Help with research paper

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Question Description

Using all the research and writing skills you have acquired in this course, you are to write an 3-4 page research paper. APA Style.

This paper must include an annotated bibliography. Please note that the paper must be between 3 to 4 pages, not including the cover page, abstract, or annotated bibliography or cover page.

You can choose your a research topic from the list provided to you below. However, the format must be APA Style.



BE SURE THAT YOU HAVE AT LEAST 5 TO 7 CREDIBLE SOURCES IN YOUR PAPER. Your paper must include sources from books, newspapers, and journals.

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Running head: PHOBIA 1 Phobia Christian Villarin Florida National University PHOBIA 2 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Chong, E., & Hovanec, E. (2012).Phobias. New York: Rosen Pub. Phobia is an extended fear that prevents people from doing a certain task, interacting with the given type of objects, situations or attending certain events like. Phobia is a disease and can be treated depending on the degree the person has. People with a phobia can learn how to overcome it or can see a professional who can help them overcome it. Phobia can be managed in various ways, learning how to overcome tension can be a great way of overcoming fear. There are different types of phobia these include; social phobia that exhibits in public. The victim fears being embarrassed when performing an activity in public places such as presenting speeches. Agoraphobia is a form of panic that people with phobia have when exposed to the public or an open space. The author indicates that phobia is one of the anxiety mental disorders. Bourne, E.(n.d) The anxiety & phobia workbook. According to (Chong & Hovanec, 2012), anxiety is accumulated stress over time and has been the main contributor to phobia. It is estimated that more people are likely to suffer from this mental disorder due to the deterioration of the environment, economic instability, and terrorism. Stress can be achieved in our daily life but the environment we are exposed to contribute much to the stress accumulation. The environmental change has changed drastically due to the rapid change in technology. The desire to cope with the information technology has robbed people time thus leading to a stressful situation. World change due to economic uncertainties, environmental change due to the destruction of natural all over the world and scientific future prediction has contributed to anxiety over what may happen tomorrow. Also the development of PHOBIA 3 nuclear bombs and the existing worries about the world enemies, this has contributed to accumulated fear leading to extreme panic and anxieties due to world uncertainties. Lack of cultural values has led to inconsistency and lack of stability in the lives of many people. As people look for ways of stabilizing in various cultural settings the rate of anxiety sets in thus resulting in other degenerated mental problems. Social phobia and agoraphobia in alcoholism. (1991). American Journal Of Psychiatry, 148(8), 1096a-1096. doi: 10.1176/ajp.148.8.1096a Phobia is instilled in when growing up but becomes extreme in adults as they are exposed to world aspects. The world experiences such as exposure to racism, horror, past experiences anxiety become more and more leading to mental problems. Phobia exhibits various symptoms to patients. People suffering from phobia fear to come in contact with the things they most fear. For instance, people who have a phobia of spider may have fear of facing the spider or looking at the picture of a spider. Phobia may develop as people fear over something. They may tend to show signs of being uncomfortable as a sign of resistance to the situation. Physical symptoms can be exhibited through sweating, confusion, trembling and numbness among other symptoms. Psychological symptoms are fear of control, death, dreadful and fear of fainting. Complex phobia such as social and agoraphobia are said to be more detrimental. A person suffering from agoraphobia may have monophobia that is reflected from their behaviors. They may fear from being left alone, leaving their home where they feel trapped. Depending on severity people suffering from agoraphobia exhibit various symptoms. Some may fear to go to the shopping mall while others are not affected by walking a short distance. Social phobia may be exhibited in people when they show PHOBIA 4 signs of avoiding going to social events in public places. The patients are afraid of going out or leaving their home. Den Boer, J. (2000). Social anxiety disorder/social phobia: Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41(6), 405-415. doi: 10.1053/comp.2000.16564 Diagnosis of phobia treatment is based on clinical interviews and diagnostically guideline. The doctor may ask questions about your symptoms, psychological and social condition about your life. The doctor may use the treatment manual to prescribe the treatment as stipulated in American Psychiatrist Association. The main treatment of phobias is majorly exposure therapy. Knowing the cause may not add much to treatment but helping the patient cope with the avoidance behavior. The main goal of the treatment is to improve the patient overcome the conditions that result in phobia and enabling the patient to overcome a phobia. Treatment is expressed to one condition at a time until the patient has fully overcome his extreme fears. In addition to exposure treatment, cognitive therapy is also a very important treatment. Talking to a therapist can really help overcome the phobia. McManus, F. (2007).Psychological treatment of social phobia. Psychiatry, 6(5), 211-216. doi: 10.1016/j.mppsy.2007.02.008 Exposure therapy helps the individual overcome situation they fear. Continuous exposure to the environment and events they fear can drastically help overcome social phobia. If the patient fear swimming the therapist may occasionally exposing you to the situation that relates to PHOBIA 5 swimming like showing pictures of beaches, people swimming and then pay you a visit to the swimming pool. With progressive exposure, the fear may start diminishing. Cognitive therapy involves exposure therapy as well as exposure to the object associated with fear and panic. In cognitive therapy, you learn about how the fear of such an object has impacted your life negatively and start developing skills on how to resist fear in the presence of such objects. The therapist will expose you to various situations and teach you techniques on how to overcome such fears. The e.g. therapist may take you to a horror movie and teach you how to overcome horror scenes. Fahlén, T., Humble, M., Koczkas, C., & Nilsson, H. (1992).SOCIAL PHOBIA AND ITS TREATMENT WITH BROFAROMINE.EFFICACY REGARDING SOCIAL PHOBIA SYMPTOMS AND PERSONALITY TRAITS.Clinical Neuropharmacology, 15, 64B.doi: 10.1097/00002826-199202001-00122 Phobia patient may be prescribed to medication that helps them to overcome fear. Exposure and cognitive therapy may help but when the phobia is extreme patient can help the patient overcome panic and anxiety. Medication can be used in the initial stage but for a short period. Some medication like Beta blocker help in blocking stimulating effect that leads to phobia symptoms also sedative help in reducing anxiety. Sedatives are said to be addictive so care should be taken when administering sedatives The effect of phobia can lead to extreme heart bit when a person faces a life-threatening situation its effect is similar to phobia. This can result in increased pleasure, lack of thinking straight. Phobia can trigger real-life physical symptoms. Social phobia can affect the patient PHOBIA 6 social life and lead to loneliness and affect individual development in education and economical. Fear of object and situation or events may lead ...
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Tutor Answer

School: New York University


Running head: PHOBIA





Phobia refers to the feeling of fear and being nervous when undertaking a particular
activity. Conversely, an individual who is under phobia would always be reluctant to perform
tasks, participates in events, or engage in conversations for fear of unknown. It is a psychological
condition that manifests itself in varying degree among different people. Phobia develops from
childhood and advances to higher stages as the child grows (Chong & Hovanec, 2012).
Continuous exposure to negative factors in the environment such as racism, past experiences,
torture, suffering, traumatizing experiences, and horror increases the level of phobia in an
How Phobia Manifests Itself
Phobia manifests itself in various forms depending on the circumstances that trigger
the fear and nervousness. Consequently, the common ways through which phobia may manifest
itself in human beings include social phobia (Social phobia and agoraphobia in alcoholism,
1991). Majority of the victims of social phobia are nervous about engaging in public forums for
fear of the embarrassment that comes from critics. Such people are said to develop agoraphobia
and respond to the fear in them by displaying signs of panic.
Phobia is closely related to anxiety because of the stress factor that escalates the level
of nervousness in...

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Thanks, good work

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