Psychology of Sport Essay Question

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Question description

Read each question carefully and answer with thoughtful, comprehensive responses in essay format. This is a take-home exam; as such, you are allowed to use your notes and the textbook, and in some places, required to cite outside sources. When you incorporate material from an outside source, be sure to cite it and note it in a reference list at the end of your exam in APA format. Proper citations give credit to outside sources and help you avoid plagiarism in your writing. Exams are to be double-spaced.

Please also use the textbook for this assignment as well

Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (6thed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

*If you need the book I can get them from Chegg or you can get and return it within 7 days*

I also provided the notes I took from the class so please utilize a lot of it

Kin 504 9/10/18 Motivation: Direction and intensity of one effort Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming within - Self-determination, autonomy and agency Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming from outside sources - More negatively associated with peak performance Amotivation: absent of motivation Trait approaches - Motivation is a function of individual characteristics Situation Approaches - Athletes motivation is determining with the situation they are competing in Interactional (Integrative) - Personal and situational factor and how they interact with one another Sorrentino & Sheppard (1978) - 44 males 33 female swimmer from 4 different Canadian University o Approval Orientated ▪ Swam faster in the relay then they did in an individual event o Rejection threat ▪ Swam faster alone in an individual even than relay Guideline to Motivation - Motivation is an interactive process - Having awareness with multiple sources of motivation - In competition with one another - Leaders are the key motivation - Behavior modification o Feedback 9/17/18 Reinforcement: Is the key to behavior change - Stimulus, event, and condition whose presentation who’s follow immediately after a response and with a frequency with that response. - Tangible award, intangible award (verbal praise from the coach, cheer from the crowd) - Help task motivated and goal orientated. Positive Reinforcement - Providing something positive praise or tangible award Negative Reinforcement - Behavior is strengthening by eliminate something negative Punishment - Negative condition that follows a behavior and decreases the likely that the behavior would be repeated o Presentation of something negative o Withdrawal of something positive - Consistently - Don’t make the punishment a sense of award - Don’t use punishment to embarrass/ humiliate - Use punishment sparingly - Punishment arouse in a fear of failure Guideline - Reinforce immediately (give them a formal way of phrase) - Consistent - Reinforce effort/process - Frequent/early - Reward and emotional and social skill - Occasional/ after learning - Don’t make it personal (focus on the behavior not the individual) Achievement Motivation - Achieving through motivation - Person orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face failure, and experiencing pride in accomplishment 1. Personality factors a. Achieve success (High Achiever) b. Avoid failure (Low Achiever) 2. Situational Influences a. Challenging b. Low pressure or the impossible 3. Attribution - Success and failure - Stability - Causality (Internal/External) weather - Control (In/Out) coaching preparation (in) injury (out) Able to attribute to your performance result is future success and future performance 4. Goal Orientation - Outcome (End Result) (Motivating effect when you win) (Lower perception of your ability when you lose) - Task (Strong work ethics, persistent, and peak performance) (Maintain your confidence level whether you win or lose) o Optimal ▪ High achiever, seeks out challenge situation and skill performance, and practice a task goal orientation 9/24/18 Youth Sport: Gender/Cultural Expectations: Homonegative Environments - There’s a lot of involvement in youth sport - Because sport is so popular in our country, sport becomes a key site for youth socialization for youth experience. Those experiences play a important role in selfconcept. - 6-18 years old 41 million participants in sport - 2 and a half million of parents and coaches YOUTH SPORT - Performance Ethic o Emphasis on the outcome of a performance, when the outcome is emphasized the outcome is the main indicator of the performance. o Outcome goal is negatively correlated in intrinsic motivation - Increase Parental Involvement o Parents whose child success are important are more involve. Becomes a dangerous dynamic the parent is judging their own self-worth on their child success. o Parents can lead to stress in burn out in young athlete and can develop anxiety GENDER/CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS - Gender socialization process can influence the likely hood in girl influence their participation in physical activity. - Boys are typically socializing to play sports - (Sillett 2004) Interview high school girls of color who play soccer o The Mexican girl in her study. Indicated they have difficulty to have permission to play. The culture attitude that soccer was meant for boys not girl. No positive feedback from their father. HOMONEGATIVE ENVIROMENTS - We are seeing more openly gay athletes. - One in which intentionally negativity attitude towards Queer individual are cultivated - Krane (1996) Krane & Barber (2005) o Openly gay coaches were living in fear. Living in a don’t ask don’t tell environment. o High stress, low satisfaction, in which decrease team cohesion o Clinical depression when dealing with a Homonegative Environments. - Coaches often experience negative recruiting - Don’t ask/ Don’t tell - Hiding who they are and their sexuality - NCAA Gender Equity Studies o 75% of the administrator would experience negative stereotype 55% of the 75% specify homophobic perception. - WBB Penn State o Maintain a homonegative environments o Three-point team policy (no drugs, no alcohol, no lesbian) o Threaten the girls that they will lose their scholarship o Homonegative environment (increases stress, increase feeling of exclusion, decrease of team cohesion, lack of trust within player, satisfaction are decreased when playing) 10/1/18 Arousal: - General physiological and psychological activation that varies along a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement. - Intensity dementing motivation at a particular moment. - Neutral emotional state Anxiety: - Negative emotional state - Nervousness, worry, and apprehension - Activation of the body (sematic) - Anxiety stem from arousal when a possibility of a threat is perceived - The perception of an athlete is a crucial factor in determining the arousal and anxiety. - Perception of situational demand, of one personal skills, presence of other o Cognitive Anxiety: The thought component of anxiety ▪ Worrying thoughts, one perceives ability the ability to perform a task o Somatic Anxiety: the degree of physical activation of how it is perceived o State Anxiety: Cognitive and Somatic element ▪ Situation specific response, emotional state that characterize apprehension, tension, and accompany by physiological arousal (cognitive anxiety) ▪ Physiological activation in a particular location (somatic anxiety) o Trait Anxiety: parts of one personality predisposed to a certain environment is threating ▪ Research show those who score high on trait anxiety score high on state anxiety Stress: - Substantial demand and one’s ability to response to those demand (physical or physiological) - McGrath’s Stress Process o Environmental demand: stage when some type of demand is place on an individual o Perception: stage when individual deal with physical or phycological demand o Stress Response: Individuals physical or psychological response to the perceived demand. If there is an imbalance to the situation. o Behavioral consequence: Actual behavior of the person under stress in a performance station that perceive in sports - Common Source of Stress/Anxiety o Situational: ▪ Event Importance o Uncertainty o Fear of Performance Failure o Fear of Negative Social Events o Perception of training/ ability o Disruption of Routine o Significant Others o Fear of Physical Harm - Dunn (1999) o Fear of failure and negative social evaluation. Common source of anxiety among hockey player - Thout et al (1998) o Increase level of anxiety among high school basketball player, is related to perceive skill level of opponent - Personal Source of Anxiety Trait Anxiety: refers to relatively stable individual differences in anxiety-proneness, that is, to differences between people, in the tendency to perceive stressful situations as dangerous or threatening and to respond to such situations with elevations in the intensity of their state anxiety Self Esteem: Perception of threat, low self-esteem athlete deal with high anxiety 10/8/18 Theories Arousal/ Performance Relationship is Drive Theory - Relationship is a linear one, one’s arousals goes up so too does one’s performance - An athlete can have too much arousal which lowers their performance Inverted U Hypothesis - Contends at low arousal level an athlete’s performance will be below par/ average - As arousal increase performance will increase up to a certain point, if arousal continues to increase performance will decrease - Does not represents all athlete’s athletic performance - Optimal performance and arousal level varies to different athlete Individualized Zone of Optimal Function - Optimal level of arousal does not always occur in the mid-point - Optimal level of arousal is not a single bit but a ban with/ window - Accounted different emotion and mood that are a part of the mix for optimal zone - Hanin (1986) o Two case study with two individual swimmers ▪ Had the swimmer take the stake take anxiety inventory (pre-competition) ▪ Their swim times during competition ▪ When the swimmer pre-competition performs better o 10 Weight Lifter ▪ There was a strong correlation with optimal arousal and successful performance ▪ Judge with pass performance not if the weight lifters lifted more than their opponent - Raglin & Morris o College Volleyball player ▪ Included consideration of opponent ▪ Fill out an arousal inventory (pre-matches with different opponent) ▪ When facing a skill opponent, they help them in their zone optimal function ▪ - Lesser skill team the players did not reach their optimal level of arousal Anxiety/ Performance Effects o Increase muscle tension o Cognition changes in attention or concentration level ▪ Narrowing a performer attentional field of focus ▪ Might scans the playing area less often ▪ Excessive arousal might shift from the dominant attention ▪ Causes player to focus on inappropriate cues o Get to know your athlete so they can become aware of their arousal ▪ Teaching appropriate strategy to relegating arousal ▪ Consider how these factors work with the athlete/ can help develop coaching technique ▪ Develop the ability to recognize sigs of arousal or anxiety o Athlete who experience with high state anxiety will tend to exhibit multiple sign o Tailor coaching practice to help every athlete with their optimal zone Group Dynamics - Team Development o Evolutionary Process o 4 stage sequence to become a team ▪ Forming (the stage when the group is coming together) • The member of the group is trying to familiarize with each other • Social comparison o Storming ▪ Characterize as resistance to the leader, by group, and personal conflict ▪ After practice routine, rules are being made, and the rules are enforced ▪ Communicate objectively. Don’t create an uncertainty in the team o Norming ▪ Replace by solidarity and cooperation ▪ Common goal. Awareness that you are achieving a common goal ▪ Group cohesion are developed ▪ Team roles are stabilized ▪ Respect is developed from each member of the team through contribution ▪ Kicks at the start of the season/ pre-season o Performing - ▪ Member of the team coming with team success ▪ Personal relationship is stabilized ▪ Roles are well defined ▪ Players are helping each other succeed ▪ Primary goal of the team is team success Team Structure o Role and Norm (successful team structure) ▪ Roles • Behavior, require is expected in a person • Role can be informal or forma; • Formal: Team captain, appointed, or dictated by the nature of the team • Informal: Not appointed, are evolved organically or naturally • Important that players come to understand their role • Norms: Standard for permeance and behavior, there are principle that guides the team, and also can become a routine for the team • Norms carry exact expectation • Team Climate o Attitude around the team, individual perception or evaluation help establish team climate o Establish or team climate and the maintenance of team climate • Social support can affect team climate • Proximity: Close connection with teammate promotes interaction, allows players to know each other better • Distinctiveness: When a team feel distinct and unique that can extend team unity • Fairness: Athlete needs to feel they are treated fairly and evaluated fairly. Coach level of fairness influences, team commitment, motivation, and sense of satisfaction of being part of the team • Similarity: Having similar attitude, commitment level, and goal help create positive team climate. Group Cohesion o Tendency of a group to be united in pursuit of its goal - Task: degree to which member work together to complete a specific task - Social: Degree which member like each other and perceive personal satisfaction and being member of the team - Positively correlated with team performance - DEVELOP MENT OF COHESION o 4 Factors (Carron) ▪ Environmental factor: Are normative forces that hold a team together • Age, proximity, and group size • Widmeyer et al (1990) (As team size increases, cohesion decreases) • ▪ AZ FB (Have team travel to a military boot camp) Personal factor: Individual trait of the team member. Motive, personality, or value • Social background, satisfaction, attitude, and commitment level • Widmeyer & Williams (1991) • Female division 1 golfer (Personal satisfactions the strongest factor of group cohesion. ▪ Leadership Factor: leadership style and behavior of the coach ▪ Coaches relationship with the plater ▪ Combability with the coach and player ▪ Team Factor: Norm activity, desire for team success. Team stability and group task characteristic o Team stability as indicated as role and norm fostered cohesion. ▪ Task structure ▪ Interactive: To work together and operate constantly ▪ Strong positive correlation in cohesion and performance ▪ Co Active: Require little to no interaction and coronation among teammate. ▪ Positive but less cohesion in co active sport ▪ The more cohesive a team is the greater the influence a team has ▪ Group exercise setting a high-level cohesion ▪ The greater the social support the more likely the perception of the group is to be positive ▪ 10/29/18 The more stable a team is the more consistency and cohesive a team is Leadership - Complex process that has a significant influence on group cohesion, motivation - Leader can help with arousal and reaction - Perception on satisfying a playing experience or any kind of performance - Help with group performance overall - Definition: Behavioral process influencing individual and group for set goal Leader Behavior - Best understood the interaction personal and situational factor 1) Leaders Qualities a. Personality traits of a leader b. Integrity, flexibility, confidence, resourcefulness, patience, optimism, empathy, and being intrinsic motivated 2) Leadership Style: the observable behavior of leader a. Can be learn and modify to suit a certain situation b. Relationship, behavior in establishing organizational structure or group class structure c. Maintaining communication channels Conductor & Lilian Chan E-Sport different culture 11/26/18 Psychological Skills Training - Systematic and consistent practice of mental skill - Maintaining focus and concentration, regulating arousal level, enhance confidence and help maintain motivation. - One with strong mental skill will be on the edge - Lack of knowledge of sport phycology - Misconception that physiological skill are enacts (that you are born with it and you don’t need practice) - Physiological requires time, practice and training. - Myth: only there for elite athletes o Athletes who have physiological problem o Does help performance if you use consistently, doesn’t work as a quick fix it takes time. - 3 Phases o Education ▪ Important to explain what physiological technique is being taught and why it is important. o Acquisition ▪ the opportunity to learn the different physiological skill. o Practice ▪ Help make the physiological skill automatic and integration (how to integrate the skill in performance, practice, and routine situation.) - Initiating PST o Offseason & Preseason o Start with group session o 1 on 1 follow ups o 10-15 minutes at the beginning or end of practice 3-5 times a week - Some writing feedback are important for the athletes - Thelwell et al (2006) o 5 male college soccer players (midfielder) ▪ Were given three different type of physiological intervention ▪ Relaxation, Imagery, and Self Talk ▪ 1 season consisted of 9 soccer matches ▪ The number of successful touches of the ball ▪ Successful legal tackles ▪ Finding indicated small and consistent of improvement on ball handling skill - Manassis & Doganis (2004) o 9 elite tennis players (5 of 9 received physiological testing 4 did not) o Players performance was measured 25 weeks of competing. o Players with physch. training saw increase in confidence. - Imagery o Cognitive intervention technique and essentially form of mental simulation o Improving the cognitive aspect of performance o Skill execution (the temporal and spatial) o Useful for novice athlete in the learning process (learning) o Using imagery doesn’t replace physical practice o Athletes will talk about how provide a mental blueprint o Helps athlete with their focus, confidence level, and anxiety o Cope with pain, Rehab, o Helps with recovery, motivation, to adhere to a rehab protocol - Guideline o Want to visualize internal perspective and external perspective o Want your image to be vivid as possible ▪ Recreate the experience or setting with as many details as possible ▪ Involve as many of the 5 senses • Hearing (avoiding hearing the crowd or visualize the audience) ▪ Visualization in a setting with no distraction ▪ Visualize in real time ▪ Imagine the execution of the result and end result ▪ Athlete can use visualization for cognitive aspect of the performance, decision making, running a play correctly, or emotional state - Applied Model of Imagery (Martin et al, 1999) o Motivational Specific ▪ Mental practice can help with motivation, (specifics goals orientated behaviors) o Motivational General Mastery (increase in self-confidence) ▪ Imagery that help with master challenging situation o Motivational General Arousal ▪ Imagery that conjure anxiety and you prevail over those anxiety o Cognitive Specific (skill learning) o Cognitive General ▪ Imagery to develop plan for competition ▪ Related to a full court press in basketball or formation in soccer - One imagery type can have multiple outcome - Calmels et al (2003) o Elite Gymnast o Study focus on gymnast cognitive specific imagery o Found the gymnast visualize their routine they did so to enhance performance and to forgot pain while they are competing. o Able to use that imagery to increase their engagement in the sports and routine - Goal setting clearly and specifically facilitate peak performance - Goal: Is a standard of achievement is a specify amount of time o Outcome (standard performance that focus on the end result), Performance (focus on improvement on one’s past goal), and Process (related to specific skill to execute during a performance) o Outcome goal are best for long term (you don’t want to rely on outcome goal because you solely don’t have control of the outcome) (can provoke anxiety) o Performance goal are set for yourself, so your standard is what you done in your pass. In result you have a better chance in the outcome o You want to set all three goals will help with the end result and motivation o Mechanistic Theory (Locke Et al) ▪ Goal setting influence performance in four ways • Goal directs a performance attention to the importance of the task • Goals helps a performer mobilize effort • Goals increase immediate effort and they increase persistent • Through the goal setting process performer can develop new learning strategy ▪ Set specific goal the more specific the better ▪ Set them in measurable term ▪ Set challenging but realistic goal (there is a positive correlation goal difficulty and task performance) ▪ Set short term and long-term goal ▪ Short term allows for immediate improvement by doing that it will enhance motivation ▪ Set goal for both practice and competition ▪ Identify a goal and achievement strategy ▪ Record your goal (write them down, put them where it is visible) ▪ Have a method for evaluation your goal ▪ Seek support for your goal (when you have support that will foster commitment in your goal) ▪ - Set a time frame Journal writing can be therapeutic, can help with stress, promote goal setting Exercise and Psychological Well Begin and Exercise Adherence - Psychological Benefits/ Physical Activity o The reduction of stress and depression (reduce acute and chronic stress) (relieve the symptom associated of depression. The greater the duration the greater the physical activity the greater anti-depressant is present) ▪ Will not remove depression but can help o Enhance mood (physical activity can change a bad mood. Can help one’s energy level and can help reducing tension.) (Physical activity can be found mostly in changing a bad mood) o Can help increase self-concept (regular participation in a fitness program lead to greater self-confidence, greater control, improve imagination, and increase selfsufficiency.) (exercise program is beneficial in increase of self-esteem especially with those you have low level of self-esteem) (Physical education program and directive play activity, found increase in self-esteem on children) (Physical activity program with improvement of self-esteem self-success, positive reinforcement, feeling in physical competent) (Kids *Girls on the run*) o Associated with higher quality of life (People who are physically active have positive work attitude, greater ability to cope with stress, better health, and better resilience) (Older adults who are physically active reported greater life satisfaction) - 60% of the American population are sedentary - 50% of people who start structure exercise program, will drop out within the next 6 months. - Physical activity rates are lower for woman, racial ethnic minority, lower socioeconomic background, and transgender individual Physical Activity Adherence - Degree which a person pertains their physical activity. Sedentary to PA lifestyle - Knowledge and self-efficacy - Sallies et al (1986) o Those who are physically active have values, knowledge, and exercise selfefficacy. o Majority of the participant in the study who are motivated are not overweight or obese - McAuley & Blissmer (2000) o Individual with high level self-efficacy experience lower perception of effort - Research has found one the strongest environmental determinant of physical activity is having a strength equipment at home. - Parents belief about the importance of physical activity in their children - Group cohesion can be a facilitator (important for group exercise program or group workout) - Intrinsic motivation is better at hearers to physical activity - Self-Efficacy (believe they can succeed, they adhere better to physical activity) *better for older adults* o Help college freshman who are active in high school cope better with barriers - Listening to music while exercising lower perceive exertion, lower perception of fatigue, increases arousal, and relaxation - Social Support Dropout - Social Physical Anxiety - Transgender: Transphobic environment, or fear of being judge or feeling safe are strong deterrent of lack of physical activity - The more meaningful the physical activity is the higher the level of adherence o You like the activity doing regularly o Health concern 12/10/18 Psychology of Athletic Injury - There is research on the response process to be being injured for the athletes. Influencing Factors Physical - Collision, improper resting, or not stretching Influence Factor Psychological - Stress, personality, and burnout Personality - Athletes who have higher trait anxiety are more predispose to injury - Research shows athlete who have higher level of life stress, experience more injury - Smith et al (1990) o High school athlete (social support) o Found that athletes who have low level of social support more likely to experience life stress and athletic injury. - Williams & Roepke (1993) o Meta-analysis from 20 studies o There is a strong positive relationship between life event stress and injury - Once an athlete being in a state of injury they can be stress, they also might be worried or stress in losing their main identity. - Athletes who are injured experience more depression relation to the injury compare to non-athlete - The psychological reaction to being injured can be worse than the physical consequences of being injured - Studies have indicated that 5-24% report that the psychological stress of being injured is similar degree of mental health treated stress - Athletes who are injured deal with the same phycological stress with those who have a heart attack. - Research from the 80s to 90s showed athletes who are injured didn’t perceive the athletic trainer they were working with didn’t understand the stress they had to go through - Green & Weinberg (2001) o Social support effect mood o If an injured athlete’s feels they are being support will help them motivate to stay with the rehabilitation o Attentional disruption, that stress interfere with their competition o Increase muscles tension 12/17/18 Causes of Career Termination Among Athletes - Age (Natural decline) o There is a devalue among an athlete (not value) - Deselection (There is a selection process from one level to another) - Injury o Glazer (2009) ▪ 5 to 19% injured athletes report psychological distress as same as those who are treated or diagnosis with mental health issue - Free Choice Factors Related to Adaption - Developmental experiences - Self-Identity (refers to degree to which an athlete defines his or herself self-worth, through their athletic achievement) o The more they identify with the sports, they have a stronger athletic identity - Perceptions of control o Warriner & LeValle (2008) o Female gymnast transition to competitive level into retirement o Thrust into little structure and control o Absent of control over participation in a significant area of life can be threatening, can be distressing making the retirement much harder - Social Identity o Retirement is identifying to loss of social status and lost to social identity o Post retirement athletes might feel restricted to sport interaction o Research from injured athletes, usually feel alone and unique in their situation. - Socioeconomic Status o It’s more difficult for an athlete if they are unable to make a living outside from the sport o For the individual who grow heavily invested in a sport, are more likely not to develop a new skill set - Health Available Resources - Adaptation depends on resources - Therapy - Family Support - Peer support - Health coverage - Financial Counseling (pre-retirement planning) - Fan Support - Wippert & Wippert (2008) o Professional German Skier o Finding in the study found that those skiers who participated in pre-retirement planning feel less stress post retirement - Stephan et al (2007) o Elite French Athletes o Had body difficulty in retirement (weight gain, loss of muscles mass, and pain) o They reported in decrease self-worth and decrease self-esteem - Psychological disorder and occupational problem - Substance abuse and social & family problem
Veri, PhD/Kin 504 San Francisco State University Department of Kinesiology Kin 504: Psychology of Sport Final Exam – Fall 2018 Directions: Read each question carefully and answer with thoughtful, comprehensive responses in essay format. This is a take-home exam; as such, you are allowed to use your notes and the textbook, and in some places, required to cite outside sources. What you are not allowed to do is consult each other – or anyone else, for that matter. This exam is to be an independent endeavor – no collaboration is allowed, as that would constitute cheating. When you incorporate material from an outside source, be sure to cite it and note it in a reference list at the end of your exam in APA format. Proper citations give credit to outside sources and help you avoid plagiarism in your writing. Exams are to be double-spaced. Completed exams must be submitted as Word documents via ilearn by noon, Saturday, December 22nd. Absolutely NO exceptions. Good luck! Essay Questions: (choose three) 1. Define Psychological Skills Training (PST), and discuss the potential benefits of using PST programs in performance and rehabilitation settings. What are three guidelines for implementing a PST program in a team sport setting? Also, define imagery/visualization and explain why this technique enhances performance. Then, create a brief script of a visualization session an athlete (or other performer) in a specific sport/physical activity would be able to use (choose the activity and develop the content of the visualization). 2. During the past twenty years, the field of sports medicine has experienced considerable growth. At the same time, there has been growing awareness of and concern for addressing the psychological aspects of athletic injuries in sport psychology. Discuss how stress levels, mental states, and burn-out can influence the occurrence of athletic injuries, and explain why it is important for athletic trainers to understand the connection between stress and injury. Furthermore, explain how athletic trainers can use psychological principles to facilitate the rehabilitation process of injured athletes (or how physical/occupational therapists can facilitate rehabilitation for patients). 3. Define exercise adherence and cite key statistics about adherence rates in the United States. Provide three examples of research findings regarding the transition from a sedentary lifestyle to a physically active one, as well as three examples of findings about facilitators of adherence. Based on key research findings and discussion in class, propose five valid strategies that the staff of a fitness center or a personal trainer could implement to improve clients’ motivation to be physically active and to increase their exercise adherence rates. 4. Despite growing societal concerns over hyper-aggression in sport, aggressive behavior by athletes and coaches continues to occur, and is often sensationalized by the media. Define instrumental aggression and hostile aggression, and provide an example of each type of behavior. Although it is harder to spot, relational aggression is just as problematic and is often an issue related to social justice. Define relational aggression and provide two research findings about that dynamic in sport. Then, conduct a Google search for information about Mike Rice, the former men’s head basketball coach at Veri, PhD/Kin 504 Rutgers University who was fired for abusing his players. Based on the sources you identify (print and/or video), detail Rice’s abusive behavior with his players and explain what types of aggression he demonstrated. Finally, how did Rice’s coaching behavior serve as an example of failed leadership in sport? 5. Carefully read these three essays from The Players’ Tribune and identify the cause of career termination for each athlete. In addition, describe the social and psychological factors related to career transition that each athlete experienced. Based on lecture material and information in the corresponding textbook chapter, discuss the factors that most facilitated healthy transitions for these men. If you were to write a list of guidelines for professional sport organizations to use to help their athlete employees with the retirement process, what would it include?

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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