertaken by the APA association (American Psychological Association, 2018). Another major way of communication in the psychology discourse in through various annual conferences where professional come, share and learn from each other. Example s includes the annual APA conference. Participatory Mechanisms in Psychology Discourse For a group to be referred to as a discourse community, it must have mechanisms which allow its members to participate (Swales, 1990). The psychology discourse ensures that their members participate by calling for their proposal for their conferences such as; APA annual conference, Global Symposium for Psychology Professionals, International Conference on Humanities, Psychology and Social Science, Annual International Conference on Spirituality and Psychology The participation of members is also enabled by the various professional peer reviewed journals where they can publish their articles. Examples include; APA Journals, Educational Publishing Foundation journals, Canadian Psychological Association journals, Hogrefe Publishing Group journals, National Institute of Mental Health journals, The Journal of Psychology, American Journal of Psychology, Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, British Journal of Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Psychological Review, International Journal of Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Applied Psychology, The Journal of Social Psychology, Psychological Studies, Journal of Health Psychology and so forth. Other databases available for members’ participation include; PsycINFO, Annual Reviews, Counseling and Therapy in Video: Volume I, Google Scholar, JSTOR, PsycArticles, PubMed, SAGE Research Methods, DSM-V Library, Sociological Abstracts and so forth Communicative Genre in Psychology Discourse A group must have specific genre of communication for them to be considered discourse community (Swales, 1990). The psychology discourse has several genre they use, these include; Reports of empirical studies such as Schmidt, A. M. and DeShon, R.P (2010). The Moderating Effects of Performance Ambiguity on the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Monographs such as; Shockley, K.M., Shen, W. DeNunzio, M. M. Arvan, M. L and Knudsen, E.A.(2017).Disentangling the Relationship Between Gender and Work–Family Conflict: An Integration of Theoretical Perspectives Using Meta-Analytic Methods Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Feature Articles which are Empirical in nature such as; Hammer, L.B., Johnson, R.Y. Crain, T. L., Bodner, T. Kossek, E.E., Davis, K.D.,. Kelly,E.L Buxton, O.M., Karuntzos, G. . Chosewood, C.and Berkman, L. (2016). Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Study Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Feature Articles which adopt an Integrative Conceptual Reviews and Theoretical such as; Kiazad, K. Holtom, B.C Hom, P.W and Newman, A. (2015). Job Embeddedness: A Multifoci Theoretical Extension Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 9, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Others include books, case histories, and discussions of quantitative methods, case studies, grant proposals, conference papers and so forth. A very important text in the field of psychology is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) which provides the basis for classifying disorders and through which various tests have been developed to help in the diagnosis. Specific Lexis in Psychology Discourse Swales (1990) also indicated that discourse community also must have a particular jargon which is specific to it. For psychologist, their study introduces to a particular set of jargon which they have to use for the rest of their career Level of Membership in in Psychology Discourse Swales (1990) pointed to the importance of distinction between members in terms of level of expertise. In the field of psychology, professional must acquire training first as students before they become professionals. They start at a lower bachelors’ degree level proceed to graduate studies then doctorate level. Extensive study is required for the rise in level of expertise. Major Contemporary topics and changes in Psychology Discourse last 5-10 years The field of psychology has continued to evolve as new areas of interest arise over time. A significant change that has occurred in the Field is the revision of the manual that is used to classify mental health disorder. Since its first publication, it has undergone through various reviews with the most recent being in 2013 giving rise to DMS-V. Areas which have been of interest and used to formulate research topics include; eating disorders, effects of exposure to violence during childhood, veteran related issues, and issues related to immigrants, technology and ethics, issues of sexual minorities, divorce and various personality disorders. Important terms in Psychology ✓ Correlational Research ✓ Dependent Variable ✓ Independent Variable ✓ Control Group ✓ Placebo Effect ✓ Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ✓ Sensory Memory ✓ Environment ✓ Intelligence Quotient (IQ) ✓ Anxiety disorders ✓ Attachment ✓ Aggression References Albert (2016). 35 Frequently Tested AP Psychology Terms & Concepts. Retrieved on September 19, 2018 from https://www.albert.io/blog/35-frequently-tested-ap-psychology-terms-concepts/ American Psychological Association (2018). Magazines and Newsletters. Retrieved on September 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/newsletters/index.aspx Cherry, K (2018 b). The Major Goals of Psychology. Retrieved on September 18, 2018 from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-the-four-major-goals-of-psychology-2795603 Cherry, K. (2018a). 20 Different Types of Psychologists and What They Do. Retrieved on September 18, 2018 from https://www.verywellmind.com/types-of-psychologists-and-what-theydo-2795627 CollegeGrad LLC (2018). Psychologists. https://collegegrad.com/careers/psychologists Retrieved on September 18, 2018 from Hammer, L.B., Johnson, R.Y. Crain, T. L., Bodner, T. Kossek, E.E., Davis, K.D.,. Kelly,E.L Buxton, O.M., Karuntzos, G. . Chosewood, C.and Berkman, L. (2016). Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Study Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Kiazad, K. Holtom, B.C Hom, P.W and Newman, A. (2015). Job Embeddedness: A Multifoci Theoretical Extension Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Schmidt, A. M. and DeShon, R.P (2010). The Moderating Effects of Performance Ambiguity on the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Shockley, K.M., Shen, W. DeNunzio, M. M. Arvan, M. L and Knudsen, E.A.(2017).Disentangling the Relationship Between Gender and Work–Family Conflict: An Integration of Theoretical Perspectives Using Meta-Analytic Methods Journal of Applied Psychology Retrieved on September, 19, 2018 from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/sample.aspx Swales, J. M. (1990) Genre Analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.21-32 Retrieved on September 19, 2018 from http://liu.cwp.libguides.com/c.php?g=744540&p=5334127 UCF (2013). What is a discourse community? Retrieved on September 19, 2018 from https://webcourses.ucf.edu/courses/984277/pages/what-is-a-discourse-community University of Colorado Boulder (nd). Discourse community/communication conventions. Retrieved on September 19, 2018 from https://sites.google.com/a/colorado.edu/psychology-froma-different-perspective/discourse-community-communication-conventions Literature Review Burnout is a concept that originated in the 1970s and describes how professionals’ mental capacity disintegrates and compromises the capacity to deal with stressful work environments. According to Heverling, (2011), burnout can be defined as intense dissatisfaction and exhaustion that professionals develop after enduring high stress environments in their workplace. On the other hand, Maslach, Jackson and Leiter, (1996) defined burnout as a syndrome which manifests in three dimensions; these include emotional exhaustion, lack of or the reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment and, depersonalization. In all professionals, there is a high workload and stress that causes symptoms of burnout like mental exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout among Child Protective Services (CPS) professional is higher in comparison to other professionals (Soderfeldt, Soderfeldt and Warg, 1995). This is attributed to societal changes that have greatly impacted the practices of social workers and their work environment. Professionals in CPS are tasked with a plethora of duties and crisis systems that overwork them with exhausting caseloads. CPS professionals work in an environment that calls for constant support to sufficiently cope with the work environment. Most of the studies investigate the prevalence and prevention of burnout among social workers. However, I intend to investigate the predictors and causes of burnout and stress among social workers. The present review will look at how CPS workers become stressed and are burnout, and the implication of stress and burnout among social workers. Predictors and Causes of Burnout With the prevalence of burnout that has been experienced among Child Protective Services, various scholars have endeavored to research and review to point these factors out. A review by Wacek (2017) which sought to determine the factors that increased the risk of burnout among social workers identified two major themes of risks that are occupational environment factors and personal factors. From the camp of occupational environment factors the specific factors included the social worker’s occupational environment which caused poor coping with the stressors encountered in interactions and lack of support to deal with the challenges they face. The argument was that given the nature of work that child protection service professionals are engaged in, it was in their job description to experience stress, however the challenge came in how it was dealt with or the failure to deal with which caused burnout and its related consequences. On the other hand the areas in the professionals’ personal factors pointed out included the professional’s history of trauma, the coping strategies their employed to deal with stressors and trauma and their support mechanism. The study indicated that the individual’s decisions of how they deal with these challenges and past greatly determine their likelihood of developing burnout and having their job performance negatively affected (Wacek, 2017). The occupational environmental factors and personal factors which will be looked at indepth include the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization, client relationships and the role of agency. The paper will then look at the implication of their impact on child protective services professional and give a conclusion suggesting the way forward Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, and Depersonalization In a research study, Davies, (2013) identified burnout and stress in categories of personal accomplishment, depersonalization, and emotional exhaustion. According to Davies, (2013), personal accomplishment is a measure of an individual’s feelings regarding their personal ability and workplace success. Feelings of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were extensively cited a contributing to instances of burnout and stress among CPS workers. Savicki and Cooley (1994) in their study which sought to measure changes in burnout among child protective service found that these three factors contributed to increase in burnout with emotional exhaustion contributing the greatest towards burnout with R2 = 0.465 followed by depersonalization R2 = 0.432 and lastly personal accomplishment with R2 = 0.431. These finding were obtained by shadowing 64 Child protective service professionals new to the profession for 18 months and determining the difference that their environment made to their levels of burnout. These three categories are exacerbated by high caseloads, minimal to no supervision, and lack of experience with cases. Client Relationships The foundation of social work is in client relationships. Even when dealing with clients with unrealistic or inappropriate expectations, social workers experience internal conflict. A lot of emphasis in the profession is placed on training to deal with client relations. Social workers are expected to remain non-judgmental when dealing with clients, hence find difficult to admit client attitudes and personalities hinder effective service response as Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) illustrates. The implication is that they persevere and take personal responsibility in case of failure. Given the nature of the job and the challenges they face Hoeper (2013) asserts that they negatively affect the professionals leading to fatigue and burnout. This is illustrated in the patient by compassion Fatigue Further, there is conflict in the ideals of social work, for instance, social justice, advocacy and the expected role performance. These conflicts exacerbate instances of burnout and stress in the profession. Social workers are advocates of clients and represent their best interest while being responsible for safety of others and client. Conflicts in client relations have been cited by Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), as one of the contributing factors to burnout and stress. Role of Agency Moreover, Davies, (2013) identified the agency as responsible for creating an environment that encourage burnout which according to Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017) affects their job performance negatively and leads to high rates of turnover. In previous studies, organizational structures within which CPS workers operate have significant influences on their ability to deal with stress. Other than managerial style, research has demonstrated that more responsibility and the diversity of the roles of social workers increase the prevalence of stress. Workers in this profession engage in various roles with the client and agency. The implication, according to Davies, (2013), is that they lack clarity of their job description with instances of one job contradicting another. There is an expectation that the social worker advocates and understands the issues faced by a client, while at the same time monitor the functioning of the family and cultivate a relationship with the court system. There are instances of ambivalence towards the social worker from the family about the relationship with the court system, which is often considered the enemy. As Davies, (2013) demonstrates, how parents are hesitant to cooperate with a CPS worker who can ultimately separate them from their children. There is an expectation for the worker to build trust with the family, when often the family is resentful towards the agency. Other than role ambiguity, Davies, (2013) shows the role of minimal resources for clients in increasing the stress levels for social workers. CPS professionals in state agencies interact with numerous systems and rules that influence their interaction with clients. Restrictive working conditions can be attributed to the prevailing political and organizational environment. No matter the basis of stress, the agency influences the worker’s perception of the job. Davies, (2013) illustrates how research shows a relationship between negative attitude of supervisors and principals in increasing the feelings of burnout among social workers. This is in line with Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017 who indicated that challenges emanating from factors in the agency have a greater impact and cause greater levels of burnout compared to client-related factors. Numerous studies have demonstrated how stress in workers is higher in the absence of support and assistance from their superiors or colleagues. Davies, (2013) shows how with continued support, from their superiors, social workers are better equipped to manage stress during their work. With diminishing support from one supervisor, there is emotional exhaustion that crops. The supervisor is considered a source of strength and when the environment lacks the support, a social worker internalizes the issues at work and is overwhelmed. Another aspect of the agency that Davies, (2013) addresses is the high caseloads associated with the system. High caseloads have been identified as a contributing factor to burnout in the profession. Professionals in child protective services have disclosed that stress is contributed by high caseloads that make it difficult to complete work. Social workers are overburdened by their roles and there is an increased risk of emotional exhaustion as well as job dissatisfaction. Further, Davies, (2013) identified the level of experience as a contributing factor to burnout. The age of a social worker and the setting within which they provide their services manipulate the level of burnout. On one hand, however, Davies, (2013) demonstrates how school counselors with over five years in the field recorded higher depersonalization compared to workers with below three years of experience. Newer workers receive more supervision and have currently been trained in their profession. On the other hand, depersonalization, reduced perception of success in the workplace, and psychological strain was connected with younger workers in the profession. As Davies, (2013) demonstrates, younger workers have recently joined the profession and are impacted by higher stress and responsibility levels. Further, younger workers have insufficient coping mechanisms. As Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) demonstrated, organizational factors have a contributory role in the burnout process for social workers. Aspects of job ambiguity, conflict with roles, challenges of the job, and lack of job autonomy have been identified as contributory factors of burnout. Literature in the field shows how social workers experience high levels of role ambiguity and conflict compared to other professions. With changing structures of social agencies, social workers are unable to apply their skills, in the face of conflicting role expectations. As Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) shows, the professional concept of social work has been undermined and the implication is they face dilemmas on how they can best address client issues within the confines of regulation and reform. Moreover, social workers are expected to fulfill their roles with minimal autonomy and resources. Social work has changed markedly with regards to service delivery. To sufficiently respond to these changes, social workers should develop effectiveness with their practice to enhance their professional identity. The contribution of social workers is not often valued or understood and hence proving the need for the profession to develop job clarity. Implications According to Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth (2002), the impact of stress and burnout in the social work profession range from morbidity, job dissatisfaction, and staff turnover. This is in line with Bennett, Plint and Clifford (2005) who undertook a study on the effect of burnout on the job satisfaction and psychological morbidity among child protective services professionals in Canada and unearthed very high levels of burnout among the respondents (34%), 13.5% of the respondents experienced psychological morbidity while 26.2% indicated stressful job environment. given the challenges that the respondents faced in their job 2/3 of the respondents indicated that at one time or the other they had contemplated leaving the profession all together. In conclusion, the study scholars indicated that intervention to reduce the levels of burnout were necessary so that the profession can perform optimally. High levels of emotional stress have been identified among social workers, with a considerable number of them reporting pathological anxiety levels. Leake, Rienks and Obermann (2017 indicate that work-related burnout among CPS professionals has a strong relationship to stress within the job, job dissatisfaction, and increases the professionals desire to leave the profession. Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth (2002) cite a study conducted of social workers that showed cases of mild psychiatric morbidity. In a study that investigated the psychological strains that social workers experience in fulfillment of their responsibility, 55% of the respondents experienced feelings of anxiety and the levels of anxiety correlated with their responsibility. In another study that investigated how burnout and stress impact family relations of social workers, the results demonstrated how social workers with high burnout levels were more likely to experience depression, reduced marital satisfaction, irritability, and anxiety. In another study cited by Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the research studied groups of social workers in areas of adult mental health and physical dysfunction, and child health with the objective of examining the causes of stress, the coping mechanisms, and outcomes. The results of the study demonstrated how the measure of mental exhaustion and distress was considerably higher among social workers compared to the levels of other professionals. The study provided evidence of considerably high levels of work related anxiety as well as trait depression among social workers in comparison to the normal population and other professions. In another study, ill health was found among social workers as being higher than the normal population. Some of the symptoms of burnout that social workers have reported include physical and emotional exhaustion, meaning that social workers reported poor mental health compared to other occupational groups. In another study in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the researcher investigated the relationship between job satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and stress in social work. The results show how social workers with role ambiguity reported higher levels of job dissatisfaction and stress compared to their counterparts who were confident about their job responsibility. Job satisfaction in social work is important considering an individual continues staying in a job where they feel satisfied. Job satisfaction’s importance is demonstrated by its correlation with absenteeism and higher turnover rate. Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) in their study show that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was prevalent among social workers and caused a larger section of these professionals to consider changing their jobs. In previous research, burnout has been related to the desire to switch jobs. Studies have found that a higher section of social workers have expressed the intention to leave their profession entirely or their current jobs. In a study of occupational stress cited in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002), the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to study occupational stress among social workers. The results from the study demonstrated how social workers experienced burnout more frequently and with higher intensity, with the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization instances being the most prevalent. While measuring burnout, the study demonstrated how lack of accomplishment in the workplace was higher in the profession. The respondents in the study reported a 100% frequency and 98% intensity of burnout as demonstrated in Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002). There is evidence to show how the manifestation of burnout in social work is through personal accomplishment. The feelings of lack of accomplishment at work are high in social work because the profession is based on idealism objectives, which is not reflected in practice. This is a demonstration of considerable disappointment that social workers have with their daily professional practice. In another study that investigated the perceptions of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover in social workers, there was high levels of burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to switch careers. Among work related stressors, respondents pointed to the job ambiguity in the profession, job challenges, value conflict, role conflict, and financial reward. Further, when the levels of job satisfaction and burnout were investigated among social workers, Lloyd, King, & Chenoweth, (2002) demonstrates how the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, the MBI, and Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals showed a lack of crucial job facets in the profession, for instance, opportunities for career development and remuneration, as the causes of job burnout. Social work has previously been linked with stress and burnout, considering its client-based nature and professionals being involved in complex situations. As such, there is a high prevalence of the conflicts that pervade human service work. A number of researchers have concluded that the social work occupation is highly stressful owing to conflicting contexts, functions, and status. The literature has shown how social work professionals are at a higher risk of stress and burnout. The studies identified in the review have revealed that social workers experienced stress and burnout compared to other professions. Although they experience a higher level of burnout when compared to the normative population, especially with regards to feelings of personal accomplishment with their job. Researchers have looked at various aspects of stress and burnout in social work. Most of the factors that have received attention from research deal with organizational factors contributing to burnout and stress like pressure, role ambiguity, role of supervisor, work load, lack support to deal with stressors. Some of the risk factors identified in the review include the lack of challenges at work, role ambiguity, difficulty in providing services, low professional accomplishment. The major revelation and argument in all this is that given the nature of work that child protection service professionals are engaged in, it is in their job description to operate in highly stressful environments, however the challenge comes in how the stress experienced is dealt with and the mechanisms put in place to deal with stressors and avert feeling of burnout and its related consequences. There is therefore need for further research to investigate the wide range of stressors and how-to formulae strategies to deal with the stress. References Bennett, S. Plint, A. Clifford, T.J (2005). Burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and stress: a survey of Canadian hospital based child protection professionals. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:1112–1116. doi: 10.1136/adc.2003.048462 Davies, K. M. (2013). Burnout Among Child Protection Workers: The Role of Supervision. Heverling, M. (2011). Burnout prevalence and prevention in a state child welfare agency. Hoeper, J.. (2013). Mitigating Compassion Fatigue among Child Protection Social Workers. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Retrieved from https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/189 Leake, R., Rienks, S. & Obermann, A. (2017). A Deeper Look at Burnout in the Child Welfare Workforce ; Journal Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance Volume 41, 2017 - Issue 5. Retrieved fro https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23303131.2017.1340385?scroll=top&need Access=true&journalCode=wasw21 Lloyd, C., King, R., & Chenoweth, L. (2002). Social work, stress and burnout: A review. Journal of mental health, 11(3), 255-265. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press Savicki, V. and Cooley, E.J (1994). Burnout in Child Protective Service Workers: A Longitudinal Study Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol. 15, No. 7 pp. 655-666. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2488152?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Soderfeldt, M., Soderfeldt, B. & Warg, L. (1995).Burnout in social work. Social Work, 40, 638– 646 Wacek, B.. (2017). Factors Which Put Social Workers at a Greater Risk for Burnout. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine. Retrieved from : https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/814

    Tutor Answer

    Drval
    School: Purdue University

    fin...

    flag Report DMCA
    Review

    Anonymous
    Good stuff. Would use again.

    Similar Questions
    Hot Questions
    Related Tags

    Brown University





    1271 Tutors

    California Institute of Technology




    2131 Tutors

    Carnegie Mellon University




    982 Tutors

    Columbia University





    1256 Tutors

    Dartmouth University





    2113 Tutors

    Emory University





    2279 Tutors

    Harvard University





    599 Tutors

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology



    2319 Tutors

    New York University





    1645 Tutors

    Notre Dam University





    1911 Tutors

    Oklahoma University





    2122 Tutors

    Pennsylvania State University





    932 Tutors

    Princeton University





    1211 Tutors

    Stanford University





    983 Tutors

    University of California





    1282 Tutors

    Oxford University





    123 Tutors

    Yale University





    2325 Tutors