Write a two pages paper by reading the slides

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Question description

Write a one to two page paper on the topic of how psychologists conduct research. Use the key terms on page 37 of your text to assist you with this assignment.

Besides this paper, please write a short paragraph (about 200 words) to answer the following question:

Why do you think psychology is a course that students should take despite their major?

Thank you.


Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 1 Introducing the World of Psychology © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Section 1.1 Why Is Psychology Important to You? 1.1 Why Is Psychology Important to You?  Understanding and applying the principles of psychology can affect us in critical ways  Psychology can help us understand other people and ourselves  Psychology can help us improve our lives Psychology Explains Our Mental Activity and Behavior  Psychology  The study of mental activity and behavior, which are based on brain processes  Mental activity lets us perceive the world. That is, we use our senses—sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch—to take in information from outside ourselves  Behavior refers to all of our actions that result from sensing and interpreting information Psychology Teaches Us to Think Critically  Critical thinking   Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions best supported by evidence Three steps are involved in becoming a skilled critical thinker: 1. “What am I being asked to believe or accept?” 2. “What evidence is provided to support the 3. “What are the most reasonable conclusions?” claim?” Psychology Teaches Us to Think Critically  Evaluating psychology in the news   Media reports seek to grab attention. Their claims can be based on psychological research, but they can also be hype See figure 1.3 next slide Psychology Helps Us Succeed in School and at Work  Academic success   Professional success   Learning about psychology’s major issues, theories, and controversies will help you succeed in your academic work Studying psychology will also prepare you for success in your professional life See figures 1.4a, 1.4b, 1.4c next slide How Can Psychology Help Me Study?  The following learning strategies are all based on psychological research:  The right goals lead to success  A little stress management goes a long way  Cramming is a crummy way to learn  Learning is an active endeavor  Explaining enhances understanding  There are many ways to learn Section 1.3 Who Are Psychologists Today? 1.3 Who Are Psychologists Today? Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis  Four levels of analysis used by psychologists: 1. The biological level of analysis deals with how the physical body influences our thoughts and behavior 2. The individual level of analysis focuses on individual differences in personality and mental processes that affect perception and understanding Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis  Four levels of analysis used by psychologists: 3. The social level of analysis involves investigating how groups affect people’s interactions and people’s influence on each other 4. The cultural level of analysis explores how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or different across cultures  See table 1.2 next page Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis   Culture: The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next See figures 1.21a, 1.21b next slide Psychologists Investigate Many Different Topics  A psychologist’s career involves predicting behavior or understanding mental activity   Researchers who study the brain, the mind, and behavior may work in schools, businesses, universities, or clinics See figures 1.22a, 1.22b and table 1.3 next slide Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  When psychologists conduct research, they must fully consider the ethical issues involved  Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  For research to be ethical, five main issues must be addressed: 1. Privacy: Researchers must respect participants’ privacy 2. Confidentiality: Participants’ information must be kept secret 3. Informed consent: Informed consent means that people must be told about the research, and they can choose to participate or not Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  For research to be ethical, five main issues must be addressed: 4. Deception: Knowing a study’s specific goals can sometimes alter participants’ behavior 5. Risks: Researchers cannot ask participants to pain or discomfort endure unreasonable Section 1.4 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research? 1.4 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?  Psychologists cannot answer questions based on beliefs, hearsay, rumor, or even expert opinions Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  Psychology is a science  Scientific method: A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. This process involves a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research methods Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  There are five steps in the scientific method: 1. Theory: A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events 2. Hypothesis: A specific prediction of what if a theory is correct should be observed 3. Testing the hypothesis: There are three main types of research methods you can use to test your research question: descriptive, correlational, and experimental Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  There are five steps in the scientific method: 4. Analyze the data to see whether your hypothesis is supported: Summarize the raw data using descriptive statistics, then use inferential statistics to determine whether differences really exist 5. Report results and embark on further inquiry  See figure 1.24 next page Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Descriptive method  A research method that provides a systematic and objective description of what is occurring Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Observational study   A specific type of descriptive method involving systematically assessing and coding observable behavior See figure 1.25 next slide Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening   Self-report  A descriptive method that consists of obtaining self-reports from research participants  Questionnaires or surveys can be used to gather data from a large number of people in a short time  Self-report bias See figure 1.27 next slide Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Case studies   Case studies involve intensive examination of a few unique people or organizations See figure 1.28 next slide Correlational Methods Test Associations   Correlational methods  A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them  Examining the relationship between two or more factors  Correlation is not causality: The directionality problem See figure 1.29 next slide Experimental Methods Test Causation  Experimental methods   A research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables See figure 1.31 next slide Experimental Methods Test Causation  Variables and operational definitions  Independent variable: The variable that the experimenter manipulates to examine its impact on the dependent variable  Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable  Operational definition: Detailed description of the variables Experimental Methods Test Causation  Groups  Control group: In an experiment, a comparison group of participants who receive no intervention or receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated  Experimental group: In an experiment, one or more treatment groups of participants who receive the intervention of the independent variable being investigated Experimental Methods Test Causation  Control is necessary to determine causality  A properly performed experiment depends on rigorous control  Confound: Anything that affects a dependent variable and that may unintentionally vary between the study’s different experimental conditions Experimental Methods Test Causation  Random assignment removes confounds  Random assignment: Placing research participants in the conditions of an experiment such that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable Experimental Methods Test Causation  Sampling   Random sample: A sample that fairly represents the population by allowing each member of the population an equal chance of being included See figure 1.33 next slide
Section 1.1 Why Is Psychology Important to You? 1.1 Why Is Psychology Important to You?  Understanding and applying the principles of psychology can affect us in critical ways  Psychology can help us understand other people and ourselves  Psychology can help us improve our lives Psychology Explains Our Mental Activity and Behavior  Psychology  The study of mental activity and behavior, which are based on brain processes  Mental activity lets us perceive the world. That is, we use our senses—sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch—to take in information from outside ourselves  Behavior refers to all of our actions that result from sensing and interpreting information Psychology Teaches Us to Think Critically  Critical thinking   Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions best supported by evidence Three steps are involved in becoming a skilled critical thinker: 1. “What am I being asked to believe or accept?” 2. “What evidence is provided to support the 3. “What are the most reasonable conclusions?” claim?” Psychology Teaches Us to Think Critically  Evaluating psychology in the news   Media reports seek to grab attention. Their claims can be based on psychological research, but they can also be hype See figure 1.3 next slide Psychology Helps Us Succeed in School and at Work  Academic success   Professional success   Learning about psychology’s major issues, theories, and controversies will help you succeed in your academic work Studying psychology will also prepare you for success in your professional life See figures 1.4a, 1.4b, 1.4c next slide How Can Psychology Help Me Study?  The following learning strategies are all based on psychological research:  The right goals lead to success  A little stress management goes a long way  Cramming is a crummy way to learn  Learning is an active endeavor  Explaining enhances understanding  There are many ways to learn Section 1.3 Who Are Psychologists Today? 1.3 Who Are Psychologists Today? Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis  Four levels of analysis used by psychologists: 1. The biological level of analysis deals with how the physical body influences our thoughts and behavior 2. The individual level of analysis focuses on individual differences in personality and mental processes that affect perception and understanding Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis  Four levels of analysis used by psychologists: 3. The social level of analysis involves investigating how groups affect people’s interactions and people’s influence on each other 4. The cultural level of analysis explores how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or different across cultures  See table 1.2 next page Psychologists Work Across Levels of Analysis   Culture: The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next See figures 1.21a, 1.21b next slide Psychologists Investigate Many Different Topics  A psychologist’s career involves predicting behavior or understanding mental activity   Researchers who study the brain, the mind, and behavior may work in schools, businesses, universities, or clinics See figures 1.22a, 1.22b and table 1.3 next slide Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  When psychologists conduct research, they must fully consider the ethical issues involved  Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  For research to be ethical, five main issues must be addressed: 1. Privacy: Researchers must respect participants’ privacy 2. Confidentiality: Participants’ information must be kept secret 3. Informed consent: Informed consent means that people must be told about the research, and they can choose to participate or not Psychologists Today Follow Strict Ethical Guidelines  For research to be ethical, five main issues must be addressed: 4. Deception: Knowing a study’s specific goals can sometimes alter participants’ behavior 5. Risks: Researchers cannot ask participants to pain or discomfort endure unreasonable Section 1.4 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research? 1.4 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?  Psychologists cannot answer questions based on beliefs, hearsay, rumor, or even expert opinions Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  Psychology is a science  Scientific method: A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. This process involves a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research methods Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  There are five steps in the scientific method: 1. Theory: A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events 2. Hypothesis: A specific prediction of what if a theory is correct should be observed 3. Testing the hypothesis: There are three main types of research methods you can use to test your research question: descriptive, correlational, and experimental Psychologists Use the Scientific Method  There are five steps in the scientific method: 4. Analyze the data to see whether your hypothesis is supported: Summarize the raw data using descriptive statistics, then use inferential statistics to determine whether differences really exist 5. Report results and embark on further inquiry  See figure 1.24 next page Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Descriptive method  A research method that provides a systematic and objective description of what is occurring Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Observational study   A specific type of descriptive method involving systematically assessing and coding observable behavior See figure 1.25 next slide Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening   Self-report  A descriptive method that consists of obtaining self-reports from research participants  Questionnaires or surveys can be used to gather data from a large number of people in a short time  Self-report bias See figure 1.27 next slide Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening  Case studies   Case studies involve intensive examination of a few unique people or organizations See figure 1.28 next slide Correlational Methods Test Associations   Correlational methods  A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them  Examining the relationship between two or more factors  Correlation is not causality: The directionality problem See figure 1.29 next slide Experimental Methods Test Causation  Experimental methods   A research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables See figure 1.31 next slide Experimental Methods Test Causation  Variables and operational definitions  Independent variable: The variable that the experimenter manipulates to examine its impact on the dependent variable  Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable  Operational definition: Detailed description of the variables Experimental Methods Test Causation  Groups  Control group: In an experiment, a comparison group of participants who receive no intervention or receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated  Experimental group: In an experiment, one or more treatment groups of participants who receive the intervention of the independent variable being investigated Experimental Methods Test Causation  Control is necessary to determine causality  A properly performed experiment depends on rigorous control  Confound: Anything that affects a dependent variable and that may unintentionally vary between the study’s different experimental conditions Experimental Methods Test Causation  Random assignment removes confounds  Random assignment: Placing research participants in the conditions of an experiment such that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable Experimental Methods Test Causation  Sampling   Random sample: A sample that fairly represents the population by allowing each member of the population an equal chance of being included See figure 1.33 next slide

Tutor Answer

TutorLeal
School: Cornell University

Attached.

OUTLINE
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Reference


Running head: HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS CONDUCT RESEARCH

How Psychologists Conduct Research
Student Name:
Professor’s Name:
Course:
Date:

HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS CONDUCT RESEARCH

2

Psychologists are professionals interested in how the brain works and behavior.
Psychologists are instrumental in the understanding of behavior, cognition, personality, and
motivations. Psychologists frequently conduct experimental research. Experimental research is
setting up laboratory conditions to find out answers to the dilemma. Research inquiry starts with
identifying a problem that needs a solution. Having identified and defined the problem. The
researcher seeks to identify the dependent variable and the independent variables. The
psychologist then sets up an experiment having identified the study population, calculated the
sample size and designed the study design. A possible problem is; what factors motivate women
college graduates?
The problem is to find out what motivates or drives women college graduates. The
theories that can predict or explain the problem identified after a literature survey. Possible
answers would be career d...

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Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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