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2 assessment questions. Reponse to each question 500 words. Studyguide and Questions attached.

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UNIT III STUDY GUIDE 1783-1860 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 4. Explain the importance of the U.S. military in the settlement of the West. 4.1 Discuss the role of major leaders in the campaigns of the Mexican-American War. 8. Discuss the United States’ transition from isolation to involvement in world conflicts. 8.1 Explain the political influences related to the U.S. military involvement in the War of 1812. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 4 4.1 8 8.1 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Chapter 5; Assessment Unit Lesson Chapter 4; Assessment Reading Assignment Chapter 4: Preserving the New Republic’s Independence, 1783-1815 Chapter 5: The Armed Forces and National Expansion, 1815-1860 Unit Lesson Peace after the American Revolution was short lived. The military of the new nation began to cut its teeth, so to speak, evolving into a crucial element of defense both at home and abroad in the rapidly expanding new country. Among the most significant conflicts were domestic disputes, such as Fries’s and Shays’s Rebellions, as well as foreign altercations, such as the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. The nation desired to preserve the newly obtained independence of the republic, and there were clashes of opinion between political groups over the proper way to maintain this independence. The patriots desired to turn an ideological desire for freedom into an effective government, but this did not come without impediments (Millett, Maslowski, & Feis, 2012). On the home front, the new country faced almost constant opposition from the Native Americans. As the nation developed and expanded, this relationship was increasingly strained and often violent. The United States soon discovered that the increasingly hostile relationship with native peoples on the northern frontier needed more than local militia, and the nation soon became involved militarily in attempts to quell the Native American trouble. While the administration began negotiations to satisfy the eastern populace who thought aggressive frontiersmen had given rise to the Native American problems, they were also engaged in raising an army capable of dealing with the issue. The pirates of Algiers preyed on American shipping. To combat this problem, Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794. This act authorized the building of six frigates. Before any of the six were completed, Algiers agreed to a peace. Only three of the six frigates were completed. Algiers would not be the only barbary state to try the United States. As pirates from Tripoli continued to attack merchants, war with Tripoli seemed a real possibility. In 1802 war was declared, but American commanders did not aggressively pursue the war. In 1803, a blockade was enacted against Tripoli. By 1805, the pasha of Tripoli had been forced into a peace treaty thanks in large part to the revitalized marine corps on the shores of Tripoli and President Jefferson’s HY 2000, American Military History I 1 fascination with the new concept of the gunboat that proved extremely effective in Tripoli’s shallow waters (Millett et al., 2012). During all of this, the French Revolution had developed into a worldwide war. The United States was primarily able to deal with the French problem diplomatically. In July of 1798, the first clashes between America and its former ally France occurred in what became known as the Quasi-War. The Americans enjoyed considerable success, though much of it was due to British assistance, and as its name indicates, war was never actually declared. The Convention of 1800 ended the Quasi-War and led to Republican control of both the White House and Congress. The Battle of Valmy, one of the battles of the Revolutionary War that followed the French Revolution The new nation’s first major formidable problem, however, would be a familiar (Vernet, 1826) one: the English. Even after the successful revolt against the motherland, the English remained a major impediment to the success of the United States. With Britain’s continued land holdings in the Canadian frontier and with the increasing hostilities in Europe, this problem proved to be unresponsive to diplomatic coercion. Fearful, Americans began to build more sea forts in case of a British invasion (Millett et al., 2012). Only a generation after its founding, the United States would be forced to engage in its first major conflict: the War of 1812. Both countries actually went to war reluctantly. The United States’ reluctance stemmed from her insufficient preparation against the formidable foe. Britain’s reluctance was that it did not desire to fight both the Americans and the French at the same time. While the American battlefield was filled with inadequacies and problems, the ensuing Treaty of Ghent reaffirmed and forever solidified The United States’ independence. It also had two seemingly unexpected outcomes. First, politically this conflict served as the final nail in the coffin of the Federalist Party—especially after its strong stance against engaging the British. Without strong leadership (after Adams) the Federalists found themselves with limited support. Jefferson’s political legacy, the Democratic-Republican Party, completely dominated the political scene during a period now known as the “Era of Good Feelings.” The second outcome would be a surge in nationalism; perhaps the most recognizable example of such would be the origins of the “Star Spangled Banner” whose wording is adapted from Francis Scott Key’s witness of the successful defense of Fort McHenry during a British bombardment. Following the War of 1812, the American military would go through a transition brought on in the expansion of the United States’ borders. Adding to this exultant time were various technological advances such as the steamship and the telegraph. As the United States expanded westward, communication and travel became easier. Technology was also directly reflected in the military as rifles replaced smoothbores and bullets replaced lead balls. However, this time of expansion and innovation attracted conflict. The military engaged in domestic struggles against western tribes and, eventually, in its next international conflict: the MexicanAmerican War. The military changed not only due to great technological advances but also due to great men and celebrated writing. Military schools began to turn out great minds skilled in the art of military science. This new military subculture was employed to help fulfill the idea of Manifest Destiny, or the idea that the expansion of the West was both a way of securing new lands for the growing former European population and a religious responsibility to purify those lands (Millett et al., 2012). HY 2000, American Military History I 2 The unquenchable desire for more territory led to the need for military power. Conflicts occurred between Native tribes whose removal was necessary for the fulfillment of the United States’ destiny for which the army would play a number of roles, including a role in the removal process. The U.S. desire for the West also caused strife with Great Britain, who was also spreading west in what is now Canada; this was settled once Oregon was split between the two powers. Unfortunately, problems with Mexico were not so easily solved. As the United States extended boundaries beyond what the Mexican government officially recognized, war erupted (Millett et al., 2012). The Mexican-American war created political strife between opposing parties at home. Much like with the Revolutionary War, this conflict would require The Battle of Cerro Gordo in the Mexican-American War inventive tactics, but Generals Taylor and Scott (Kellogg & Kellogg, 1847) eventually forced Mexican General Santa Anna into negotiations and the highly unpopular Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Despite opposition from both the president and the public, a war-weary Congress ratified the treaty to bring the conflict to an end. The divide between politics and the public was only part of a greater issue starting to come to a boil. With the growing population also came significant differences in beliefs, some of which would threaten to divide the nation in half. In the wake of territorial disputes, a civil war was brewing. References Kellogg, E. B., & Kellogg, E. C. (1847). Battalla de Cerro Gordo [Image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Batalla_de_Cerro_Gordo.jpg Millett, A. R., Maslowski, P., & Feis, W. B. (2012). For the common defense: A military history of the United States from 1607 to 2012 (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Free Press. Vernet, H. (1826). Valmy Battle painting [Image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valmy_Battle_painting.jpg Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below: Winfield Scott is an interesting figure in history. Take a few minutes to read this article that focuses on his military career. Arnold, J. R. (2012). Winfield Scott makes a name for himself. Journal of Military History, 76(4), 1183-1185. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=80001382&site=ehost-live&scope=site This article examines General Stephen Watts Kearny’s invasion of Santa Fe during the Mexican-American War. Brandt, A. (2016). General Kearny’s California trek, 1846. MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History, 29(1), 52-59. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=116949033&site=ehost-live&scope=site HY 2000, American Military History I 3 You are encouraged to read the following two articles about the U.S. victory in the Battle of New Orleans. They examine this battle in detail to include the strategies and figures involved. Ethier, E. (2016). The savage battles of New Orleans 1814-1815. MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History, 28(3), 98-103. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=112689325&site=ehost-live&scope=site Norris, D. A. (2012). "They shall not sleep here tonight!": The Battle of New Orleans. History Magazine, 13(5), 16-20. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=77427553&site=ehost-live&scope=site Watch segments 2 (“American Maritime Trade”), 14 (“British Bombardment of Ft. McHenry”), 17 (“Defense of New Orleans”), and segment 20 (“Battle of New Orleans”) in the video First Invasion: The War of 1812. These segments will give you a better understanding of the War of 1812. Foreman, G. L. (Executive Producer), & Raine, C. H. (Producer). (2004). First Invasion: The War of 1812 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=43055 Watch segments 9 (“America’s Victories and Santa Ana’s Return”), 12 (“Legacy of Buena Vista”), and 13 (“Vera Cruz and Path Through Mexico”) in the video Mexico: Battle for North America. These segments will give you a better understanding of the Mexican-American War. Land, S. (Executive Producer), Proud, G. (Supervising Producer), & Roger, M. (Producer). (1999). Mexico: Battle for North America [Video file]. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=42768 Take a few minutes to watch segment 3, “War of 1812,” in the video The Big Picture: Hall of Heroes. This short video segment will further your knowledge on this subject. National Archives & Records Administration (Producer). (2007). The Big Picture: Hall of Heroes [Video file]. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=45147 The article below examines the history of the Mexican-American War. Topics covered include artillery tactics and major leaders. Trudeau, N. A. (2010). A 'band of demons' fight for Texas. MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History, 22(3), 84-93. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=48170437&site=ehost-live&scope=site HY 2000, American Military History I 4 American Military History Unit 3 Introduction In the last unit, we discovered that a new nation has appeared in the world. One that was forged through patriotism, independence and a unique military tradition that allowed a small colony to defeat the most powerful nation on earth. Yet the young Republic's freedom is not guaranteed. Domestic problems, pirates and a second Revolution confront the new Republic of the United States. Men like Jefferson and Madison attempt to use diplomacy and foreign relations to avoid conflict. It does not work. African pirates are defeated by Jefferson while Madison must face the mighty British empire once more. The military has changed and changes further in response to these conflicts. New innovations once again provide the military with advantages. A new navy is in place and used by Jefferson against the African Pirates. America is beginning to assert itself as a world power. Dr. Kelso Question 1 Select and respond to one of the following questions: Discuss the campaigns and battles of Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War. How would you rate him as a commander? What impact did the war have on Taylor's career? OR Discuss Winfield Scott's campaign to capture Mexico City. How did his campaign impact the war? Why have some historians and military leaders viewed his campaign as one of the finest in the annals of American warfare? Your response must be a minimum of 500 words. Question 2 Select and respond to one of the following questions: Why did the United States declare war on Great Britain in 1812? What political influences were involved? Could this war have been avoided? OR Discuss the Battle of New Orleans and Andrew Jackson's role in the campaign and battle. Why was Jackson successful? What impact did the battle have on the war? What impact did the battle have on U.S. politics? Your response must be a minimum of 500 words. ...
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School: New York University

Attached.

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
BODY
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE


Running head: AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY

American Military History
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1

AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY

2

Question 1: Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War
General Zachary Taylor was from Virginia but became a Kentuckian after he was
adopted. He grew up and became one of the most prominent people as an army officer in the
1812 war and during the campaign against the Seminole Indians in the 1830s. In the year 1808,
Zachary Taylor became a lieutenant in the United States Army, and after two years he became a
captain. One of the achievements associated with General Taylor was that he served in the
distinction in defending Fort Harrison from the Tecumseh’s forces which were in the Indian
Territory. There are also other achievements associated with General Taylor, for instance, the
assault on the Monterrey and the Battle of Buena Vista which were military campaigns. During
the attack on Monterrey, through his efforts and skills, he was able to make the Monterrey fall to
the American forces. During the Battle of Buena, he made sure that the Mexicans surrendered
from the war thus leading to the end of the battle which was going on in Northern Mexico
(Guardino, 2017).
Taylor’s army had a strong reinforcement which consisted of regular soldi...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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