​Reflection Question:

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After reading the text book page 55-82

Reflection Question: What is “Good” (as in: what does it mean to say “the good society” or a “good life”)? What are Values? What is Culture? Reflect on the values that you see most Americans sharing in regards to government and politics. Reflect on American culture and the values that you see most Americans sharing in regards to government and politics. List five examples of shared values/ideas that contribute to American political culture.

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Democracy in 21st Century America: Government and Politics in the United States Robert J. Brem College of Alameda Politics & Psychology CSU East Bay Public Affairs & Political Science Megan M. Sweeney City College of San Francisco Political Science Fall 2018 (V3) With Assistance from: Sherry Luong, Tatiana Da Silva, and Rouel Dichoso The cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all human kind. Many circumstances hath, and will arise, which are not local, but universal, and through which the principles of all Lovers of human kind are affected, and in the Event of which, their Affections are interested. The laying a Country desolate with Fire and Sword, declaring War against the natural rights of all human kind, and extirpating the Defenders thereof from the Face of the Earth, is the Concern of every person to whom Nature hath given the Power of feeling; of which Class, regardless of Party Censure, is the Author. …Who the Author of this Production is, is wholly …is the doctrine itself (and) the influence of reason and principle. The sun never shined on a cause of greater worth: 'Tis not the affair of a city, a country, a province, or a kingdom, but of a continent; of at least one eighth part of the habitable globe. 'Tis not the concern of a day, a year, or an age; posterity are virtually involved in the contest, and will be more or less affected, even to the end of time. ~ Thomas Paine (Common Sense, 1776) 1 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States Contents: Democracy in 21st Century America: Government and Politics in the United States Focus Topic By Way of Introduction FOCUS ESSAY: John Quincy Adams on Human Nature and Freedom 1. Foundations of Studying Government Past, Present, and Future Critical political thinking Words Matter: Defining our Terms Asymptotical Socio-Political Questions & Phenomenon Democratic social order FOCUS ESSAY: Tocqueville: Individualism _______________ * _______________ 13 15 22 42 45 51 Figure 1,0 Figure 1.1 Model 1.0 Image 1.1 Model 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8 Figure 1.9 2. Classical World Views & Political Ideologies: The Driving Force Behind all Politics! How World Views come together as Political Ideologies 65 The Idea of America 81   Figure 2.1 Table 2.1     Figure Figure Figure Figure 3. Constitutional Foundations The Declaration of Independence Key influences on the thoughts of the framers on governance The Preamble & Final Document Notable Components of the Constitution FOCUS ESSAY: Franklin on the Constitution and doubting certainties Federalism Iron Triangles, Interest Articulation, Picket Fence Federalism Civil Liberties and the Bill of Rights _______________ * _______________             Model 3.0 Chart 3.1 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Interacting World Views Classical World Views: Answers & Responses to key questions & concepts 3D - Political Ideologies and world views Community Types -- The Patchwork Nation World views, modern and right/left evolution PEW – where do you fit? (2007 version) _______________ * _______________ Hamiltonian order - Jeffersonian liberty Compromises in the Constitution Separation of Powers & Checks & Balances The Constitution as THE Revolution Broader conception of Checks & Balances Who/What the Branches Represent Comparing Government Types How is Power Divided Iron Triangles and Interest Articulation Picket Fence Federalism Iron Triangles and Demands Picket Fence Federalism, Demands, and Federal Funding _______________ * _______________ 2 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States 5 9              2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Montgomery Van Wart: Forms of Rationality Space-Time Sphere of Social Action Inquiry from the Transdisciplinary perspective Disciplines of Socio-Political studies Maslow & Dahrendorf and the Good Society What is a nation state The Social Contract out of which the Social Order Emerges Social Structures of the Social contract Three sectors of governance & social order Asymptotical psycho-social order curve Interacting Social Structures and Social Order Citizen vs Administration balance Demands & Supports & Legitimacy _______________ * _______________ Page 19 21 22 25 29 32 34 35 42 43 44 48 49 55 58 60 70 77 78 79 85 90 84 86 101 103 113 117 92 93 98 99 100 101 105 107 113 114 115 116 82 “Equal Protection Under the Law…” . 4. Civil Rights, Participation, and Voting Public Opinion & Why It SHOULD matter Political Socialization _______________ * _______________ 133 136  Figure 4.1 135 5. Political Parties, Interest Groups, & Social Movements Political Parties Interest Groups Social Movements Comparing political Movements, Interest Groups, Political Parties FOCUS ESSAY: Frederick Douglass ~ 'What To The Slave Is The Fourth Of July?' _______________ * _______________ Professional opinion on anthropogenic climate change _______________ * _______________ Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Chart 5.1 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 6. Congress, the Presidency, Public Administration, and The Court The Congress State legislatures & Municipal Government The Presidency The Public Administration The Federal Court System and The Supreme Court _______________ * _______________ 168 191 193 204 209             Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Chart 6.1 Chart 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Image 6.1 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6. Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 173 174 175 176 179 192 193 207 209 212 214 216 7. Domestic Policy and Foreign Policy Criteria of Effective Policy Evaluation & Implementation Domestic Policy Foreign Policy _______________ * _______________ 222 224 230        Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 221 226 229 233 233 234 235 Congressional leadership structure The structure of Congress Standing committees: House of Representatives and Senate. Differences between House and Senate The legislative process For comparison: How a Bill Becomes a Law in California Municipal Local government by comparison The Praxis Cycle Critical infrastructure Comparative Justice - three classical world views Types of Justice The American Dual Judicial System _______________ * _______________ The Public Policy Spectrum Hayek & Keynes Comparison The Policy Making Cycle Matric of Foreign Policy Attitudes Realism, Liberalism, and Idealism Realist & Moralist Approaches – IR Praxis The Foreign Policy Team _______________ * _______________ By Way of Conclusion ~ The Future and The Will to Peace Statecraft as Soulcraft 3 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States 142 165      7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Relationship between Government, groups, people The Party Platform The 2012 Democrat & Republican Party Platforms Compared Pluralist model of interest groups Comparing Parties, groups, movements _______________ * _______________ 142 152 159 160 128 144 147 148 159 160 168 220 238 246 Words Robert J. Brem Words matter! If you cannot clearly say what you mean; Then you cannot mean what you say. If you cannot mean what you say; Then you cannot take an effective stand. If you cannot take an effective stand; Then your actions will be rendered meaningless. There are no languages to speak without words to comprise them… There are no thoughts to think without language to form them… There are no actions to act without thoughts to guide them… There are no realities to emerge without actions to create them… Reality is spoken into existence… Guided by what you believe to be true! What you believe to be true Will be true for in its consequences for you and Your actions have consequences upon the people around you and By such actions you have an effect upon the world and What has an effect upon the world changes the universe… The universe as it is requires you to exist for if you did not exist The universe as it is would be different. So understanding this: It is a conversational universe and Your words create the cosmos… So… Say the word! Do you think about the things you think about? ~ Clarence Darrow 4 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States By Way of Introduction The study of Government, Politics, and Governance in the United States is a subdiscipline within the discipline of “political science” which itself is a sub-discipline with the larger social & behavioral sciences. A discipline is defined by adherence to certain rules and patterns of inquiry following standards of professional practice in ascertaining what we know and do not know and what we accept as verified truth and what we do not. This is also explicitly, the sub-discipline of “American Politics.” As citizens of this republic, one engages in this study (e.g. takes a course) explicitly to empower persons in their civic education as citizens of a larger world and life in The United States explicitly. It can be argued these are perilous times within which we must seek to thrive (rather than merely survive). From different points of view both the political Right and the political Left see the very nature of what this government and social contract may be as being at stake. Is the republic at risk? If so, how? Whose vision of America is more valid? And, how will you negotiate and thrive in this legitimacy crisis? This is by way of saying, the reason why one takes a course in American governance (or for that matter, any course one takes, I mean… hello!) is to empower you in becoming more effective in life as persons, workers, and as citizens of the world. We can assume you do not want to be victims of events nor do you want to define yourself as “survivors” of crisis. You want to be able to thrive! Or more simply, you want the means by which to live a happy life. That’s why we are here. The reason to study politics is So our children may have the liberty to engage in commerce; in order to give their children a right to pursue painting, poetry, and music. ~ John Adams The starting point of studies in political science is to define the parameters of this time in “the human story” (i.e. history). One ongoing struggle in American governance is the importance of the issues involved in the struggle for power between ideas in conflict. A complex set of ideas or “narrative” which guides all social, private, and public behavior in a society is called an “ideograph.” One major struggle between ideographs in America today is between the notion of “The Purposive State” ideograph (the ethos that the state has a purpose in building, maintaining, and supporting a vibrant public sphere & social contract wherein the pursuit of happiness is through a preferential option for human rights and appeals to reality based truth as interpreted differently by liberals, conservatives, and radicals) and “The Wilding State” ideograph (deferring to a more “right libertarian” or Ayn Rand conservative individualistic ethos of a concentration of individuals who purse happiness through self-interested acquisition of 5 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States property in an “ownership society” de-emphasizing a public sphere built upon prosperity gospel dogma and alternative to “reality based truths” or “alternative facts”). Ayn Rand and The Wilding Ideograph Who is Ayn Rand and why does she matter? Robert Reich (2018) argues the political movement represented by Donald Trump can be seen as rooted in the ideas of Ayn Rand.1 Many of the Trump power and the Republican Party of today in leadership; see themselves as followers of Rand’s ideas (e.g. Rex Tillerson – former Secretary of State, CIA chief Mike Pompeo, a nominee for Secretary of Labor - Andrew Posner, Republican leader of the House of Representatives Paul Ryan – who required his staff and all interns to read her, Uber's former CEO Travis Kalanick described himself as a Rand follower before he was fired for behavior rooted in the her ideas to Uber’s code of values, Grover Norquist – who has led the zero tolerance of taxes revolt in the GOP, and Rand Paul{named after Rand} a libertarian Republican member of the House and son and former Libertarian-Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul). They are all attracted to Rand’s heroic ideal of rich industrialist men who make it in the world with a disdain for any idea of community rules and or a common good driven by pure egocentrism and selfishness. In two popular novels: The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957); Rand argued there is no common good, that selfishness is a highest virtue, and altruism is an evil that destroys nations. When Rand offered these ideas in the 1950s they seemed quaint if not farfetched. Reich notes that anyone who had lived through the first half of the 20th century witnessed first-hand how only our interdependence saw us all through the great depression with Roosevelt’s “New Deal” social programs and the Second World War together. After the war and through the 1960s with Johnson’s “Great Society” programs; we used an idea of a “purposive state” driven by a notion of a common good to harness seeming boundless prosperity; to finance all sorts of “public goods:” including: schools & universities, electrification, a national highway system, addressing poverty, and health care for the Aged and poor (Medicare). We rebuilt wartorn Europe, and sought to guarantee civil rights and voting rights for African Americans and other oppressed minorities, and open doors of opportunity to women. We reached for the stars in the NASA space programs. It was self-evident that of course there was a common good. We were living it! However, Reich and others have observed, that starting in the late 1970s, Rand's views gained ground with the birth of the Right wing anti-government and strictly pro-business movement (some of it funded by billionaires (e.g. the Koch brothers – one of whom ran for vicepresident as a Libertarian Party candidate and who funded think tanks and grade school and college curriculum materials advocating Ayn Rand’s ideas). Rand’s ideas came to animate what could be described as “Right Libertarian ideology,” and the newly emergent ideas driving the Republican “Freedom Caucus” Tea Party factions. With organized promotion and well-funded 1 Rich Kacmar (March 5, 2018). Trump’s Brand is Ayn Rand, San Diego Fee Press, https://sandiegofreepress.org/2018/03/trumps-brand-is-ayn-rand-video-worth-watching/ 6 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States backing from key billionaires, Rand became the intellectual godmother of modern-day American conservatism. Reich argues the ideology of this movement is one of pure selfishness, contempt for the public, a win at any cost mindset, and an intentional goal of defunding government (as Norquist argues to be able to make it so small so as to be able to drown it in a bathtub), deconstructing the administrative state, and privatizing the public sphere - setting it wild with private sector corporate values and property rights focus replacing public sector values rooted in human rights focus and a notion of the public good. This is called by Gregg Cawley “The Wilding Ideograph.” As such, as it gains power in the political culture and is enacted as policy by 21st century Republican conservatives (who reject the ideology of “Gerald Ford conservative Republicans” of the 1970s who believed in community responsibility); this mentality is eroding American life by degrading the public sphere and undermining any notion of an adherence to a set of common values about what is right and wrong – replacing these with pure greed driven selfishness and magnified by a toxic form of evangelist “prosperity gospel” religion” that argues Jesus wants people to be rich and has ordained this world view of selfishness. The result is we are living in a jungle where only the strongest cleverest and most unscrupulous get ahead. Similar to Thomas Hobbes’ notion of a war of all against all where life is nasty, short, and brutish; we are creating a political culture wherein everyone must be wary in order to survive. This is not a society. It's not even a civilization; because there's no civility at its core. It's a disaster to the very notion of civil society. We have to understand who Ayn Rand is so we can reject her philosophy and dedicate ourselves to rebuilding the idea of the common good that was once widely understood and accepted in American political culture. After all, Reich argues, the U.S. Constitution was designed for “We the People” seeking to promote the general welfare in the public sphere not for “me the selfish” seeking as much wealth and power as possible at the expense of “the commons” in the name of only private & elite concerns. Yet here we are today with evidence growing every day of the loss of civil society and civic virtue. We see this evidence when we hear of CEOs who loot their corporations and defraud their customers & investors. We see it when we hear of lawyers & accountants who “look the other way” when corporate clients play fast and loose with the law and personal integrity & ethics, and who even collude with them to skirt the law. We see it when Wall Street bankers defraud customers and investors, and when film producers & publicists choose not to see a powerful movie mogul (whom they depend upon financially) who sexually harasses and abuses young women. We see politicians who take donations - really bribes - from wealthy donors and corporations to enact laws their patrons want. And then these politicians shutdown the government when they don't get the partisan results they seek; completely undermining even the illusion of a government system designed to be built upon compromise between people with opposing world views. And in leadership, we support a president of the United States who repeatedly lies about important issues and uses easily identified falsehoods to support inhumane policies; all while he refuses to put his financial holdings into a blind trust and then personally profits off his office. 7 | Brem & Sweeney ~ 2018 ~ Government and Politics in the United States All of this is magnified by his leadership towards the promotion of racial and ethnic conflict; with the full support of his movement and party leaders. Reich reminds us that “the common good” consists of our shared values about what we owe one another as citizens who are bound together in the same society with a concern for one another in community together. As such, keeping the common good in mind is a moral attitude and it recognizes that we're all in it together. And Reich reminds us that if there is no common good there is no society. The Battle of Ideas This struggle of ideas is occurring in the context of globalization, destabilization of the world economy, identity confusions, vast growing inequality between rich & powerful and poor & more powerless, and all this in the context of global climate change. These can be seen as perhaps “exciting” issues; certainly the stakes are bigger than at any other time in the story of the human species. Hannah Arendt notes that when the “public sphere” is at risk, we live in “dark times” with the undermining of public life of the community of “polis” (Greek for “city” - a body of citizens – dwellers in the city – as a community wherein we live bound together by customs, laws, and cooperation). Looking at American governance as social scientists then, we need ask “What is politics?” from the perspectives of both the discipline of political science and cla ...
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Reflection Question
According to Brem and Sweeney, what is good is determined by one’s worldview (55).
Once one’s worldview dictates that something aligns with the cultural practices, norms, societal
values, and such characteristics, then something will be considered good. This has led to a
scenario where some societies consider one thing as being bad whereas another society considers
it as good (Brem and Sweeney 56). The goodness of something or a...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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