Developing a hypothesis_2

Anonymous
timer Asked: Dec 21st, 2018
account_balance_wallet $25

Question description

Develop a rough and ready theory of declining participation in democratic process. Taking any case that you choose, or reviewing democracy in general, brainstorm to come up with some hypotheses that help to explain why is there a general trend of declining participation in democratic proces. The dependent variable in each hypothesis will be declining participation (with the values being voting, party membership, pressure group particiation, protests, etc.).What are some independent variables? Keep a few things in mind:

  • Choose variables that could reasonably be measured (though a survey or some other means).
  • Consider carefully issues of both conceptual and operational definition. For example, if you posit literacy as an independent variable, do you mean that people with education are different than those without , or do you mean that there will be differences between people of different levels of education - you also need to consider what that means and how you might measure.
  • Specify the nature of the relationship. Do not merely say that participation is related to education. Or there is a difference with regards the levels of education?
  • Provide rationales for your hypotheses. (“Educated citizens are more likely to participate because they are more aware of the impact of the political system on their lives” )
  • Don't worry at this point about whether your hypothesis is valid.

CHAPTER 5, CONCEPTUALIZATION, OPERATIONALIZATION, AND MEASUREMENT Chapter Outline        Measuring Anything That Exists Conceptualization Definitions in Descriptive and Explanatory Studies Operationalization Choices Criteria of Measurement Quality The Ethics of Measurement Quick Quiz Measuring Anything that Exists  Measurement – Careful, deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing the variable.  How would you measure…  political party affiliation?  age?  grade point average?  satisfaction with college?  religious affiliation?  Conceptions, Concepts, and Reality  How would you conceptualize… ◼ prejudice? ◼ compassionate?  Conceptualization – The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise.  Concepts as Constructs  Concepts are constructs derived by mutual agreement from mental images.  Conceptions summarize collections of seemingly related observations and experiences. Conceptualization    Conceptualization – The process through which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms in research. We cannot meaningfully answer a question without a working agreement about the meaning of the outcome. Conceptualization processes a specific agreed-on meaning for a concept for the purposes of research.  Indicators and Dimensions  Indicator – An observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study.  Dimension concept. – A specifiable aspect of a  Identify appropriate indicators and dimensions for…  religious affiliation  college success  political activity  poverty  binge drinking  fear of crime  The Interchangeability of Indicators  If several different indicators all represent the same concept, all of them will behave the same way the concept would behave if it were real and could be observed.  Real, Nominal, and Operational Definitions    Specification – The process through which concepts are made more specific. A nominal definition is one that is simply assigned to a term without any claim that the definition represents a “real” entity. An operational definition specifies precisely how a concept will be measured – that is, the operations we will perform.  Creating Conceptual Order  Conceptualization  Nominal Definition  Operational Definition  Real World Measurement  Conceptualization – Practice  Anomie Definitions in Descriptive and Explanatory Studies  Definitions are more problematic for descriptive research than for explanatory research. Operationalization Choices   Conceptualization is the refinement and specification of abstract concepts. Operationalization is the development of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations representing those concepts in the real world.  Range of Variation  To what extent is the research willing to combine attributes in fairly gross categories?  Variation between the Extremes  To what degree is the operationalization of variables precise?  Dimensions  Defining Variables and Attributes  An attribute is a characteristic or quality of something (ex: female, old, student).  A variable is a logical set of attributes (ex: gender, age).  Every variable must have two important qualities. 1. 2. The attributes composing it should be exhaustive. Attributes must be mutually exclusive.  Levels of Measurement  Nominal  Ordinal  Interval  Ratio  Levels of Measurement – Nominal  Variables who attributes have only the characteristics of exhaustiveness and mutually exclusiveness.  Examples: gender, religious affiliation, college major, hair color, birthplace, nationality  Levels of Measurement – Ordinal  Variables with attributes we can logically rank order.  Examples: socioeconomic status, level of conflict, prejudice, conservativeness, hardness  Levels of Measurement – Interval  Variables for which the actual distance between attributes has meaning.  Examples: score temperature, (Fehrenheit) IQ  Levels of Measurement – Ratio  Variables whose attributes meet the requirements of a interval measure, and has a true zero point.  Examples: temperature (Kelvin), age, length of time, number of organizations, number of groups, number of As received in college Figure 5.1  Implications of Levels of Measurement  Analyses require minimum levels of measurement  Some variables can be treated as multiple levels of measurement  Single or Multiple Indicators Criteria of Measurement Quality    Precision and Accuracy Reliability Validity  Precision and Accuracy  Precise ones. measures are superior to imprecise  Precision is not the same as accuracy.   Reliability – That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon. Reliability is not the same as accuracy.  Test-Retest Method ◼ To make the same measurement more than once.  Split-Half Method ◼ Multiple sets of randomly assigned variables should produce the same classifications  Established  Reliability Measures of Research Workers  Validity – a term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure.     Face Validity – That quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable. Criterion-Related Validity – The degree to which a measure related to some external criterion. Construct Validity – The degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships. Content Validity – The degree to which a measure coves the range of meanings included within a concept. Figure 5.2 QUICK QUIZ 1. It is truly possible to measure the stuff of life. A. True B. False Answer: A. It is truly possible to measure the stuff of life. 2. _____ refer to mental images. A. Perspectives B. Theories C. Conceptions D. Methods Answer: C. Conceptions refer to mental images. 3. The mental processes whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions are made more specific and precise is called: A. construction B. reification C. conceptualization D. operationalization Answer: C. The mental processes whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions are made more specific and precise is called conceptualization. 4. Which of the following are examples of nominal measures? A. gender B. religious affiliation C. political party affiliation D. birthplace E. all of the above Answer: E. Gender, religious affiliation, political affiliation, and birthplace are examples of nominal measures. 5. _____ is the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept. A. Construct validity B. Criterion-related validity C. Face validity D. Content validity Answer: D. Content validity is the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept. 6. In social research, the process of coming to an agreement about what terms mean is: A. hypothesizing B. conceptualization C. variable determination D. operationalization Answer: B. In social research, the process of coming to an agreement about what terms mean is conceptualization. 7. The _____ of concepts in scientific inquiry depends on nominal and operational definitions. A. specification B. interchangeability C. functioning D. network Answer: A. The specification of concepts in scientific inquiry depends on nominal and operational definitions. 8. A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes are _____ measures. A. ratio B. interval C. nominal D. ordinal Answer: B. A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes are interval measures.

Tutor Answer

Robert__F
School: Purdue University

Please let me know if there is anything needs to be changed or added. I will be also appreciated that you can let me know if there is any problem or you have not received the work. Please let me know if there is anything needs to be changed or added. I will be also appreciated that you can let me know if there is any problem or you have not received the work Good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know Can you please confirm if you have received the work? Once again, thanks for allowing me to help you R MESSAGE TO STUDYPOOL NO OUTLINE IS NEEDED

Running Head: DEVELOPING A HYPOTHESIS

Developing a hypothesis
Name:
Institutional Affiliation:
Date:

1

2

DEVELOPING A HYPOTHESIS
Developing a hypothesis

There exist multiple reasons that can contribute mainly towards the reduction in numbers
of people who participate in democratic processes. These factors may vary from one country to
the other. The primary aim of this paper revolves around the development of hypotheses that can
help to conduct further research in the future on the potential factors that can contribute largely
towards the reducing trends in the participation in the various democratic processes in many
countries. The primary motivation behind this paper comes from the analysis of past experiences
and trends in multiple countries across the globe concerning the participation of the citizens in
the democratic processes. Democratic processes may include voting, protests over various issues
and but not limited to party membership. The future research will need to look further into the
presented...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Only issue was the guy's response time which was a bit long, which made me a bit anxious. Reached out to the help desk and they helped me out, turns out the tutors aren't all from US which meant there was a time difference. No issues on the quality.

Similar Questions
Hot Questions
Related Tags

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors